Liverwort: species, reproduction and cultivation


Primroses in your garden. Part 3

Read the previous part of the article: Pulsatilla, lumbago or sleep-grass


This is perhaps the most beautiful perennial that delights us after a long winter. Even one plant planted in the garden attracts the eye with the abundance and tenderness of flowers. But the liverworts in the mass look especially impressive: giant flowering carpets remain in the memory as a fleeting joyful dream.

About seven years ago, I met this delicate spring flower. The acquaintance grew into a long-term strong friendship. The liverwort grows safely in a shaded recreation area and in a small stone garden in the open sun with the only difference that in the sun its bush is more powerful and squat, and in the shade it is taller and slimmer.

Its unusually generous flowering in early spring amazes and delights all visitors to our garden. A tiny bush of an unpretentious liverwort gives out so many flowers rejoicing in the arrival of spring that you can only smile in response.

It multiplies on our site by self-seeding in the most unpredictable places, and does not pretend to be the attention and care of the gardener at all. The name of the genus comes from the Greek word 'hepar' - liver. According to legend, these plants help with liver diseases, since the three-lobed leaves of the plant resemble it in shape.

The genus includes about 6-10 herbaceous, perennial species, common in the temperate forests of the Northern Hemisphere. In nature, all of them are forest plants, most often found in rather humid places with sparse grass cover in mixed or spruce-dominated forests. Leaves in a dense rosette, three-lobed, pubescent below. At the beginning of development, they are red-purple in color, adults are dark green, dense, leathery.

They keep the whole season without losing their decorative effect; in some species, the leaves overwinter green. Flowers are numerous, solitary on a silky hairy peduncle. The plant reaches 10-20 cm in height during flowering. Natural forms are common in culture, but garden ones are no less interesting, they are very graceful and quite suitable for creating natural compositions.

Known asiatica, noble, transylvanian liverwort, in recent years has become widespread medium liverwort (Hepatica x media) is a hybrid, in particular the garden form of Ballardii. It is a slow-growing dome-shaped perennial 10 cm high and up to 30 cm in diameter. The leaves are three-lobed, juicy green, saucer-shaped flowers are completely double with many petals of intense blue and other colors.

Flowering begins in April, it is longer than that of the aforementioned species and forms. Natural forms are generally short-lived, requiring specific conditions: slightly wetter and more fertile soil. Garden forms are very durable, grow well both in the shade and in the sun, both in dry and relatively humid places.

In central Russia, in the forests, there is only one species of liverwort noble. I will tell you more about it, which is now abundantly growing on my site.

Her homeland is the European part of Russia, Western Europe, and grows wild in the deciduous forests of the Moscow region. The primary habitat of the liverwort is considered to be broad-leaved forests.

The plant has a fairly wide ecological amplitude, withstands significant shading, but can grow in completely open places, prefers moderate moisture, avoiding damp and excessively humid places. In relation to the soil, it is not very demanding, however, it prefers places rich in lime with a well-developed litter. It grows more often on soils with a slightly acidic or neutral reaction.

Noble liverwort - a low-growing perennial plant up to 15 cm tall. Basal leaves on long petioles, three-lobed, leathery, glabrous or pubescent, dark green, young they are reddish-purple, dull or slightly pointed, wintering under the snow.

The flowers are solitary, 2-3 cm or more in diameter, with 3-4 calyx-shaped bracts on long leafless, pubescent peduncles. Tepals are bluish-purple, less often pink or white. The liverwort blooms simultaneously with the deployment of leaves in early spring for 20 days. Simultaneously with the appearance of flowers, old leaves gradually die off and are replaced by growing new ones. The fruit is a multi-nut with an appendage rich in oil.

The liverwort reproduces mainly by seeds. Seed production - from 20 to 64 seeds per shoot. The pedicels lengthen after flowering, and the flowers bend to the ground, the fruits are carried by ants that eat the juicy appendage. In natural habitats, seeds can germinate in the fall. In spring, oval green cotyledons up to 10 mm long with a small notch at the top develop.

The first true leaf appears in the growing season following germination. Its plate is dark green, three-lobed, covered with long silky hairs as well as a long reddish petiole. The liverwort blooms in different habitats in the 4-7th year, in culture - in the 3rd year. Under natural conditions, one adult plant can have 5-12 flowers, in culture - up to 150. Pollination of flowers occurs with the help of beetles, butterflies that eat pollen, since there is no nectar in them.

Liverwort is one of the early flowering plants in our forests. The generative organs are laid one year before flowering. By the first half of August, all parts of the flower in the bud are fully formed (perianth leaves, anthers on filaments, pistils are visible). In October, flowering shoots reach 1 cm in length.

In culture, the liverwort is noble since 1440. Has many forms. The most interesting are the double forms with dark blue and pink flowers. Pink flowers are distinguished by an unusually pleasant rich shade. These plants are characterized by a special splendor of flowering.

Read the next part of the article: Grouse: species, reproduction and agricultural technology →

Svetlana Seregina


Features of poplar

Poplar belongs to the class of dicotyledonous deciduous plants, while it is part of the Willow family. The plant is characterized by rapid growth during the first 40-60 years. After that, it begins to grow more slowly. The average lifespan of a poplar is 60 to 80 years. However, there are specimens that are between 120 and 150 years old.

This tree can reach a height of about 40 meters, and its trunk is up to 100 centimeters in diameter. The shape of the crown directly depends on the species and can be pyramidal, ovoid or spherical. The surface of the trunk is covered with gray bark, which can have a light black or brown tint. Over time, a large number of cracks form on the bark. The surface of the gray branches is smooth and even and has a delicate olive tint.

The poplar root system is quite strong and well-formed, often shallow. Over time, the growing roots go beyond the border of the crown. Alternating green leaf plates can be lanceolate or ovoid. The foliage surface is covered with a well-defined reticular venation.

Such a tree is characterized by rapid growth and development. Its wood has found application in both the wood and furniture industries. The first time a poplar forms seeds only after it is 10–12 years old. Flowering begins simultaneously with the opening of leaf buds. In some cases, the tree blooms even before the leaf blades open. Hanging spike-shaped inflorescences are formed on the branches, which are called catkins. After pollination, a single ovary is formed. When the poplar has bloomed, in place of each flower, a fruit is formed, which is a box, which has from 2 to 4 leaves. Over time, they open up. The capsule contains oblong very small seeds 0.1–0.3 cm long. There are about 1,000 seeds in 1 gram of seeds. Each of the seeds has a whole bundle of thin hairs, thanks to which, with the help of the wind, they can "fly away" a decent distance from the parent tree. This phenomenon was called "poplar fluff". Already next spring, young seedlings can be found at a distance equal to several kilometers from the mother plant.


Garden plant care

It is quite simple to take care of the Dubrovnik in the open field.

Watering and feeding

Water the potted species regularly as the soil dries out. Garden samples practically do not need watering. For high-quality flowering, also carry out multimineral dressing every spring.

Pruning and replanting

At the beginning of spring, it is advisable for a Dubrovnik to undergo a sanitary haircut course. Shorten the shoots in half. This stimulates branching. The bush becomes lush, voluminous. Cut off damaged and dry twigs as well. The procedure can be repeated in the summer.

Dubrovnik in pots and tubs sometimes needs replanting. The main reason is the tightness of the roots. Perform the procedure in the spring.


Ixia

The herbaceous perennial plant Ixia is a member of the Iris family. According to information taken from various sources, there are from 40 to more than 60 different species in this genus. This plant comes from South Africa, namely, from the Cape region. The scientific name of this genus comes from the Greek word, which means "bird glue", meaning the sticky sap of the plant. Cultivation of this flower began in the 18th century. To date, the most widespread varieties are Ixia, which are hybrids, they have a common name - Ixia hybrid. At the same time, species ixia are becoming less popular every year.


Transfer

This procedure is done annually, with the onset of the warm season, each time a larger container is taken for this. Acid soil is used for transplantation: with turf, peat, humus and sand. Good drainage should be done.

Insufficient flowering can be caused by no or little fertilization. The plant is fertilized once every seven days with flower dressing, from spring to autumn.


Methods of combating diseases and pests when caring for the liverwort

The main problem in caring for the liver is diseases caused by fungi. They can be provoked by rainy, damp and cold weather, when the ambient temperature is kept within the range of 18-20 degrees. Often, the occurrence of problems can also be facilitated by the thickening of the plantings, when, after watering or rain, the soil cannot dry out for a long time. Among such diseases, powdery mildew and gray rot are distinguished. If a whitish or grayish bloom, spots of a brown or grayish hue are noticed on the foliage, then immediately all parts of the bush that are already affected must be removed, and the plant itself must be treated with fungicidal agents, such as Bordeaux liquid, Fundazol or Topaz.


Watch the video: Massive Tropical Liverwort - Monoclea


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