Pumpkin - types, varieties, use


"Carriage" full of vitamins

They say that pumpkin Is a symbol of life, health and longevity. Last year we had a large harvest in the garden, and one pumpkin was born almost the size of a carriage. Just like in the fairy tale "Cinderella".

Last season we stocked up a lot of pumpkins, there were even problems with storage, but still we placed them, covered them from frost. And they began to slowly cook porridge, snapping seeds, however, and our living creatures - chickens, geese and ducks also had a lot of pumpkins for food.

I remember how in the turbulent years the pumpkin saved many: there was porridge from it, and they made pies with pumpkin. The table was full. Nowadays, pumpkin is not really favored and is not bought, but in vain! Previously, the pumpkin was more expensive than the golden palaces, it was eaten for good health. And this is no coincidence, because pumpkin is the most ancient vegetable, mastered by people since time immemorial. The people of Mexico have bred it for more than five thousand years ago.


We need pumpkin as a source of vitamins and minerals, it is simply stuffed with them. To a completely standard vitamin set (C, B, E), it is worth adding vitamin K, which is necessary for the synthesis of proteins in the blood and bone tissue, iron, pectin substances that help the body to remove cholesterol, and carotene in it is generally five times more than in carrots !

Pumpkin - the most real therapeutic and prophylactic nutrition. And do not think that you can eat it only by closing your eyes, it can be tasty even raw: for this there is nutmeg varieties: Intercept, Butter, Honey Guitar, Nutmeg, Vitamin, Miracle Yudo, Honey, Pearl. And if you still get used to cooking it, then the pumpkin will not be "uninvited" guests on your table.

Culinary experts recommend adding a large amount of aromatic spices to the pumpkin. You can mix pumpkin puree with rice and other cereals, add to vegetables that are brighter to taste. But baking it in the oven enhances the taste of pumpkin best of all. Try to cook with any meat baked pumpkin garnish - it will be the most healthy side dish you can imagine. The fact is that pumpkin contains a rather rare vitamin T, which promotes the absorption of heavy fatty foods and prevents obesity. So much for the "useless" pumpkin! But she is also not only good for this.

The pumpkin can be both a decorative baby and a serious individual with a solid mass. Usually these are portioned varieties such as Japanese, Iowa, Cinderella, Golden Pear, Chalmoidnaya.

And the solid weight can please you with the varieties: Russian size, Turban Sultana, Titan, Texas, Sugar, Samson, Record holder, Record, Bulk, Marble, Kuban, Large-fruited, Virginia, Ilya Muromets, Spanish, Goliath, Giant, Banana, Atlant, Arkansas other.

A worthy vegetable is now finding more and more widespread use - kavbuz and pumpkin melon. Kavbuz is a hybrid of watermelon and pumpkin, there are already several varieties of it: Winter watermelon, Giant kavbuz, Sugar kavbuz, Green watermelon, Melon kavbuz, and Kavbudek - a hybrid of kavbuz and decorative pumpkin. Pumpkin cucumbers and pumpkin watermelons are interesting.

What are the advantages of these unusual pumpkin and melons? First, they have an unusual sweet taste with an unforgettable aroma. They have a firm, almost dry consistency of pulp, weight within 5 kg, they are stored for a long time - almost eight months! Secondly, high culinary merit. The first thing we make from them is jam. We call it "honey" jam - great taste and aroma. It is good with tea, and with pancakes, and in pies.


It can compete with any berry and fruit jam. Stores well without losing aroma and taste. We also make marinades from these melons, squeeze juice, cook candied fruits, bake pancakes with the addition of flour, cook porridge - rice, millet, to which we add pieces or mashed pumpkin mass.

There is also such a type of pumpkin as wax - Oblong and Round varieties. They are from Japan and China. Their fruits are oval-cylindrical, 50-70 cm long and up to 30 cm in diameter. Their pulp is white, thick, very tender, of pleasant taste, the yield of varieties is very high. They are stored for a very long time! These fruits are covered with a thick layer of wax, which can be easily removed, you can even make candles from it, they burn well, but there is a lot of soot. This pumpkin can be used to cook caviar, jam, compote, as the pulp is very sweet in taste.

A figurative pumpkin will braid any support up to 10 m high, cover unsightly places, fences, and by the end of autumn it will give a lot of rounded-elongated white-striped fruits. They are very decorative in appearance - white in a green mesh. They have the highest keeping quality - fresh up to four years! Young fruits are used as zucchini, ripe fruits are used for compote, you can eat them raw, cook vegetable spaghetti. These are such different pumpkins.

Those wishing to grow these interesting pumpkin varieties, go to our online store http://www.semenabrizhan.ru/shop, +7 (861) 646-28-76, Valery Ivanovich Brizhan, (from 16:00 to 18:00 and from 08:00 to 09:00 Moscow time)

Valery Brizhan, experienced gardener
Photo by the author


Pumpkin - species, varieties, use - garden and vegetable garden


It is impossible to imagine our table without vegetables and potatoes. They are the most important component of the diet of both the academician and the carpenter. Vegetables - a pantry of carbohydrates, protein, organic acids, vitamins, mineral salts, enzymes, and other essential nutrients. Of particular value are vitamins, which are either almost absent or present in small doses in other products. Do not rely solely on grocery stores and markets, start your own vegetable garden. Especially if you want to have fresh vegetables straight from the garden. The secrets of growing vegetables are not that complicated. Diligence, perseverance, curiosity, ingenuity will help you overcome all difficulties and become a real vegetable grower.

So, advice from specialists and experienced gardeners.

To extend the season for the consumption of fresh vegetables, early, medium and late varieties are planted. The earliest harvests in the open field can be obtained from the cultivation of perennial crops (sorrel, rhubarb, perennial types of onions), as well as from winter sowing of carrots, beets, parsley, radishes and planting onions. Early vegetables of annual crops (lettuce, cucumbers, radishes) and onions can be grown in small greenhouses in the garden.

They accelerate the development of shelters made of film or glass without artificial heating in early spring. You can grow radishes under them. They can cover sorrel, rhubarb, onions, winter crops of beets and carrots.

Vegetable plants according to biological, botanical and economic characteristics, they are classified into homogeneous groups.

Cabbage plants. There are several varieties of cabbage: white cabbage, cauliflower, red cabbage, Savoy cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and leafy cabbage. Almost all types of cabbage are biennial plants. Only in the second year, the planted stalks with apical buds give seeds. Plants of this group are cold-resistant, require increased moisture supply, although they do not tolerate excessive moisture (especially long-term), they are demanding on soil fertility. Cauliflower, Chinese cabbage and broccoli under certain conditions form seeds in the first year of life and are annual.

Mid-season cabbage varieties are suitable for pickling, late varieties for pickling and long-term storage. Red cabbage is unsuitable for cooking, it is used fresh for salads. Cauliflower is good for boiling, roasting, and canning.

Roots. This group includes: carrots, parsnips, parsley, celery (umbelliferae family) beetroot (from the haze family) radish, turnips, turnips, rutabagas, radishes (cruciferous family) chicory (from the aster family). All root crops form seeds in the second year of life (when planted with an intact apical bud), with the exception of radishes and summer radishes, which give seeds in the first year. Without exception, all plants of this group are cold-resistant, require high soil fertility, moisture supply (especially in the period after sowing the seeds).

Bulbous plants. In this group, onions, leeks, perennial varieties of onions (multi-tiered shallots, batun onions) coexist. All these plants are cold-resistant. Onions and garlic contain many nutrients and vitamins. Onions are grown by seeds (nigella), sevkom (small bulbs 1.5-2.5 cm, usually obtained from nigella) and a sample (3-4 cm or more).

Fruit vegetables. Cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkin, watermelons, melons (pumpkin family) tomatoes, peppers, eggplants (nightshade family). All these plants are very thermophilic and require highly fertile soils. Almost every year in our conditions, to obtain these vegetables, it is necessary to use protective equipment against frost and low temperatures.

Peas, beans and beans (legume family) also belong to the group of fruit vegetables. Unlike their neighbors, they can withstand low temperatures. Beans are somewhat more thermophilic than peas and beans.

Green vegetables. These are the familiar salad, dill, parsley, celery, watercress, coriander (do not be confused that we also included some of them in the group of root vegetables - remember the sayings about tops and roots), as well as other cultures that we almost not familiar and not cultivated in the middle lane. All of these crops are cold-resistant annuals, they are mainly sown with seeds.

Perennial vegetables. It is somehow unusual to call sorrel, rhubarb, asparagus, horseradish vegetables - but it is so. All these plants are frost-resistant, in one place they can grow from two to five years. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively.

Potatoes. Among vegetables it takes a special place, it is bred to obtain tubers. Potatoes belong to the nightshade family. Potato bushes are easily damaged by frost. Propagated mainly by tubers, but you can also propagate it by eyes, sprouts, dividing a bush and even seeds (this laborious work does not give the same effect as propagation by tubers).

Part garden plot that you allocate for vegetable crops should not be shaded. If possible, you should choose a free, well-lit area with the most fertile soil (if the soil is not very fertile, you need to patiently start creating it for many years). A common mistake of novice vegetable growers is the desire for a combined arrangement of crops, when vegetables and strawberries are placed among young apple and pear trees. As long as the trees are young, everything seems to be going well: the crowns do not shade the beds too much, there is enough light and food for vegetables. But trees quickly gain strength, grow, and then the intermediate crops fall into the shade, their yield decreases from year to year. Indeed, most vegetable crops and potatoes do not tolerate strong shading and the presence of roots of woody plants in the soil. Therefore, one of the main rules for complex gardening and horticulture - provide a place for each crop and take into account the need to subsequently carry out a competent change (alternation) of vegetables and berries. After all, a certain culture should be returned to its original place not earlier than after three years, and even better - after four or five years. To do this, you need to draw up a clear plan for the placement and rotation of crops.

The timing of the return of crops to their original place is roughly the following: cabbage - 3 - 4 years, carrots - 3, peas - 4 - 5, celery - 3, tomatoes - 3 - 4, cucumbers - 3, lettuce - 1-2, onions - 4 - 5 years.

The yield decreases especially sharply and the quality deteriorates with permanent cultivation of cabbage, beets, peas, tomatoes, cucumbers, and potatoes.

When plants are re-grown on the same soil, a decrease in yield occurs as a result of the release of physiologically active substances into the soil, which subsequently inhibit the same culture.

The most appropriate width of the beds is 1.2 m. Between the beds, paths 0.3 m wide are left. The creation of narrower beds is a waste of the land of the garden plot, wider ones - it makes it difficult to cultivate the soil, care for plants and harvest.


Early varieties of pumpkin for open ground, description with photo

Early varieties are Amazonka, Smile, Acorn, Lel, Honey Beauty and Healing. All of them belong to bush.

Smile

The variety is early maturing, cold-resistant, high-yielding. 15-20 fruits can be harvested from one plant.

Ripening time is short. So, from the moment the first shoots appear and until the harvest, it takes only about three months (maybe a little more).

The fruits of this variety with such a positive name are small, from 1.5 to 2 kg. Orange color, sweet flesh. Despite the early terms of ripening and harvesting, pumpkin is stored for a long time - it can practically last until January.

It is often used for decorative purposes.

Freckle

Another early variety with a spring name. It has a bushy shape and forms 4 to 6 lashes with short internodes. Fruits weigh up to 3 kg, light green with light spots. They can persist for quite a long time. The pulp has a delicate pear flavor and aroma.

The pumpkin feels good even if the weather conditions change. If you water regularly and abundantly, you can get a fairly high yield. For example, with industrial cultivation, up to 360 tons can be harvested from 1 hectare.

With all this, the variety is susceptible to powdery mildew. Therefore, the plant must be treated with fungicides.

Russian woman

One of the most popular early maturing, versatile varieties. Ripening occurs 90-100 days after germination.

The plant is cold-resistant, with medium climbing ability and power. The fruit is round, slightly turbid, the apex is convex, weighs up to 1.5 kg. This is an average weight, but can reach up to 4 kg with good care. The yield is also very good. From one bush, you can remove fruits weighing about 20 kg.

The valuable characteristics of the variety are its early maturity, high taste, good keeping quality and resistance to temperature drops.

The thickness of the crust is average, the outside is orange, there may be barely noticeable stripes. The pulp has a bright orange color, thick, crumbly, delicate sweet, there is a melon aroma.

The variety can be grown both in seedlings and sown directly in open ground. At the same time, seeds are sown for seedlings in April, and seedlings are usually planted in the ground in May - June. As for sowing directly into open ground, it should be carried out at the end of May - June. Depending on the soil, the seeds are sown to a depth of 3 to 5 cm.The planting pattern is 60 × 60 cm.

The plant is very fond of feeding in the form of organic fertilizers. When harvest time comes, it is recommended to remove the fruits together with the stalks. Stored well, but storage conditions should be: dry air and well-ventilated area.

When used for culinary purposes, microwaved meals are best obtained.


Pumpkin varieties and hybrids

Mozoleevskaya. Mid-season, widespread variety. Scourges of medium length. The fruits are large, oval or weakly oval, orange or bright yellow, often with a spotted striped pattern.) The surface is slightly segmented at the peduncle. Medium density pulp. The average yield in large vegetable farms is 37-42 tons per hectare, in summer cottages it varies from 6 to 9 kg per 1 m 2. It is cultivated in temperate latitudes and in the Non-Black Earth Zone of Russia, as well as in Ukraine and Belarus.

Plovkady. The variety belongs to the nutmeg group and is distinguished by a high sugar content of the fruit. It is more thermophilic than other cultivated pumpkin varieties.The fruits are highly elongated, cylindrical, often with thickened ends, with a pinkish-brown rind covered with a waxy coating. Fruit weight varies from 4 to 8 kg. The plant is of medium vigor and coarse pubescence. Leaves with a faint white spot. The average yield in vegetable-growing farms is 28-40 tons per hectare, in private gardens - 5-9 kg per 1 m 2. Distributed mainly in the countries of Central Asia and the Caucasus.

Muscat. A medium late variety with a high carotene content. Fruits are orange-yellow, ovoid, with an average weight of 5-7 kg. They have a slightly segmented surface, with shapeless stripes and an orange mesh. The pulp of the fruit is orange-red. The yield in large vegetable farms is 45-55 tons per hectare, in private plots - 6-8 kg per 1 m 2. It is cultivated in the North Caucasus and in other southern regions of Russia and adjacent countries of the near abroad.

Vitamin. Medium late, high yielding variety with high carotene content. The fruits are adapted for long-term storage. They have an oval shape, spotty, and when the fruit ripens, they are orange in color. The average fruit weight is 7-8 kg. The flesh is crispy, bright orange. The yield in large vegetable farms is 52-70 tons per hectare, in summer cottages - 6.8-8.5 kg per 1 m 2. It is cultivated in the southern regions and temperate latitudes of Russia.

Winter dining room. Medium late variety with long keeping quality. The fruits are oval, with a segmented light gray surface. The pulp is orange, dense. The average fruit weight is 8-9 kg. The yield in vegetable farms is 70-76 tons per hectare, in summer cottages - 9-10 kg per 1 m 2. It is cultivated mainly in the southern regions of Russia and adjacent regions of the neighboring countries.


Known bush species

  • yield reaches 280 kg / ha (5-7 fruits per 1 bush)
  • average sizes of vegetables of the correct spherical shape from 0.8 to 1.2 kg
  • cold resistance allows growing the variety in unfavorable climatic conditions
  • early maturity ensures full ripening of the crop in 85 days
  • drought tolerance
  • transportability and keeping quality is average.

Variety Smile has a bright orange sweet pulp of medium thickness, few seeds. The peel is also orange in color with barely noticeable stripes.

Bush Healing pumpkin belongs to the early maturing species. Its main purpose is to use it in cooking, because the pulp contains an increased proportion of useful elements.

She has one drawback - pumpkin has weak immunity and is often affected by powdery mildew, anthractosis and rot.

Vegetables are slightly flattened, with a light gray rind covered with a barely noticeable mesh pattern.

Yield indicators are high: 420 c / ha. Stored for a long time, tolerates transportation well.

The fruits of the Pearl variety are large in size.

The bush pumpkin variety Pearl is one of the nutmeg species that yield a crop in a short period of time (up to 100 days). The shape of the vegetables is cylindrical, up to 0.5 m long. The pumpkin rind is light orange with a slight bluish tinge.

It is recommended to harvest the Nutmeg Pearl at a young age, because during storage, its gastronomic quality becomes even more intense.

Differs in high productivity: 500 kg / ha. Vegetables grow large and weigh up to 7 kg. Up to 6 fruits are harvested from 1 bush.

Lel is an early bush variety, pumpkin ripens in 90 days.

Fruits are flattened, yellow with orange, diluted with light brown stripes. Average weight - 3-3.5 kg.

The seeds have high quality characteristics; they are often used for industrial production of pumpkin seed oil.

Other advantages include resistance to a number of common diseases: powdery mildew, peronosporosis, anthractosis. It tolerates changes in weather conditions, therefore it is suitable for the Ural and Siberian regions.

The orange bush pumpkin has a long shelf life. Belongs to early maturing, ripens in 90 days. Resistant to sudden changes in temperature, therefore it is suitable for regions with cold climates.

The average weight of vegetables is up to 5 kg.

The pulp is low in sugar, therefore the main purpose of the variety is to be used for culinary purposes for preparing winter preparations and soups.

100 lb

Differs in an increased ripening period, yields a harvest 115-135 days after planting in open ground.

Its main advantage is the large size of the fruit (up to 10 kg, and in some cases up to 20 kg). They grow in different shapes - spherical or oval.

The pulp is juicy. Prefers a moderately warm climate.

Acorn produces small-sized fruits (1-1.5 kg), for which it received the name acorn. Often the color is dark or light green, but other colors are found.

Ripening period - 85 days.

Fruits can be stored for a long time

Technical ripeness occurs 90 days after planting in open ground. The vegetables are flat. Average weight - 1-2 kg.

The main advantages of Amazon:

  • beautiful presentation
  • high taste
  • long shelf life.

Gribovskaya-189

The Gribovskaya-189 variety is popular in Siberia and the Urals, because resistant to weather changes. Vegetables grow squash-shaped, oblong and narrowed at one end.

Average weight - 3-5 kg. yield indicators are average - up to 8 kg / m².

It is preferable to pick mushroom pumpkin green, because in the process of ripening, its pulp improves the palatability.

It belongs to the early maturing species, ripening in 80-85 days. Prefers a warm temperate climate.

Honey beauty

Honey Beauty grows vegetables with a beautiful presentation and high gastronomic qualities.

The shape of the fruit is round, ribbed, weight up to 6 kg. Orange color. The average ripening period is 90-100 days.

Among the shortcomings is the lack of frost resistance in the variety, therefore it is preferable for the regions of the Middle Lane.


Features of growing in the open field

In order for the culture to please with high yields, it is necessary to follow the rules of agricultural technology.

Landing

The process involves several stages.

Site preparation

The pumpkin loves well-lit areas. The best "predecessors" for her are legumes, potatoes, onions and cabbage. The site is being prepared in the fall. To do this, under a deep digging of the earth for 1 m², the following substances are introduced:

  • compost - 5 kg
  • potassium chloride - 15 g
  • superphosphate - 30 g.

With increased acidity of the soil, wood ash or lime is also added. In the spring, the earth is dug up again, but already shallow. Fertilize it by adding 20 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m².

Seed preparation

For planting, seed that is less than 3 years old is suitable. First, large and full-bodied seeds are selected. Then they are poured with water heated to 50 ° C. Leave for several hours. Then wrapped in a damp cloth. The hatched seeds are placed in the refrigerator, in the vegetable compartment.

Sowing in open ground

This planting method is used in regions with a warm climate. When the ground at a depth of 10 cm warms up to 12 ° C, holes are made. Watering. Place 2-3 seeds in each well. The planting scheme is 0.7 × 0.7 m. After germination, one most strengthened sprout is left.

Growing seedlings

Vessels with a volume of 0.3 liters are filled with earth, which is mixed half with humus. Seeds are germinated 20-22 days before the expected date of planting. They are deepened by 5 cm, directing the "nose" down. Leave in a warm room - 22-25 ° C. After the sprouts appear, the temperature is gradually reduced.

Water the plants regularly and in moderation. They are fed twice using a complex fertilizer. 1-2 weeks before planting, the crops are hardened. They are planted in open ground in the phase of 3-4 leaves.

The plant needs regular watering

Bushy pumpkins need to create favorable conditions.

Watering

The culture actively evaporates moisture through the leaves. Watering is carried out regularly. Plants especially need an abundant amount of moisture during such periods:

  • before flowering
  • during the formation of fruits.

The water is taken in a settled and warm water - 20 ° C. Watering is stopped a month before harvesting. Plant care involves loosening the soil after each wetting.

Top dressing

If the soil has been fertilized in the fall, then additional nutrients are not needed. When she is depleted, the following dressings are carried out:

  • 10 days after planting, take 1 liter of manure in a bucket of water. You can also take 10 g of nitrophoska per 10 liters of liquid
  • during fruiting, use the same formulations.

You can fertilize plants 3-4 times. Instead of manure, chicken manure and green fertilizer are used. Organic dressings alternate with mineral ones.

Artificial pollination

If the weather is bad and there are no pollinating insects, you need to transfer the pollen yourself. To do this, use a soft brush. You can also lean the male flower against the female stigma.


Watch the video: Pumpkin Varieties


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