Despite the constant work of breeders to develop new grape varieties, some old varieties are so good that winegrowers do not want to give them up. These varieties include the Rizamat grape originating from Uzbekistan. It is distinguished by such wonderful taste characteristics that amateurs do everything to grow it even in the Russian climate, which is not suitable for this capricious variety.
The Rizamat grape comes from sunny Uzbekistan. Bred in the 70s of the last century by scientists of the Samarkand branch of the Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture named after A. R.R. Schroeder. The authors of the variety are R.V. Ogienko, K.V. Smirnov and A.F. Gerasimov, who used the Uzbek grape varieties Kattakurgan and Parkentsky in the selection process. The new variety got its name in honor of the grower Rizamat Musamukhamedov. After passing the state variety testing, it was recommended for cultivation throughout the territory of Uzbekistan, Georgia and Turkmenistan. Due to its outstanding taste, yield and excellent appearance, it has won recognition in Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine, where it is most successfully grown in the southern regions, although it can successfully develop in the middle lane when favorable conditions are created.
Rizamat is used to obtain new varieties. For example, on its basis the varieties Rizamat resistant, Rizamat incomparable, Rizamat gracious (black) were bred. Despite some advantages (higher frost resistance, disease resistance), all hybrids are significantly inferior in taste to the original variety.
Rizamat belongs to table-raisin varieties and in its homeland is considered a grape of early middle ripening period (vegetation period 135-140 days at a total temperature of 2800-3000 aboutFROM). In the conditions of the Russian climate, the ripening periods are rather average - the second decade of September.
The bushes are of medium vigor. Shoots are long, light brown in color, with medium-sized, slightly dissected leaves. They ripen well. The flowers are bisexual, so this variety can be grown without pollinating plants.
Rizamat buds begin to bloom in the first half of May (about a month later than in Uzbekistan), flowering begins in late June - early July. The berries begin to ripen in the second half of August, you can eat them fresh in the second or third decade of September.
Large dark pink brushes have a very elegant look
Rizamat forms large, branching clusters, up to 17-18 cm long. The density of the brushes is average, weight is 500-550 g (it can reach 800-1000 g, occasionally up to 3 kg). The cylindrical shape of the berries is very large: length 28-30 mm, width 19-20 mm, average weight 6.2 g, but can reach 14 g. bright blush. The pulp has a dense, crunchy texture. Each berry contains 2-3 medium-sized seeds.
The berries are unusually large, but peas can be observed on the brush.
The taste is very pleasant, receiving very high tasting marks (9.1 points). There are no unusual aromas. The harmony of taste is explained by the fact that the high sugar content (20%) is balanced by a sufficient amount of acids (4.5–5 g / l).
It is not for nothing that Rizamat receives high marks from specialists - he has undeniable advantages:
Amateurs growing Rizamat believe that these advantages completely atone for the disadvantages of the variety, of which, unfortunately, there are many:
Planting rules for Rizamat grapes are practically no different from other varieties. It is advisable to plant these grapes in the spring so that it grows stronger by the next winter. When planting in autumn, there is a risk that a young seedling of this not too frost-resistant variety will die during the first frost.
Unlike other varieties, Rizamat is almost impossible to propagate by grafting. The main method of reproduction is planting with own-rooted seedlings.
Grape cuttings root perfectly in moist soil
Growing seedlings is easy on your own. To do this, cuttings with 4–5 buds are placed in the lower cut in water and wait for the white roots to appear. Instead of water, you can use a cut-off plastic bottle filled with moist, nutrient-rich soil. Germination of cuttings begins in the first decade of February and ready-made seedlings are obtained just in time for planting - the first decade of May.
Grapes reproduce well by layering. Own experience of growing grapes shows that it is enough to choose a well-developed vine with a thickness of about 1-1.5 cm, dig in with moist loose soil and press down (for example, 2-3 bricks). It is necessary to water the cuttings regularly - the formation of roots depends on this. The main thing is not to rush to separate the layers from the mother bush. The author made such a mistake, as a result, the separated plant turned out to be frail and required about two more years of intensive watering and careful maintenance.
To plant Rizamata, you need to choose the sunniest place on the site. The soil is desirable fertile, loose. It is categorically impossible to plant grapes in areas with a close occurrence of groundwater. The distance between the bushes should be at least 3 m.
Before planting, you need to prepare a hole 80 cm wide and deep. The bottom is covered with broken brick or rubble (5-6 cm). Then about half of the pit is filled with soil mixed with compost and a small amount of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers (you can, for example, limit yourself to 20-30 g of superphosphate). A layer of soil (7–8 cm) is poured on top to protect the roots. It is advisable to leave the filled pit for 10-15 days.
When planting grapes in a pit, you need to lay a drainage layer
The grape seedling is placed in the hole very carefully, as the young roots can easily break. The pit is covered with fertile soil, compacted, a depression is formed for irrigation and 2 buckets of water are poured into it.
Rizamat is not unpretentious, on the contrary, it requires constant proper care. Insufficient watering, improper care and too much stress lead to crumbling of berries and peas.
One of the main procedures required to grow a healthy shrub is pruning. Correct pruning provides ventilation of the bush and reduces the risk of developing fungal diseases. Prune vines in spring and autumn. The peculiarity of Rizamata is the low fertility of the lower eyes, therefore, to obtain a good harvest, it needs a long pruning (10-15 eyes).
Don't overload: Rizamat doesn't like her. The total load on the bush should be 35–40 eyes.
The tops of the shoots should not be pinched, otherwise dormant buds may awaken and the harvest of next year will be lost. Stepsons pinch on 1-2 leaves.
Rizamat requires a lot of shaping. the most suitable options are an arch, a high trellis with a visor, or voish (a system of horizontal trellises).
Care must be taken to ensure that the vines can be easily removed from the supports for shelter for the winter.
In the fall, the vines are pruned, removing the unripe part of the shoots and thickening twigs. Then the vines are untied from the supports, carefully laid on the ground, tied together and wrapped with insulating material. Heat-loving Rizamat may not have enough film alone, therefore it is better to cover it in several layers: straw, film and a layer of earth.
Wrapped with a film or oilcloth, grapes are sprinkled on the sides with earth
Rizamat loves moisture, it needs to be watered 4–5 times per season: at the beginning of bud opening, at the beginning of flowering, during the growth of the ovary, after harvesting. These irrigations are carried out at the rate of 40-50 liters per adult bush, with settled water. It is desirable to supply water in irrigation furrows 20–25 cm deep, laid at a distance of 0.5–0.7 m from the trunk. If possible, it is better to use a drip irrigation system, supplying water constantly in small portions.
If the weather is dry in autumn, in late October - early November, watering is carried out at the rate of 150-200 liters per bush to charge the soil with moisture: this improves the wintering conditions of the root system.
It is advisable to combine top dressing with watering. The first feeding is carried out with nitrogen 6-7 days before flowering. Nitrogen compounds are found in sufficient quantities in organic fertilizers. For 1 adult bush of grapes, it is enough to dilute 2–2.5 kg of manure or 50–55 g of chicken manure in a bucket of water. You can use mineral fertilizers - 60–65 g of nitrophoska and 5 g of boric acid per 10 liters of water.
The second feeding is carried out 12-15 days before the formation of fruits. The formation of fruits is provided by potassium, therefore, 10 g of potassium magnesia is dissolved in a bucket of water for feeding. You can add 20 g of ammonium nitrate. The third feeding is carried out 8-10 days after the second, with the same fertilizer.
The fourth feeding is carried out 2 weeks before harvesting with superphosphate and potassium sulfate (20 g each).
Grapes are also useful foliar dressing, including trace elements. Some growers recommend a mixture of iodine, copper sulfate, wood ash infusion and boric acid. Spraying with such a composition helps not only to saturate the plant with nutrients, but also protects it from fungal diseases.
The Rizamat variety is very weakly resistant to fungal diseases - mildew and powdery mildew. For the prevention of these diseases, you should first of all ensure good ventilation of the bush, removing thickening shoots and excess leaves. In addition, preventive fungicide treatments (for example, Dnok) should be carried out 5-7 times per season.
You can prepare a tool for processing with your own hands: a decoction of ISO is prepared from lime and sulfur. Ground sulfur or sulfur concentrate, slaked lime and water (ratio 2: 1: 17) are mixed and boiled for 60 minutes over low heat, adding water to the initial volume. The ready-made solution, sealed in bottles, can be stored for a long time. ISO has a good effect in the fight against fungal diseases and is safe for warm-blooded animals.
From wasps and birds, grapes are covered with nets or each brush is tied with a gauze bag.
The harvest of Rizamata in different regions ripens at different times (from the end of August to the last decade of September). First of all, the brushes located at the ends of the shoots ripen, then closer to the base of the bush.
For table consumption, you need to cut off ripe grapes immediately, avoiding overexposure on the bushes. To make raisins, on the contrary, it is recommended to leave ripe grapes to hang for another 2-3 weeks. Raisins from Rizamat are of very high quality, tasty and attractive in appearance.
Rizamata makes beautiful and delicious raisins
You can store fresh grapes in a cool room or refrigerator for about two weeks.
The Rizamat grape will require some effort from its owner to obtain good yields. But with proper agricultural technology, the quantity and quality of the harvest is much superior to other, less whimsical varieties.
Hello! My name is Maria, 40 years old. My main job is teaching technical subjects.
Rate the article:
(5 votes, average: 4.8 out of 5)
Share with your friends!