Broccoli, stalk cabbage, asparagus cabbage - all this is the name of one plant in different countries.
The chemical composition of broccoli is striking - up to 4 mg% meteonin, up to 160 mg% vitamin C, in terms of nutritional properties, young broccoli leaves can be equated to spinach or kale. In addition, broccoli is very rich in carotene.
Of course, these are not all components - multivitamins, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus salts, protein, essential amino acids, lysine, isoleucine and tryptophan, methionine and choline - this is not a complete list of the "useful and necessary" that is contained in broccoli. According to confirmed data, the consumption of broccoli prevents the accumulation of excess cholesterol in the body and promotes the elimination of heavy metal salts and their breakdown products from the body.
In recent years, per capita consumption of vegetables has increased worldwide, with these vegetables gaining momentum in terms of growing acreage and broccoli.
A few words should be said about the biology of culture - this is a vegetable plant belonging to the cruciferous family. Broccoli is cultivated both in an annual (which is more common) and in a biennial culture. Broccoli plants are quite impressive in size among vegetable crops, for example, they can reach over a meter in height. The stem of broccoli always ends with an inflorescence, the leaves are large enough, have petioles, wavy curved along the edges.
The leaf blade has a lyre-like shape characteristic only of broccoli, whitish-green veins and is covered with a waxy coating. The root system is powerful enough and penetrates to a depth of 50 cm, but most of the roots lie at a depth of 20-25 cm. Therefore, you should always carefully process the aisles, trying not to damage the root system.
Broccoli flowers are slightly larger than flowers, for example white cabbage, and its seeds are somewhat smaller than that of the colored one.
Broccoli, like cauliflower, the head is eaten, which is an inflorescence in the form of a bunch of flower buds with a part of the stem. These heads are formed from underdeveloped buds that are covered with green sepals.
Broccoli, in addition to its undoubted food purpose, also has decorative advantages, for example, the color of its inflorescences - it can be very diverse - and green, and bluish, and purple, and white. Broccoli has a pronounced repair ability. If the apical inflorescences are removed, offspring heads immediately begin to form in the leaf axils, such a simple procedure increases productivity by one and a half times! After harvesting, the plants remain green and juicy for a very long time, and they can be used to feed pets.
As for growing conditions, broccoli is a rather undemanding crop, requires little heat, is resistant to low temperatures and can withstand even slight frosts, but this cabbage is much more sensitive to high temperatures than most vegetables. He loves moisture very much, as, indeed, all cabbages. Lack of moisture, its decrease of less than 85% in air and 70% in soil leads to a sharp decrease in yield, as well as product quality. This crop is not particularly demanding for soil fertility, however, it requires rather high doses of nitrogen at the end of the growing season. The best yields of broccoli are obtained in heavy soils with very good moisture. The culture also works well enough on the lungs, medium loamy soils, podzolized chernozems, on floodplains and in low places.
Before planting broccoli, the site must be plowed and, if the soil is acidic, then lime... In the fall, it is advisable to add fertilizers - per square meter: 3-4 kg of manure, 20-25 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium salt and 15-20 g of ammonium nitrate. Broccoli seeds are usually sown in open ground in early May or in a greenhouse - in order to obtain seedlings for further planting in open ground. Sowing in greenhouses is carried out in mid-March, seedlings appear very quickly - already on 3-4 days, and after a couple of weeks 3-4 true leaves are formed on the plants. Broccoli plants are ready for planting when 5-6 leaves are formed on them. The best seedlings are 35 days old. It is planted according to the planting scheme 50x20 cm, or, if you want to get side shoots, then 60x40 cm.
Caring for broccoli consists in weeding, loosening the soil, hilling and, of course, in watering, and the soil needs to be moistened quite strongly - to a depth of 35-40 cm. top dressing. For this purpose, a mullein or mineral fertilizers at the rate of 2-3 g per liter of water.
The growing season of broccoli is usually 100-150 days, and if the weather is hot and dry, broccoli heads grow very quickly, but they are worse stored than those grown in a wet and cool season. Good crop yields are usually obtained with spring fertilization of the soil. To do this, a bucket of humus, 50 g of garden mixture, 35-40 g of superphosphate and 10 g of ammonium nitrate are introduced per square meter of the garden.
They begin to harvest the central heads before the flowers bloom. Moreover, it is not worth delaying the harvest, because the heads can become loose and lose their presentation. The crop is usually harvested in 1-2 receptions or as needed (if it is a home plot). The best time for head cutting is early morning or late evening. Cut during this period, they are stored longer. The yield of broccoli is significant, often exceeding 7 kg per square meter.
Breeding work with this crop has been going on for a long time. In total, more than 230 varieties of broccoli have been created, which differ in the peculiarities of head formation, for example, early varieties of cabbage of this species form a medium-sized and loose central head and lateral ones located in the leaf axils, and later varieties - scion heads, which are formed only after cutting the central one. In short, in the seed store you can now find broccoli for every taste.
Broccoli is suitable for a wide variety of processing applications. From her prepare salads, soups, side dishes, boiled or fried broccoli is excellent, excellent in marinades, and is often consumed raw.
Nikolay Maisky, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
It is impossible to imagine our table without vegetables and potatoes. They are the most important component of the diet of both the academician and the carpenter. Vegetables - a pantry of carbohydrates, protein, organic acids, vitamins, mineral salts, enzymes, and other essential nutrients. Vitamins that are either almost absent or are present in small doses in other products are of particular value. Do not rely solely on grocery stores and markets, start your own vegetable garden. Especially if you want to have fresh vegetables straight from the garden. The secrets of growing vegetables are not that difficult. Hard work, perseverance, curiosity, ingenuity will help you overcome all difficulties and become a real vegetable grower.
So, advice from specialists and experienced gardeners.
To extend the season for the consumption of fresh vegetables, early, medium and late varieties are planted. The earliest harvests in the open field can be obtained from the cultivation of perennial crops (sorrel, rhubarb, perennial types of onions), as well as from winter sowing of carrots, beets, parsley, radishes and planting onions. Early vegetables of annual crops (lettuce, cucumbers, radishes) and onions can be grown in small greenhouses in the garden.
They accelerate the development of shelters made of film or glass without artificial heating in early spring. You can grow radishes under them. They can cover sorrel, rhubarb, onions, winter crops of beets and carrots.
Vegetable plants according to biological, botanical and economic characteristics, they are classified into homogeneous groups.
Cabbage plants. There are several varieties of cabbage: white cabbage, cauliflower, red cabbage, Savoy, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and leafy cabbage. Almost all types of cabbage are biennial plants. Only in the second year, the planted stalks with apical buds give seeds. Plants of this group are cold-resistant, require increased moisture supply, although they do not tolerate excessive moisture (especially long-term), they are demanding on soil fertility. Cauliflower, Chinese cabbage and broccoli under certain conditions form seeds in the first year of life and are annual.
Mid-season cabbage varieties are suitable for pickling, late varieties for pickling and long-term storage. Red cabbage is not suitable for cooking, it is used fresh for salads. Cauliflower is good for boiling, roasting, and canning.
Roots. This group includes: carrots, parsnips, parsley, celery (umbelliferae family) beetroot (from the haze family) radish, turnips, turnips, rutabagas, radishes (cruciferous family) chicory (from the aster family). All root crops form seeds in the second year of life (when planted with an intact apical bud), with the exception of radishes and summer radishes, which produce seeds in the first year. Without exception, all plants of this group are cold-resistant, require high soil fertility, moisture supply (especially in the period after sowing the seeds).
Bulbous plants. In this group, onions, leeks, perennial varieties of onions (multi-tiered shallots, batun onions) coexist. All these plants are cold-resistant. Onions and garlic contain many nutrients and vitamins. Onions are grown by seeds (nigella), sevkom (small bulbs 1.5-2.5 cm, usually obtained from nigella) and a sample (3-4 cm or more).
Fruit vegetables. Cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkin, watermelons, melons (pumpkin family) tomatoes, peppers, eggplants (nightshade family). All these plants are very thermophilic and require highly fertile soils. Almost every year, in our conditions, to obtain these vegetables, it is necessary to use protective agents against frost and low temperatures.
Peas, beans and beans (legume family) also belong to the group of fruit vegetables. Unlike their neighbors, they can withstand low temperatures. Beans are somewhat more thermophilic than peas and beans.
Green vegetables. These are the familiar salad, dill, parsley, celery, watercress, coriander (do not be confused that we also included some of them in the group of root vegetables - remember the sayings about tops and roots), as well as other cultures that we almost not familiar and not cultivated in the middle lane. All of these crops are cold-resistant annuals, they are mainly sown with seeds.
Perennial vegetables. It is somehow unusual to call sorrel, rhubarb, asparagus, horseradish vegetables - but this is so. All these plants are frost-resistant, in one place they can grow from two to five years. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively.
Potatoes. It occupies a special place among vegetables, it is bred to obtain tubers. Potatoes belong to the nightshade family. Potato bushes are easily damaged by frost. Propagated mainly by tubers, but you can also propagate it by eyes, sprouts, dividing a bush and even seeds (this laborious work does not give the same effect as propagation by tubers).
Part garden plot that you allocate for vegetable crops should not be shaded. If possible, you should choose a free, well-illuminated area with the most fertile soil (if the soil is not very fertile, you need to patiently start creating it for many years). A common mistake of novice vegetable growers is the desire for a combined arrangement of crops, when vegetables and strawberries are placed among young apple and pear trees. As long as the trees are young, everything seems to be going well: the crowns do not shade the beds too much, there is enough light and food for vegetables. But trees quickly gain strength, grow, and then the intermediate crops fall into the shade, their yield decreases from year to year. After all, most vegetable crops and potatoes do not tolerate strong shading and the presence of woody plant roots in the soil. Therefore, one of the main rules for complex gardening and horticulture - to provide a place for each crop and take into account the need to subsequently carry out a competent change (alternation) of vegetables and berries. After all, a certain culture should be returned to its original place not earlier than after three years, and even better - after four or five years. To do this, you need to draw up a clear plan for the placement and alternation of crops.
The timing of the return of crops to their original place is roughly the following: cabbage - 3 - 4 years, carrots - 3, peas - 4 - 5, celery - 3, tomatoes - 3 - 4, cucumbers - 3, lettuce - 1-2, onions - 4 - 5 years.
The yield decreases especially sharply and the quality deteriorates with permanent cultivation of cabbage, beets, peas, tomatoes, cucumbers, and potatoes.
When plants are re-grown on the same soil, a decrease in yield occurs as a result of the release of physiologically active substances into the soil, which subsequently inhibit the same culture.
The most appropriate width of the beds is 1.2 m. Between the beds, paths 0.3 m wide are left. The creation of narrower beds is a waste of the land of the garden plot, wider ones - it makes it difficult to cultivate the soil, take care of plants and harvest.
Sowing broccoli seeds for seedlings is carried out in the spring, or rather, from early to mid-March. Sowing seeds, if desired, can be carried out by conveyor belt method, for this they are sown at several times every 15 days until the second half of June. However, since the last days of April, seeds are sown in open soil. If the summer period in the region is relatively short and cool enough, then it is recommended to grow early and mid-season broccoli varieties. If you choose late-ripening varieties, then in this case the plants may not have time to ripen.
Sort the seed before sowing. To do this, you need to choose the largest seeds, then they are kept in very warm (about 50 degrees) water for 15 to 20 minutes. After the seeds are taken out of the hot water, they must be immediately placed in cold water. After that, the seed should be soaked in Epin's solution, in which it should stay for 12-15 hours. Then the seeds should be thoroughly rinsed under running water, and then placed on the refrigerator shelf for 24 hours, after which they are dried until they flow.
For sowing, a box is used, reaching a height of 25 centimeters. A good drainage layer should be laid on its bottom. The substrate should be water-permeable and loose, as well as slightly alkaline or neutral. It should include sand, humus, turf soil and wood ash. To begin with, the soil mixture must be well moistened, after which shallow (10-15 mm) grooves should be made on its surface, while the distance between them should be equal to 30 mm. After the seeds are distributed along the grooves, they will need to be repaired, and then the substrate is lightly tamped.
The seedlings of this culture are grown in the same way as the seedlings of white cabbage. Before the shoots appear, the crops should be in a relatively warm place (about 20 degrees). After the seedlings appear, the boxes should be rearranged to a cooler place (about 10 degrees) for 7 days. Then the seedlings will need the following temperature regime: on a cloudy day - 14 degrees, on a fine day - 16 degrees, and at night - 9 degrees. Broccoli seedlings need high air humidity, while it must be borne in mind that the soil mixture must always be slightly moist. But you cannot overdo it with watering, because prolonged stagnation of water in the substrate leads to the development of a black leg, which can destroy most of the plants.
After 15 days have passed from the moment the seedlings appear, you need to resort to picking them. For transplanting, it is recommended to use individual peat pots, it is in them that the plants will be later planted in open ground. For several days after the pick, the plants should be protected from direct sunlight, for this they are covered with paper sheets, while the temperature in the room should be about 21 degrees. After the seedlings take root, they will need fertilizing with fertilizer, which must include boron and molybdenum. In the daytime, seedlings should be provided with a temperature of about 17 degrees, and at night - 9 degrees. You should start hardening seedlings 15 days before transplanting them into open soil.
Two- and three-year-old seedlings that have at least three main skeletal (lateral) branches and three main root branches no shorter than 20 - 25 cm are on sale for the population. Light scratches and breakage of the ends of the shoots are allowed without breaking the symmetry of the crown, insignificant wounds and scratches on the roots and trunk, longitudinal cracks in the bark that do not affect the cambial layer.
To the roots of the seedlings up landing have not dried up, they are immersed in an earthen chatterbox, and with prolonged storage they are added dropwise.
Planting trees in pits prepared in advance. For spring planting, holes are prepared in the fall, for autumn they can be dug out in the summer, one to two months before planting. The sizes of the pits are as follows
- under apple and pear trees with a diameter of at least 100 cm, a depth of 60 cm
- for plums, cherries and cherries with a diameter of 80 cm, a depth of 50 cm.
The infertile part of the soil taken out of the pit is scattered over the site, or even better - taken out of it, the pit is filled with fertile soil mixed with fertilizers. In one pit, two to three buckets of manure or humus, 1-1.5 kg of superphosphate (or 3 kg of phosphate rock) and 150-250 g of potassium salt are introduced. On acidic soils, 1 kg of lime is applied, in this case, not superphosphate is used, but phosphorite flour.
Landing are performed in the following order:
- a planting stake is driven into the bottom of the pit so that it is from the north-western side in relation to the seedling, the height of the stake above the surface should be 70-80 cm
- the pit is filled with earth, forming a mound, the top of the mound should be approximately at the level of the surface of the site
- the seedling is placed with roots on a mound and loosely tied to a stake with an eight
- the roots are evenly spread over the mound, all the voids between them are filled with earth, then the roots are covered, and the earth around the trunk is trampled down.
In low places, where groundwater comes close to the soil surface, trees are planted on hills up to 70 cm high. In subsequent years, soil is thrown over the hills from row spacing, forming a gentle slope.
In a properly planted tree, the root collar should be covered with earth and be 7 cm above the upper edge of the soil, since after a while the soil will settle in the hole.
The seedling is watered with two buckets of water and the moist soil is covered with 5-7 cm of mulch (a layer of humus or peat). Trees planted in spring are watered every 7 to 10 days. In autumn, one watering is enough, when landing.
Before planting or immediately after it, the crown of the seedling is cut off by about half. The fewer the roots of the seedling are left, the more the crown pruning should be done. The competitor competing with the central conductor and the extra branches are completely cut out. Leave 4 - 5 branches evenly diverging in different directions, coming from the trunk at an angle of at least 30 °. These branches are shortened by an average of one third, and the conductor by one fifth. The stronger and higher the branch is, the more it is pruned. When checking the pulling of the branches to the trunk, their ends should be approximately at the same height, and the conductor should be 20-30 cm higher.
Strong advice: never bury the seedling when landing ... A deep planting weakens the survival rate of seedlings and is the cause of subsequent depressed growth and poor fruiting. The neck of the seedling should be higher than the edges of the hole.
And one more thing: carefully mix the mineral fertilizers that are applied to the pit with the ground. This mixture is laid below the level of the roots, and the very top of the mound should be free of mineral fertilizers. Violation of this rule can lead to "burns" of the roots - as a result, the seedlings are difficult to take root and grow poorly
Transplanting mature trees.
Sometimes it becomes necessary to transplant a mature fruit tree. What is the best way to do this?
In the tree to be transplanted, the main skeletal branches are shortened by a third of their length.
Transplanted together with a lump of soil with a diameter of 100 to 150 cm. The older the tree, the larger the lump should be. A trench 60 - 70 cm deep is dug around the tree. The horizontally exposed roots are carefully cut with a saw, the cuts are cleaned with a knife.
The lump of earth formed under the tree is strengthened with boards and pulled together in two or three places with wire. The bottom of the coma and vertical roots are trimmed as neatly as possible.
The transportation of the tree to the planting site over a short distance can be done on a sheet of tin. Of course, one person cannot cope with such a job. Need help from neighbors on the site.
In a new place, the tree is placed in the same position to the cardinal points in which it grew before, and reinforced with wire ties. In order not to damage the bark, rubber or rags are placed under the stretch marks.
The branches are sprayed with a lime solution, and the stem and skeletal branches are tied with matting, sacking or straw. The soil is well watered and mulched. Watering is repeated every 7 to 10 days until the tree is fully established.
The hybrid has advantages and differences:
The disadvantages include:
Broccoli is similar to cauliflower but has a green color and a more delicate flavor. In addition, it takes much less effort to grow it. Recently, more and more summer residents are interested in this culture, fully realizing its nutritional value. So the topic “Broccoli cabbage: growing and care"Will undoubtedly find many readers.
Many varieties of broccoli cabbage are on sale, including early and late, and large and not so much. Among the most popular are the following varieties: Linda, Emperor, Arcadia, Fiesta, Green Magic.
The main method of growing broccoli is seedling. Before starting planting, you need to prepare the seeds. The largest of them are chosen first. Then the selected ones are soaked in a solution of wood ash (for a day) in a specially purchased growth stimulator (the term is specified in the instructions) or in ordinary warm water.
Next, we prepare the soil for growing seedlings. The container can be filled with seedling soil or a substrate made from turf, sand, humus and ash. If you plan to grow seedlings under cover in the country, make sure that the soil on the site is neutral or alkaline. If not, add lime or ash to it. Broccoli loves moisture very much, but does not tolerate excess moisture, so a good drainage system is extremely important.
Broccoli does not like sour soil and stagnant moisture
The total period for growing seedlings is 30 days, starting from the beginning of April. Do not be afraid to transplant it into open ground at the beginning of May if the weather has not improved - broccoli tolerates light frosts well. By the time of transplanting, you should have bushes about 20 cm long with a well-developed root system.
You should not plant seedlings in the place where radish, radish or any of the cabbage species were previously grown. When planting, follow these tips:
• Do not spare water... Moisten each well liberally just before planting.
• Add humus and ash... If the site has not been prepared in advance, add a handful of both ingredients to each hole and mix with the ground.
• Deepen to the first leaves. It is not worth deepening broccoli seedlings into the ground deeper.
Do not plant cabbage where radish, radish, or any kind of cabbage grew
Directly in open ground, broccoli cabbage seeds are sown in May or June. The advantage of this planting is that it is possible to avoid the active spring attack of cruciferous flea beetles. The crop will be ready for harvest not earlier than August, and the lateral shoots will actively develop until the first autumn frosts.
Landing is carried out according to the 50x50 scheme. Several seeds should be thrown into each dug hole. When the seedlings grow a little, you will need to pull out all the seedlings, leaving one, the strongest. Care for young sprouts consists only in timely watering.
By growing several seedlings in each hole, you can choose the strongest
To make it easier to care for your broccoli, it is best to mulch the soil around it. You can use straw, hay, leaves, sawdust or sand as mulch. Such a shelter of the earth will ensure long-term preservation of moisture and protect the cabbage from overheating in the summer heat. Mulch also inhibits the free growth of weeds.
Keep in mind that broccoli loves moisture, so proper maintenance should include regular watering. It is especially important to monitor soil moisture in the first days after planting and during the growth of the heads.
Mulching the beds will provide ease of maintenance
How to protect broccoli cabbage from diseases and pests? Here are some helpful tips:
• Do not plant too thickly.
• Place finely crumbled eggshells around the plants to keep slugs out of the cabbage.
• Marigolds planted nearby will protect the crop from caterpillars.
• Sprinkle tobacco, hot pepper, or ash on the beds to scare off cruciferous flea beetles.
With proper care, cabbage heads ripen in 2-2.5 months. It is important not to overexpose them in the garden, as they can bloom. After the central heads are cut off, do not rush to stop caring for the crop, and even more so completely destroy it. With sufficient watering, side shoots will begin to actively develop, which are no less tasty and healthy. Remember that broccoli does not last long. What to do with a large harvest? To freeze.
After cutting the main head of cabbage, continue leaving - side shoots will begin to develop
Every year there are more and more dachas and vegetable gardens where broccoli cabbage grows successfully. Growing and caring for her, as you have seen, does not carry any particular difficulties. So why not pamper yourself with such a valuable food product grown in your own beds?
Broccoli appeared in our beds not so long ago, only at the end of the 20th century. And among the residents there was a division into fans of this vegetable, and those who did not like it. Considering the nutritional value and usefulness of this type of cabbage, the number of lovers increased rapidly. Therefore, to meet the needs, farmers began to plant entire plantations with a plant. But many stopped sowing broccoli after a year or two. It's all about growing: the slightest oversight - and the cabbage shoots up and blooms, acquiring a non-marketable appearance. Why does broccoli turn color? How can this be prevented? We will answer these and other questions in the article.