Asimina, or pau-pau, is a flowering plant from the Annonov family. There are about 8 species of this plant. The pawpaw has several other names, such as banana tree and American papaya. In gardens, three-bladed azimine or triloba azimine are most often grown. In addition to fruits that are not ordinary in taste and appearance, azimine is grown because of its medicinal properties.
Azimina triloba is a deciduous plant and grows 5-8 m in height. The bark is smooth, gray-brown in color. The crown is evenly leafy and broad-pyramidal. Young shoots of the plant are covered with fluff. The leaves are oblong-ovoid, pointed at the tip, light green in color, up to 25 cm long and up to 12 cm wide. Young leaves are covered with fluff from below, and shiny from above. Bell-shaped flowers, brown-purple. The fruits are cylindrical, curled at the end, very juicy. Ripen in late September and early October. They grow up to 9 cm in length and up to 5 cm in width, weight 600-200 g. Unripe fruits are dark green, as they ripen, they first become pale yellow, and then acquire a brown tint. The fruit of the pawpaw has a very thin peel underneath, a delicate flesh of light yellow, orange or cream color. Sweet, tastes like banana and mango. The aroma has notes of strawberry and pineapple at the same time. Inside the fruit, flat dark brown seeds ripen, about 3 cm long.
In order for the fruits of the pawpaw to ripen, they need at least 160 warm days. Young seedlings in the first couple of years need shading from direct sunlight, but then vice versa - the tree should grow under sunlight, since lighting requirements change with age. Azimina is not picky about the composition of the soil, but it grows best on loose, slightly acidic, air and moisture permeable soil. If the soil is heavy, then during planting it is imperative to make a thick layer of drainage.
For planting, it is best to choose two-year-old seedlings, as they are quickly accepted in a new place and develop better. The distance between the rows should be at least 5 m, and between the plants at least 3 m.The pit for planting the pawpaw should be large and deep enough, its depth should be at least 50 cm, and its width should be about 70 cm. At the bottom of such a pit, it is imperative put a thick layer of shebenka or a biography of a brick, expanded clay and gravel will do.
During planting, it is necessary to fill the hole with seedlings not with ordinary soil, but with a special soil mixture. To prepare it, it is necessary to add humus or compost, wood ash and sand to the soil. You need to pour a little earth on the drainage so that you get a mound in the middle, then put the seedlings on the resulting hill and gently spread the roots. Then fill it well with the prepared soil mixture and water it well. After the moisture has gone, the soil around the seedlings must be mulched with peat, bark or humus.
When the azimine is actively growing, it needs regular and abundant watering, but it is not necessary to allow waterlogging of the soil and stagnation of moisture, since because of this, the roots of the plant can rot. In autumn, watering must be stopped, as the trees will be dormant. After each watering, you need to carefully loosen the soil around the tree and remove the collection grass.
Important! Water for irrigation must be surely settled and warm.
If during planting organic fertilizers were introduced into the soil, then re-feeding is necessary only for the second season after planting. In spring, a special complex mineral fertilizer with a large amount of phosphorus and nitrogen must be applied to the near-trunk circle around the azimine. Manure is excellent as an organic fertilizer for pawpaw.
Pruning should be done in early spring, before the growing season begins. During this pruning, you need to remove damaged shoots, frost-affected and diseased branches, as well as those that grow inward, thereby interfering with the correct growth of other branches. The flowering of pawpaw begins in April, before that time you need to have time to prune.
To increase the yield of pawpins, genetic cross-pollination can be done between dissimilar varieties. To do this, on the site, it is necessary to simultaneously plant two azimine trees at the same time, but of a different kind. Then manually transfer the pollen from one tree to another with a brush. This method makes it possible to almost double the yield level. In order not to manually carry out pollination, you need to attract flies to the plant, rotting meat suspended next to the pawpaw tree will help to do this.
Three-leafed azimina is a cold-resistant plant and can withstand low temperatures down to -29 degrees. The tree does not need special preparation for winter time, its buds are covered with a dense skin, which protects them from cold and sudden temperature changes in spring.
With the onset of autumn, the pawpaw fruits acquire a yellowish tint and become very fragrant. If you plan to store the fruits, then they need to be cut off a little immature. The fruits are not stored for long, at room temperature for no more than 3 days, and in the refrigerator for about 20 days. Therefore, a variety of compotes and jam are most often prepared from the fruits of pawpins. The fruits cannot be transported over long distances either.
Advice: for the fruits to be stored longer, you need to wrap each fruit in paper.
Azimina can reproduce both generatively and vegetatively.
Before planting seeds, they must be stratified for three months at temperatures from zero to four degrees. Then plant them in two seeds in one peat pot with special soil for seedlings. The root system of pawpaw seedlings is very delicate, so it is not worth replanting once again. Seedlings should be grown at a temperature of 18-22 degrees.
Direct planting of seeds in open ground is carried out before winter, in which case stratification is not needed, since in the soil during the winter period the seeds are already hardened. Seedlings planted in a pot germinate in a week, but in the open field the seeds will germinate only with the onset of spring. Azimina, planted in a generative way, begins to reproduce only after 5-6 years.
A piece must be carefully broken off at the foot of the tree, then planted in a hole and covered with nutritious soil. After about 30-40 days, new shoots will already appear. If the tree has root growth, then it can be carefully dug out and also planted as an independent seedling.
Inoculate azimine with splitting. A lignified stalk serves as a graft. At the rootstock, you need to make a small splitting and insert the scion there so that the parts of the cut coincide and provide this place with protection from moisture. This method of propagation helps to preserve the varietal characteristics of the tree.
Azimina is quite resistant to various diseases and attacks of harmful insects. Due to improper watering, root rot may appear. This will cause the leaves to turn brown and the growth of the tree may slow down. To prevent this disease from appearing, it is necessary to carefully monitor watering. Viral diseases and harmful insects rarely affect the azimine.
Azimine fruits contain vitamin A and vitamin C, so the pulp of the fruit is added to various cosmetic masks, and not just to food. The fruits contain not only vitamins, but also minerals necessary for the proper growth and development of the human body. The pawpaw fruit has antibacterial and antineoplastic properties. Acetogenin, which is found in the pulp, helps prevent the development of cancer cells. Azimina helps to strengthen the immune system, protects the body from free radicals and helps prevent stress.
You can not use the fruits of azimines with intolerance and during pregnancy, breastfeeding.
As it was said above, there are 8 types of pawpaw. Only 2 of them are grown in the garden: azimina triloba and azimina triloba. But at present, breeders have bred another 70 cultivars. The most popular ones are:
Less popular, but also grown in the garden are such varieties as Autumn Surprise, Dessert, Strickler, Sunflower, Prima, Balda, Zimmerman, Potomac, Taylor, etc.
If you follow all the rules for growing and caring for an azimine, you can grow a healthy and strong tree that will bring a good, tasty, juicy and aromatic harvest. The fruits can be used for the preparation of various compotes and preserves, as well as for medicinal purposes for the preparation of various masks for the skin of the face.
"Banana tree" for temperate climates - azimine. Growing in containers.
Many are interested in what tree bananas grow on. It turns out that the favorite food of Russian residents can grow not only in hot African countries, but also in regions with a relatively cold climate. Such a plant is azimina (three-layer annona). This is a banana tree that can be grown in a tub at home, as well as outdoors in the climate of the Crimea or the Caucasus. This plant is sometimes called the Mexican banana for the elongated shape of the fruit.
A banana tree of this species is not only an ornamental and fruit plant, but also a medicinal plant - its leaves and seeds are actively used for medicinal purposes.
Countries located in Central and South America are the homeland of the Azimines. Today the Mexican banana has spread in France, Spain and Italy. And the plant was brought to Russia in the last century. Its advantage is its high frost resistance. A banana can withstand temperatures down to minus thirty degrees, and the buds of flowers that swell in early April are not at all afraid of spring frosts.
The Mexican banana tree in favorable conditions develops up to several meters, in its homeland it reaches ten meters. However, if necessary, it easily deforms and takes on dwarf forms.
This ornamental plant has a wide pyramidal crown and smooth bark, and large leaves reach 10 cm in width and 30 cm in length. When growing pawns in a garden or on a balcony, it should be borne in mind that in a strong wind, large leaves of the plant may be damaged.
The indoor banana tree has large monoecious red-violet flowers up to 4 cm in diameter, the corolla of which consists of six petals, and the calyx consists of three leaves. Pawpaw bloom begins in the spring before the leaves unfold and lasts for three weeks. This plant is cross-pollinated, therefore, at home, it requires artificial pollination with cotton wool or a soft brush.
The fruits reach twelve centimeters in length and grow up to five centimeters in diameter. They are collected in branches, consisting of eight or more fruits. Rich in sucrose and fructose, banana pulp has a sweet, delicate taste and strawberry-pineapple aroma. The fruits of pawpaw consist of microelements, essential for the human body, also contained in persimmons and tropical bananas. The indoor banana tree has a whitish-yellow flesh that feels like butter to the touch. Subject to the correct cultivation technique, the crop can produce 25 kg of fruits from one tree.
Yellowing and leaf fall begins in the middle of autumn, and new ones grow in late spring after flowering. Buds appear in the axils left over from the leaves of previous years. The flowers of the pistil grow several pistils, which makes it possible to form up to nine fruits. Pollination occurs when the pollen becomes loose and brownish, and the ends of the pistils are sticky and greenish-glossy. Cross-pollination requires two plants. The fruits of the plant ripen within a month.
The banana tree loves light, but light shading will be required for the first two years. A mature plant prefers sunlight. Saplings develop at a slow pace, but with an increase in the light period to sixteen hours, a tree can grow up to one and a half meters in three months.
Azimina is regularly watered from spring to autumn, the soil cover should be moist all the time, but stagnation of water is not allowed.
A banana tree grown from good varietal seeds, under favorable conditions, begins to bear fruit after 4 years. Seeds germinate eight weeks after planting. A grafted plant can start flowering in two years, but this is very difficult to do.
Azimina flowers are also large - about 6 cm in diameter. The six petals of the corolla have a very unusual reddish-brown hue. Moreover, the flower has several pistils. Subsequently, each of them, in case of successful pollination, turns into an ovary, and then into a fruit. The smell of pawpaw flowers is weak, but very unpleasant. In the wild, this plant is pollinated mainly by scavenger flies. The fact is that the flowers of this unusual tree smell like rotten meat.
Three-lobed azimina (American pawpaw is another name for it), despite the spectacular appearance of the crown, is grown by summer residents, of course, not as an ornamental plant. Its value lies primarily in tasty and healthy fruits. They can be eaten both fresh and canned.
In addition to delicious fruits, azimine has wonderful decorative qualities, because its bright purple-burgundy flowers and glossy leaves can decorate any garden. The culture is not damaged by pests and diseases.
Despite the fact that it is considered a subtropical plant, many plants of temperate climates can envy its frost resistance. Azimina can withstand even prolonged frosts down to -35 degrees (and in the presence of snow cover and up to -40 ° C) and is successfully cultivated in the gardens of the middle zone.
On a note
Azimina is versatile and can be grown not only outdoors, but also as an interesting indoor crop. But it requires tall pots because the plant has a long taproot. At home, the azimina can be formed in the form of a tree up to 1-1.5 m high. It can be placed on the balcony in summer, and on the floor in the room next to the window in winter.
I planted the first pawpaw tree on the site back in 2005, it entered fruiting after 5 years. In a short period of time, I learned a lot about this culture.
Azimina comes from another continent, it differs in many respects from the fruit plants traditional for our gardens. And her botanical features are really "special", and the requirements for growing conditions are quite peculiar. But nevertheless, it has taken root in Ukraine, grows and bears fruit in local soil and climatic conditions.
Zimina three-lobed (in the homeland of this plant, in North America, it is called Pawpaw) refers to to the family of Azimin, which, in turn, belongs to the numerous tropical Annonov family.
Family Annonov has about 130 genera, but only the azimine has spread beyond the natural habitat. This was due to its high winter hardiness - according to data from various sources, pawpaw plants can withstand temperatures down to -30 ° ..- 35 ° C.
For all the years that I have been growing azimine, I have not noticed freezing of annual shoots and flower buds.
For normal growth, development and ripening of fruits, azimine plants need at least 160 days of the growing season with a sum of effective temperatures of 2600-2800 ° C.
Plants begin to bloom before the blooming of growth buds, flowering lasts from the end of the 1st decade of April to the 3rd decade of May. An adult tree forms many (more than 500) beautiful goblet-shaped flowers, at first purple, and by the end of flowering - burgundy. They emit a rather unpleasant odor, reminiscent of the "smell" of rotten meat. This "aroma" does not attract bees, flies, midges and wasps carry out pollination of azimines.
In pistil flowers, the female and male phases of flowering do not coincide - the anthers of the stamens ripen at one time, and the pistil at another. Because of this, the plants are practically not capable of self-pollination (although cases of the appearance of ovaries on single trees have been noted).
Another feature of the pawpaw is the ability of trees to independently regulate the load of the crop. After flowering, the ovary begins to form, from 1 to 7 fruitlets on each peduncle, but the plants "discard" all that is superfluous - up to 80% of the ovary crumbles.
The fruits of the pawpaw are polyspermous, cylindrical or obtuse-oval in shape, rather large, from 5 to 17 cm in length, weighing from 100 to 450 g, some more than 500 g. Collected in bunches, from 2 to 11 pcs. in each, on dense short stalks. More than once I had to tie the pawpaw branches to the trunk so that they would not sag and break off under the weight of the harvest.
Their skin is smooth, thin. In unripe fruits, it is light green, and as it ripens, it acquires a bright yellow color. Ripe fruits fall off.
The flesh of the pawpaw fruit is very aromatic, sweet, tastes like a mango, and in consistency is like a custard or thick yogurt. Its color depends on the variety; there are fruits with white, bright yellow and orange pulp.
Azimina prefers light and medium density loamy fertile soils, slightly acidic, neutral or slightly alkaline (pH 5.5-7.2). Its root system is combined, mainly superficial, located at a depth of 20-40 cm. When damaged, it begins to give root shoots.
Plants do not tolerate prolonged waterlogging of the soil and stagnant groundwater, but they are demanding on moisture, especially during the period when the fruits are poured. With a lack of moisture, some of the fruits fall off prematurely, and the quality of the remaining ones deteriorates sharply.
The pulp of the pazimine fruit resembles a custard
In the first years after planting in a permanent place, the trees grow slowly. Their crown is pyramidal, in adulthood it is wide-pyramidal, very dense. I shape the trees in three tiers by removing the center conductor.
Since the pawpaw has a dense crown and very large leaves, plants need to be protected from the wind to avoid branch breakage.
The inhabitants of America, for whom azimina is an ordinary fruit, consider its fruits to be unique in terms of healing properties. They use azimine to treat various diseases, including food poisoning. Americans believe that paw-paw fruits can remove all toxins from the human body within a month of constant consumption! And this is confirmed in scientific research. The plant really has antibacterial and even antitumor properties, therefore, the pulp of the pawpaw fruit in the United States is sometimes used for the prevention of cancer.
Juice is squeezed out of the fruit, which has an insecticidal and anthelmintic effect.
The banana tree and its fruits are also known for their high immune-boosting properties. The extract obtained from the fruit is used to increase the body's defenses and improve overall health.
|azimine seeds||root suckering||pawpaw cuttings|
Azimine grown by grafting blooms and bears fruit most quickly - in two years. Azimina from seeds will bloom in 4 years.
To plant this tree in your garden, you need to know the number of sunny days in your area. It will be enough for azimina if the warm climate remains for one hundred six and ten days in a row. Therefore, climatic conditions play an even greater role than the care of this crop. Azimina is planted in areas characterized by warm temperatures, where trees bring high yields. The plant in adulthood loves direct sunlight and a long day. Young trees still require shading, at least for the first two years after planting.
Since the plant is quite light-loving, it is necessary to provide it with proper watering. To retain moisture and prevent overheating during the hotter months, experienced gardeners often resort to mulching the trunk circle. Such a simple operation helps well to cope with the adjustment of the regulation of the required amount of fluid to the trees. Hay, ordinary mown grass, turf are used as mulch. During the set of growth, the azimine should begin to apply top dressing. It can be organic fertilizer, or mineral fertilizer purchased in a special store. With active growth, the tree must be fertilized about once at intervals of two weeks. A feature of pawpaw is that it is not tasty for pests, therefore it is rarely exposed to diseases. In the spring, the tree must be provided with high-quality sanitary pruning.
The pawns are rarely engaged in breeding on their own. For planting in the garden, I often use ready-made strong seedlings, which can be purchased at the nursery. If you decide to get a few more of these trees for your site, then you can try to grow a plant from root suckers, or by grafting. The root of the pawpaw is pivotal, so it is not worth replanting the plant. It is best to immediately outline a place for this tree in your area. A year before transplanting, you need to separate the planting material from the main bush. Grafted plants usually flower two to three years after rooting.
Few people will use seed propagation due to the complexity of this method. Seeds, as you know, must first be stratified. This is done to harden them in natural conditions. If you send the material for stratification before the winter cold, then you can get the first shoots in July. These seedlings will begin to bloom depending on the growing conditions. The waiting time for the first buds is sometimes delayed up to eight years.