What is late blight and how to deal with it

The main task of any gardener is to grow and harvest a good harvest. And no matter how hard you try, on this path many obstacles can arise in the form of various diseases of cultivated plants. Late blight and late blight are no exception.

What is late blight?

Late blight is a plant disease that is triggered by the "phytortoi" fungus. Literally "phytophthora" is translated as "destroying plants." From the very name it becomes clear that the fungus completely destroys the plant organism in which it enters. Although nightshades are most often susceptible to late blight, strawberries, castor oil plants and buckwheat should not be spared. In the garden, potatoes and tomatoes are the worst.

Where can the disease appear?

Phytophthora affects all parts of the plant, without exception. These are the leaves, and the stem, and even the fruits themselves. The fungus is especially active with an increase in air humidity, abundant appearance of dew, frequent fogs, significant temperature changes, when the heat is unbearable in the daytime and cool at night. Particular attention is paid to too dense planting of nightshade crops on the same plot of land.

Practice shows that plants are most often affected by this disease at the end of July or at the beginning of August.

Most gardeners agree that the infected bush needs to be uprooted and burned. Only then can one expect that late blight will not spread further.

Phytophthora can appear both in open ground and in greenhouse conditions.

How to cultivate the land from illness in spring?

There are many ways to combat late blight in the spring. First of all, this is the selection of varieties, which consists in a careful selection of cultivated plants on the land. It is recommended to give preference to early ripening varieties, which finally ripen and harvest even before the outbreak of late blight. Although it is possible to plant only those plants that are particularly resistant to late blight.

In the spring, you can also use specialized chemicals and folk methods of recovery from late blight. But these issues deserve special attention, and we will consider them in more detail later in the article.

The use of chemicals

It is recommended to use chemical preparations until the late blight has gained full activity. In this case, it is recommended to carry out foliar spraying of nightshade crops with specialized chemicals. They can be purchased at any agricultural store that distributes poisons and chemicals.

Please note that these funds are very aggressive. They must be used extremely carefully, in compliance with all safety measures to protect the gardener from the dangerous effects of chemicals. All recommendations must be indicated on the packaging of chemicals. Most often these are rubber gloves to protect the skin of the hands, goggles to protect the eyes, in extreme cases, a respirator for respiratory protection.

It is recommended to process plants by spraying only in dry and calm weather. Moreover, these areas should then not be touched for one week. After another half a month, you need to repeat the spraying to combat late blight. But this should happen after at least 20 days of harvest. Still, these are chemical toxic substances and they can harm the human body.

Remember, it is best to use chemicals only after exhaustion or inaction of other techniques. This is an extreme and radical measure to combat a fungal disease.

Traditional methods

There are many popular ways to combat late blight. It is recommended to use them first. Since such methods are considered gentle and not as drastic as chemicals. Let's consider the main ones later in the article.

Spraying with brine

The method is good as a prevention of late blight. To prepare the solution, you will need one glass of salt and 10 liters of water. Spraying should be done in the morning or evening, hot and sunny weather is not suitable.

If the fungus has already appeared on the bushes of a cultivated plant, it is necessary to remove the infected leaves, and only then process the potatoes or tomatoes. Such spraying will create a thin film on the leaves that does not allow spores to penetrate into the plant.

Spraying with an ash solution

To create an ash solution, it is necessary to mix water and ash in a two to one ratio. Most often they take 10 liters of water and half a bucket of ash. The composition must be insisted for three days, mixing everything periodically. Then 30 g of household soap is added and water is poured until the mixture is obtained in a total volume of 30 liters.

This kind of ash processing is carried out three times per season:

  • when the seedlings just started;
  • when the first flowering appeared;
  • when the first ovaries became visible.

Milk iodine spraying

To prepare the solution, it is recommended to use 1 liter of low fat milk and 20 drops of iodine per bucket of water. Due to the antibacterial properties of iodine, the solution will destroy the fungus, preventing it from spreading further.

Copper piercing

As soon as the stem of the cultivated plant becomes strong, it is recommended to drive a previously stripped piece of copper wire into it. At the same time, its tips do not need to be wrapped around the stem, but simply directed downward, slightly bending.

This method will improve the respiratory processes of the plant by stabilizing the chlorophyll level.

Copper piercing will significantly increase the resistance of plants to various kinds of diseases, including late blight.

Heat treatment

Heat treatment of plucked green tomatoes will significantly reduce the loss of tomatoes during late blight. Moreover, it is recommended to warm them up at a temperature of 60 degrees Celsius for about two minutes before ripening. Polycarbonate greenhouses can also be processed in this way.

Autumn tillage

In principle, spring and autumn planting and cultivation of the land with late blight is not much different. But if you still draw a line, then in the fall everything is done radically. The land is plowed, the weeds are not only pulled out, but also burned. All in order for late blight to disappear forever. And did not get further into the ground for wintering. Autumn fertilization of the soil is also considered a prerequisite for preventive measures. In the soil rich in trace elements, diseases are less common.

Fighting late blight is not as easy as it might seem. And although there are many means and methods for this kind of fungus, it is necessary to get rid of it in several passes, alternating remedies for phytophthora. Although it is best to do prevention of nightshade crops in the garden. This will not only save your harvest, but also will not take as long as treating late blight.

What is jealousy and should you fight it?

Why are we jealous, is jealousy necessary in a relationship and how to understand when it goes beyond what is permitted, informburo.kz figured out

Jealousy is an unpleasant feeling that is difficult to experience. It occurs when it seems to us that a loved one is paying attention and love to someone else. People strive to preserve what is important to them, and with the help of jealousy, they demonstrate to a partner his importance. But uncontrollable jealousy, especially its frequent outbursts, can develop into anger, provoke feelings of guilt and lead to conflicts. In such situations, jealousy can be the cause that destroys the relationship.

We figure out why we are jealous, whether we need jealousy and when we need to fight it.

What is the danger of late blight on tomatoes and how to deal with it?

Summer is a hot season for summer residents.

Even on small acres there is something to do. To get a good and rich harvest, you need to closely monitor the garden every day. However, no one is immune from the vagaries of nature. Warm sunny weather can be abruptly replaced by rains and morning fog. Constant temperature fluctuations cause significant damage to the crop. In rainy and damp weather, tomato bushes are especially vulnerable. They are primarily "attacked" by late blight. Getting rid of it is problematic. We will tell you how to deal with it in order to get a rich harvest.

Initially, late blight may be invisible, since the disease is spread by spores. The first signs of late blight are the appearance of brown spots on the leaves and white bloom on their underside. The disease spreads very quickly. After 3-4 days, no green leaves remain. Its main features:

- black, brown, green or white spots of different sizes appear on the fruits

- blackening of leaves and stems

- dried and "diseased" leaves, sometimes with a white bloom.

How to deal with late blight on tomatoes?

2. Feed the crop with potash and phosphate fertilizers. Thus, tomatoes will gain additional immunity.

3. Every 7-10 days, depending on the variety, spray with chemical fertilizers.

Folk recipes for fighting late blight:

1. Garlic against late blight.

The spores of the fungus are killed by garlic. The first spraying should be carried out before the formation of the ovary, the second - 10 days after the first. Then repeat the procedure every 12-15 days.

Recipe: for 10 liters of water, you need 1-1.5 cups of chopped heads and shoots of garlic (pulp) plus 1.5-2 grams of potassium permanganate. Insist garlic in water for a day. Strain and add potassium permanganate.

2. Salt spraying.

This will help keep the infection from getting through the stomata. Remember that this is a preventive measure, not a treatment, so first carefully examine the bush and remove any already damaged areas.

Recipe: dilute 1 glass of table salt into 10 liters of water.

3. Kefir spraying.

Another effective prophylactic agent. The first such spraying is recommended no later than 10-14 days after planting the seedlings in the ground. The procedures are subsequently recommended to be repeated weekly.

Recipe: for 10 liters of water, 1 liter of kefir is needed, which must "ferment" within two days. Stir well.

4. Milky iodine spraying.

The antimicrobial properties of iodine are known to everyone. On tomato leaves, it will put things in order and accelerate their ripening.

Recipe: for 10 liters of water, you need 1 liter of low-fat milk + 20 drops of iodine.

5. Ash spraying.

Such spraying is recommended to be carried out 3 times a season: as soon as the seedlings take root, then before the flowering of tomatoes and immediately after the first ovaries.

Recipe: For 10 liters of water, you need half a bucket of ash. Stir and insist such a decoction for 3 days. Then let it stand. After bringing to a volume of 30 liters, add 30-35 grams of soap - household or liquid.

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To save tomatoes from phytophthora, you need to know why it appears. Which contributes to the development of the disease.

What is late blight? Signs of illness

Therefore, the first late blight affects potatoes, and then the spores fly to the tomatoes. Phytophthora begins with the appearance of dark brown spots on the leaves, then they move to the stems and fruits. Lower leaves are affected first. The spots can be of different shapes and sizes. At the beginning of the disease, there is a whitish coating on the leaves.

The fruits become sick through the stalk. They may remain clean at first, but brown stains appear on them during storage. This disease can destroy all tomato plantings in a few days.

Photo phytophthora on tomatoes

Can I take seeds from diseased tomatoes?

It is important that disease spores can remain on dry seeds. Only after warming up for two hours at a temperature of 45-50 ° C can you be sure that the seeds are disinfected. Therefore, if the seeds are taken from a diseased fruit, they need to be specially processed.

Conditions for the development of late blight

In dry hot weather, late blight infection of tomatoes is minimized. Spores of this fungus do not like sunlight and are inactive. But during the period of rains and fogs, when the humidity of the air rises, they "wake up" and begin their harmful effects. If it rains for more than two days, be sure that your tomatoes have already been infected with late blight.

1. Usually late blight appears on tomatoes in August, after cold nights and damp foggy matinees. But tomatoes can get sick earlier - in July. Favorable weather for the development of the disease - temperatures below + 15 ° C and high humidity.

2. Thickened plantings contribute to the appearance of late blight. Therefore, excess leaves must be cut off to improve the ventilation of the bushes.

3. Watering tomatoes over the leaves also helps them get sick. Therefore, in the open field, late blight often appears after rainy cold weather. It is worth watering the plants in the morning so that the moisture is well absorbed during the day and only at the root, the leaves cannot be wetted.

4. Low temperatures are also a reason for the prevention of tomatoes from late blight.

If the weather is dry and sunny, then infection usually does not occur. Spores die in the sun.

Other reasons for the development of late blight are:

  • abuse of nitrogen fertilizing
  • lack of useful trace elements in the soil copper, potassium, iodine, manganese
  • bushes too densely planted.

How to keep tomatoes from late blight - prevention

  • The first stage of prophylaxis for the next summer's harvest begins in the fall during the last harvest and when the tops are pulled out. It must be removed from the garden and burned so that fungal spores do not infect young tomatoes in a year.
  • If there is excess lime in the soil, then you need to balance its composition by pouring sand into the pits.
  • Before planting, the soil must be disinfected with a solution of potassium permanganate.

Tomatoes love dry weather. Strong humidity in warm weather, and even faster in cool weather, leads to disease. It starts from the lower leaves, where more moisture accumulates. It is necessary to constantly check the lower leaves and if they begin to darken, immediately remove.

As already mentioned, it is imperative to pick off excess leaves and stepsons from tomatoes. The lower leaves are removed to the first ripening brush constantly. Also, yellowing and drying leaves are cut off. It is important to create good ventilation for the tomato plantings.

You can cover the rows of tomatoes on top with foil or covering material so that it hangs down on the sides without touching the ground. This will maintain airing, and the tomatoes will be sheltered from the night cold dews.

Prevention of late blight can be called the complete mulching of the earth under the planting of tomatoes.

In small areas, protection can be created from curtain plants sown around the perimeter of the beds. For example: peas, curly beans, corn.

Photo phytophthora on tomatoes

It is necessary to strengthen the plants from a young age. Temper. It is enough to fertilize and feed (without fanaticism and excesses, of course). Water with infusion of ash during the ripening of the fruit. To make them strong and strong, then it will be easier for them to fight diseases. But it is not worth feeding with nitrogen fertilizers (mullein, herbal infusions) in the second half of summer - this weakens the plants, they will get sick faster.

How to cultivate the land after phytophthora

For prevention, they water the earth with drugs phytosporin and trichodermin... If there was a massive disease, then you need to burn all the diseased bushes, and pour the fungicide on the ground.

How to save tomatoes from late blight in a greenhouse

In the greenhouse, tomatoes are well protected from late blight. Even if it's cold and damp outside, they have many advantages.The greenhouse creates its own climate, which can be regulated. Do not forget to ventilate, as well as prophylaxis. It is necessary to frequently ventilate the greenhouses so that excessive condensation does not collect and the humidity is normal.

  • Do not thicken the planting.
  • Pick off stepchildren and extra leaves.
  • Tie up bushes.
  • Mulch the ground.

At the end of June, you need to spray the tomatoes in the greenhouse with a biological product phytosporin for prevention. Constantly cultivate the land under the tomatoes.

In the greenhouse, it is also necessary to disinfect its entire structure and ground from the fall. This can be done in several ways:

  • remove the top soil layer of 20 cm and start a new soil
  • bury the stalks of dill, marigold and calendula deep into the ground so that they rot and fertilize it and heal
  • treat the entire surface of the greenhouse with solutions of phytosporin or copper sulfate.

What to do with late blight on tomatoes if it appears in the greenhouse?

You should not use preparations with copper - after all, there is always a ripening crop in the greenhouse. It is better to use folk methods. The same infusions of garlic, onions or milk solution. They are described in folk recipes later in the article.

You can spray tomatoes with just water and iodine. Take 10 ml of the usual 5% iodine in a bucket of water. Before use, you need to remove all yellowed and diseased leaves with dark spots. Spray completely bushes and fruits. After 3 days, repeat the procedure.

To fight late blight, fumigation is used in greenhouses: a piece of natural animal skin or wool is placed in a container with hot coals, all windows and doors are tightly closed. The smoke kills the spores of the fungus and prevents them from multiplying further.

They also sprinkle the beds with ash after planting and the second time at the first ovary.

How to deal with late blight on tomatoes with folk remedies

Garlic infusion

Folk remedies for protection against late blight have proven themselves well. This is garlic and milk.

To prepare the garlic infusion, take 200 grams of garlic (can be replaced with onions) and insist in a bucket of water for a day. After straining, diseased plants and tomatoes are sprayed. Spraying should be repeated every 2 weeks.

Milk solution or whey

Dilute the milk in water (100 grams per liter) and spray the tomatoes. You can replace milk with kefir. Lactic acid bacteria prevent phytophthora from developing. You can add a few drops of iodine to the milk water. Such spraying will not only help against late blight, but will also serve as a fertilizer for your tomatoes. It is better to repeat it every 2 weeks too.

Salt solution

Popular wisdom also advises sprinkling tomato bushes with a solution of simple table salt (one glass per bucket of water). This solution protects tomatoes from various diseases; after drying, it forms a film on the fruits. Repeat spraying after rains.

It is better to use all these methods to prevent the disease. If phytophthora is clearly visible on the bushes, then most likely you will have to use chemistry to fight.

Photo phytophthora on unripe tomatoes

Treatment of late blight on tomatoes in the open field

Copper - good for phytophthora. Copper preparations are used to combat and prevent disease. Drugs are used Hom, Polykhom, Oxykhom, they can be diluted directly in cold water in a watering can (according to the instructions).

You can make the solution yourself. Add a bar of adhesive laundry soap and a sachet of copper sulphate to a bucket of water. You can also treat the bushes with wood ash infusion.

If all folk remedies have been tried and do not help, then you have to use chemistry. There are many different tools in garden stores. The most workers are fungicides. Disease spores also adapt to different chemicals, so they will have to be rotated to have a different composition.

Late blight resistant varieties

By and large, there are no such varieties. All tomatoes are affected by late blight. Although in recent years, cherry varieties have been developed that can withstand the invasion of late blight. Now there are many new F1 hybrids, which manufacturers are positioning as resistant to late blight. These are such hybrids as:

  • Snowstorm
  • Budenovka
  • Dragonfly
  • Parterre
  • Pink dwarf
  • Raisa
  • Caspar
  • Tanya
  • Kostroma

Early varieties can be conditionally considered resistant to late blight. They just have time to give the harvest earlier. Popular varieties for open ground:

  • Alpha,
  • Amur bole,
  • Valentine,
  • Explosion,
  • Parodist,
  • Marisha,
  • Sanka

  • Sugar plum raspberry,
  • Mandarin duck,
  • Golden brush,
  • Poznan,
  • Meal,
  • Sweet bunch
Photo of the cherry variety in the greenhouse

How to keep harvested tomatoes from late blight

You can save part of the crop if the disease has already attacked the plantings. To do this, you need to warm up the fruits in hot water. Water 60 ° C is poured into a bowl and the tomatoes are lowered there. You need to keep them until warmed up, but not boil them. The hand usually tolerates this temperature a little. But it is better to look at the thermometer and add hot water as it cools. Then the tomatoes are dried and ripened.

Is it possible to eat tomatoes with late blight

After such treatment by heating, phytophthora spores die and these tomatoes are quite edible. Well, you yourself will not want to eat sick fruits - they are black. Green unripe tomatoes from diseased bushes can be used in winter salads and harvesting.

Spring fatigue - what is it and how to deal with it?

Research shows that nearly one in five Irish people experiences seasonal affective disorder, such as fatigue, decreased or increased appetite, social disconnection, depression, sadness, anxiety.

What it is?

Family doctor Artur Fedorovich-Rubenis notes that from the point of view of medicine, spring fatigue is not a disease, but a "restructuring" of the body and adaptation for the transition from winter to summer. Changes are mostly visited by those living in the northern hemisphere, so we too. The further north we live and the brighter the differences between the weather conditions in winter and summer, the more pronounced are the symptoms of restructuring of the body.

The transient process of the body has several explanations:

  • Depletion of vitamins and especially vitamin D.
  • Decrease in serotonin levels - daylight is necessary for its production. Serotonin ensures the transmission of impulses in the central nervous system, if it is in sufficient quantity, the person is cheerful and cheerful and tolerates stressful situations well, and a decrease in the level causes the opposite effect.
  • Changes in Melatonin Regulation - Melatonin is also produced in the central nervous system and is responsible for regulating the sleep cycle. A reduced amount of it causes sleep disturbances - a person wakes up at night and cannot or find it difficult to fall asleep again. In turn, the increased amount of melatonin causes drowsiness and fatigue. In the evenings, when it gets darker, levels increase and we usually feel sleepy. When we lack light, its level is slightly higher, so in winter or in cloudy weather, we feel sleepy. In the spring, there is more light, but the level of melatonin is still increased, so you feel sleepy and tired. There may also be a situation when the formation of melatonin is depleted due to its prolonged overproduction in winter, in which case sleep disturbances and insomnia are possible.

As you can see, the basis of all the symptoms is the lack of biologically active substances. But during the adaptation of the organism, we need these substances most of all. The extent to which the transitional manifestations of the organism are expressed also depends on the individual sensitivity of each person.

As in the fall, the so-called seasonal affective disorder is also observed in the spring - with changes in nature, the body and the body must adapt to them.

Speaking about the psychological aspects of spring fatigue, psychologist and psychotherapist Dr. Inese Ruka notes a picture when the new season brings hope and pleasant excitement, that after a dark winter we have waited for renewal not only in nature, but also in our life. However, any change, including the change of seasons, can bring emotional insecurity and instability, which can cause heightened anxiety, which is not at all expected well-being.

As in the fall, the so-called seasonal affective disorder is also observed in the spring - with changes in nature, the body and the body must adapt to them. From the point of view of psychology, these changes are intensely felt by those people who have a tendency to feel anxiety - it becomes stronger. Studies show that nearly one in five Irish people experiences seasonal affective disorder, which is expressed as fatigue, decreased or increased appetite, disconnection from social contacts, depression, sadness, anxiety.

What is poverty and how to fight it?

The Chinese have conquered need, we also do not give up

Alexander Denisov: Well, as promised, about poverty. They will have a hand in poverty: the presidential press secretary Dmitry Peskov commented on the news from China, about which we just said that poverty was officially defeated there, 100 million people were withdrawn from the poverty line. Dmitry Peskov said that we, too, do not give up.

Dmitry Peskov: Poverty reduction efforts are ongoing. Yes, not everything works out. Yes, various factors sometimes seriously interfere with this work. But no one is going to give up, and this work will continue. It is this topic that figures in all national development plans. Of course, not one message to the Federal Assembly passes without this topic, and, in fact, work to combat poverty is being carried out on an ongoing basis.

Tamara Shornikova: Official poverty is income below the subsistence level, in our country it is now 11,653 rubles. According to Rosstat, the number of poor Russians in the third quarter of 2020 is slightly less than 19 million people, which is almost 13% of the country's population. Compared to last year, the number of poor people increased by 1.2 million.

Alexander Denisov: Yes, but it could have grown even more if it were not for the government's measures, not for the 900 billion that was spent last year, so to speak, extinguished poverty in part, by a couple of percent, let's talk about that.

There is also subjective poverty, when incomes seem to be higher than the subsistence level, but at the same time a person considers himself to be in need. According to opinion polls, a third of them consider their incomes, as they say, below the baseboard (well, of course, their own baseboard, not the official minimum living wage), while 62% believe that the poor have no opportunity to improve their situation on their own, there is no such opportunity.

Tamara Shornikova: What is Poverty? When is there not enough for what? This is a question for you, dear viewers. We have already received some of the answers, our correspondents have tried their best, let's watch the video. We are waiting for your calls immediately after it.

Alexander Denisov: Yes, our correspondents collected answers from Biysk, Nalchik, Cheboksary and Lipetsk.

Tamara Shornikova: And here are a few more SMS that viewers have already sent us, their answers. Belgorod Region: "Poverty is when the pension is enough for 10 days." Komi: "When you can't buy normal food, expenses are already higher than income." And a message via chat on the website of our TV channel: "Poverty is three meals a day: Monday, Wednesday, Friday."

Alexander Denisov: Yes, these are witty jokes.

We have experts in touch: Alexander Vladimirovich Buzgalin, professor at the Moscow University of Finance and Law, and Vasily Koltashov, head of the Center for Political Economic Research of the Institute of the New Society. Alexander Vladimirovich, Vasily, good evening.

Let's talk about poverty in particular, and then in general, it's interesting. I came across the statistics of Rosstat, to be honest, shocking: the main group of poverty is families with children, this is the first, then there are pensioners, disabled people. And as for families with children, they spend 50% of their income on food, but at the same time they eat, eat 66% of the norm, that is, these are both children and their parents.

Alexander Vladimirovich, let's start with you. All the same, in this direction, money absolutely needs to be poured in and out. Recently, we have been constantly hearing about food certificates, they are called differently, cards and so on. Obviously, this topic will be touched upon in the message to the Federal Assembly, on which the president is now working, the more often they talk about it, the more obvious that it will somehow be resolved somehow. In your opinion, do you agree with this, that after all it is necessary to act in this direction first of all?

Alexander Buzgalin: You know, so to speak, "there is no money, but you are holding on" - this is what sounds very often from the lips of our leadership.

Alexander Denisov: It sounded, Alexander Vladimirovich, it sounded from one "hero" who has already moved to the Security Council, let's forget about this phrase, we live differently.

Alexander Buzgalin: Well, you know, here very often something similar sounds: "measures are being taken", "we are constantly paying attention." Do you see what the problem is? Russia is a rich country, and what could really be considered normal in Central Africa when a person does not die of hunger is a disaster for Russia. The Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia, a very small opposition organization, in fact a pro-government organization of trade unions, believes that the normal living wage is 30 thousand rubles. (By the way, one of our survey participants, who said about 30 thousand rubles, told the truth.)

The most typical salary in Russia is 30 thousand rubles, the median salary (50% poorer, 50% richer) is 35 thousand rubles. As a matter of fact, they live in poverty in Russia for 30 thousand rubles. If you pay utilities in full for an ordinary two-room apartment in which four, and sometimes more, live, a person, if you spend money on medicines, so that you can be healthy if there is some quality food, and not just pasta and the cheapest bread, if you dress not only from second-hand shops, although this is not the worst thing in the world, then you just need 30 thousand per person in the family.

Alexander Denisov: That is, Alexander Vladimirovich, do you agree with me that, after all, a food certificate is the first step, with which it is still worth starting? Since they are malnourished, the question must be closed.

Alexander Buzgalin: Yes. But there are also those who are really just physically malnourished. Yes, this issue can be closed with a food certificate, if it is really significant, if it hides perhaps inexpensive, but high-quality goods, if goods for them will be produced by Russian enterprises and if the distribution of these cards, I do not know, of these goods on cards, on certificates, it will bypass existing retail chains.

Alexander Denisov: Excellent, Alexander Vladimirovich, I see. We give the floor to Vasily.

Vasily, Rosstat also got caught, he published statistics that poverty over the past year could have grown to 15%, not 13%, as it is now, but 15%. These 2% paid off almost 1 trillion rubles, or rather 900 billion poured into social programs, various support measures, and 2% lower. Is the price great for us? Do you think the state will pull even more decline?

Vasily Koltashov: Well, how can I tell you? Poverty reduction, do you mean, will the state be able to pull it off?

Alexander Denisov: Yes, yes, yes, 1 trillion by 2% poverty to reduce.

Vasily Koltashov: For us, of course, the drop in living standards and the purchasing power of the population is now extremely dangerous economically, because in the second half of 2020 we received a very alarming signal, the devaluation of the ruble on rising oil prices. We haven’t had anything like this yet.

I think that if the domestic demand is not supported and the buyer is not supported ... There may be different measures here.Maybe these are food packages and cards. This can be a mechanism when people will be left with their money, I mean tax refunds to pensioners, for example, to return them the VAT they pay. These can be simply systems of non-taxable income, minimum income, I think that there should not be less than 50 thousand rubles here, and the 13% tax will not be levied here. That is, if we leave consumers their money, then, probably, we will be able to somehow improve the situation, but adjusted for the growth of infrastructure construction and housing construction, an increase in purchases, in general, of this very housing. In this case, yes, perhaps. But if there is a reverse trend, then.

You see, what is the matter, the economy is so arranged that if not up, then down, you cannot be somewhere in between for a long time. That is, if we do not grow, then we will fall. What does it mean to fall? To fall means on the wave of inflation of dollar assets, that is, the depreciation of actually dollars, and property, and securities denominated in dollars. Our ruble may still fall.

Alexander Denisov: Vasily, here is a very interesting point about the economy and about growth. Can I throw the ball to Alexander Vladimirovich right away?

Alexander Vladimirovich, is it possible, in principle, to fight poverty under capitalism? Look, Vasily gave an example, that is, we live according to the "wait, sir" formula. This means the first condition: the economy grows, further, therefore, incomes increase, further, therefore, poverty decreases. Are we going to wait for a long time, in this situation "waiting, sir" to be? In principle, under capitalism, is it possible to solve the problem of poverty in this way?

Alexander Buzgalin: You have asked a great question. In principle, the problem of poverty under capitalism cannot be solved, but it can be somewhat reduced, although the fundamental solution is a different social system, where social differentiation is associated with labor, human talent, and not with what inheritance you inherited and how well you are speculating on financial market. What can be done even under the conditions of a capitalist system? Well, first of all, a more even distribution of wealth, not just income, but wealth, I want to emphasize this.

The second and most important thing is the effective use of economic resources for development and development, first of all, of a person, and above all of a person of labor, that is, investing in where people work, earn decent money, and ensure the progress of the economy. I will give only one figure, not a figure, an example: we have the labor productivity of a machine operator, teacher, taxer, whoever you want, about the same at the enterprise level, at the machine tool level, as in European countries, and salaries are several times lower, and labor productivity is the country is 2-3 times less, well, as the purchasing power to count. As a result, the question is: who is to blame? The workers work the same way as in the West, well, maybe a little worse, but a little. Teachers, engineers work in full force, teachers are more than in the West, better than in the West, and the results are worse.

Why? Probably, business after all, which does not know how to organize this effectively, state administration, which cannot ensure effective development. These are the basic things. But then there is the distribution and use of resources. You said about almost 1 trillion rubles - I think that a significant part of this trillion rubles, so to speak, went not entirely for its intended purpose, not only to the poor, not directly to the poor, or was not used in this way.

Alexander Denisov: Partly for business, so that wages are paid during the idle period, Alexander Vladimirovich, quite right, to support the business, yes.

Alexander Buzgalin: Yes, you understand, because if you count the money that went directly to the population, it will be several times less, but what went to support the business. Here we supported, so to speak, cruise ships, for example, as life-supporting sectors of the economy during a pandemic, this is one funny example, but there were also much more tragic ones. And business support in most cases is a situation when this owner, instead of paying people in difficult conditions and supporting production, hides this money in an offshore zone just in case.

Alexander Denisov: That is, Alexander Vladimirovich, in order to fix our point for further movement, to overcome poverty under capitalism, it is pointless to fight it, but you can somehow muffle it, that is, so?

Alexander Buzgalin: Yes, you can.

Alexander Denisov: Can.

Alexander Buzgalin: It is possible and should be, but for this it is necessary to act from below and press from below.

Alexander Denisov: With the help of redistribution, we got the idea. Vasily, you wave your hand.

Vasily Koltashov: Well, the fact is that, of course, you can defeat poverty under capitalism, just then capitalism will end.

Alexander Buzgalin: Then we will defeat capitalism too.

Vasily Koltashov: ... because the social order will change too much.

Tamara Shornikova: And then what to do, I have a question, if even the president noted that the restoration of socialism in this country is impossible ...? I.e.

Alexander Denisov: I'm flattered, Tamara is quoting my documentary, ha ha ha.

Tamara Shornikova: (I am a fan, Sash, I do not hide it.) And under the current system it is impossible, and the former cannot be returned - what are we to do?

Vasily Koltashov: Well, capitalism.

Alexander Buzgalin: First of all, go forward or return to the former order.

Tamara Shornikova: Let us, yes, first let Vasily speak, Alexander Vladimirovich.

Alexander Buzgalin: Let me first, a little bit, and then Vasily.

Vasily Koltashov: The fact is that socialism happens after capitalism, and what we had in the form of Soviet society, a society created by such a great Russian revolution, a modernization revolution, I would not rush to call it socialism, I would not rush to say that this is and there is a new social order. There was a lot of new things, there was a desire to touch the horizon, to reach this future.

But the fact that we found ourselves in a crisis, the Soviet economic system found itself in a crisis and we had to move towards market changes, and now a regulated market economy, this suggests that capitalism has not exhausted its capabilities, and most importantly, these here bourgeois ideas were largely accepted by society. If this had not happened, then there would have been no film "Garage" by Eldar Ryazanov, which showed us the terrible essence of the late Soviet man, and there would not have been this restoration with all its sorrows of the 1990s, because here, no matter how Gorbachev and Yeltsin were to blame, ordinary people were also to blame, they allowed it.

Alexander Denisov: Vasily, but here's a very interesting moment, a great moment. Alexander Vladimirovich, now we are throwing a ball to you: is society itself interested in fighting poverty? Because Vasily rightly said, everyone, no matter what you are, no matter how thin, thick wallet, sits this thought: "What if I get rich?" Now, of course, we already understand that "suddenly" this will not happen, whoever needs it, he has already got rich, and about "suddenly" you can only dream, but at the same time people have it.

And look, no matter how it comes to the redistribution of income, for example, the middle class immediately remembers and says: “Yeah, they will rip me off, instead of 13%, they will take away from my 200 thousand (or 150) some a serious share, I will not go to Spain ”. They are talking about something else, whether they are private or self-employed: “Why are you robbing us? We want to work for ourselves. " The society itself, taking into account its dream and turn, like our coat of arms, in one direction to the West, and to the other, seemingly in the direction of socialism, to the East, given that society is still differently disposed, whether it is interested in fighting poverty, is that so to your liking, to be honest?

Alexander Buzgalin: By heart, to be honest, this society is a very deep contradiction, as in any society under capitalism, and the desire to become a millionaire is not only the desire of the millionaire himself who wants to become a billionaire, it is the desire of the last poor man who hopes either win the lottery, or by some miracle become a millionaire. The ideology of market enrichment and market prosperity dominates. It is very difficult to change it, but it is possible. When it really becomes difficult, people understand that solidarity is needed, including in these conditions of the pandemic, very many "saw the light", as they say, how everything really happens.

Yes, and the Soviet Union, I only partially agree with Vasily Koltashov, he gave, yes, in recent years, a huge and deep crisis, but before that there was a very powerful impetus for development, an impulse for solidarity, a different way of life and aspiration, well, for a quality life but not only for enrichment.

Alexander Denisov: Alexander Vladimirovich, and another five kopecks: let's not forget that we are the only country in the world where there are most apartment owners, homeowners, nowhere else is there such a thing. And thanks to what we have all this? Let's remember for a second.

Alexander Buzgalin: Well, there is this problem here. But I say it again, the main issue is not redistribution, although it is absolutely necessary, the main issue is changing relations in the economy, creating an economy that works for people, and not for financial speculation, oil sales and everything else. And here, yes, you can limit capital, regulate capital.

As for socialism, tomorrow it should be different from what it was in the Soviet Union. There is no need to go back, we need to go forward and take into account our experience, take its achievements in the social sphere, in education, in science, and in the sphere of culture, art, where we have received tremendous results, in the development of high technologies, where we managed to get a huge result, and solve problems in an area where we could not do it. We didn't have jeans with the right hole in the knee for a thousand dollars, you know, we had normal pants. This is a joke, but a sad joke.

Alexander Denisov: We had our own jeans from the Vereya company, by the way, Soviet jeans were sewn here in Medvedkovo, it could be perfectly worn, now they would be fashionable.

Vasily, here's the question. Since we started talking that one part of society is still living with this dream of getting rich all of a sudden, as we emphasize, the other still wakes up and realizes that "suddenly" this will not happen. Here is this sensational story with the monument to Dzerzhinsky, someone here imagines a political situation. Of course, it exists, but do not forget that this initiative was put forward, by the way, supported by the Presidential Administration, well, so to speak, the unification of the left front. That is, if. Maybe they correctly sensed the demand of society for some kind of socialization? That is, the point is not in the monument, but rather as a symbol of some kind, well, people imagined the dawn. Can we take it this way?

Vasily Koltashov: Well, firstly, in society there is a very large demand for a socio-patriotic turn, and this turn is happening, and about it there were amendments to the Constitution in many ways, and, most importantly, this was the main motive for a large number of citizens who came and voted for the amendments. That is, here we must understand what drove people, they were driven by the desire to see this one here. It would seem, well, why does the Constitution need a phrase about a working man?

Nevertheless, Dzerzhinsky will also be here, Dzerzhinsky will inevitably return to his place. Even if Alexander Nevsky temporarily stands there, after a while public sentiment will continue to move, because here there is a demand for national pride, and this is another reason why the pro-Western liberal position is rejected, which says that it is difficult to go forward, let's go back , in the holy nineties, and society says no, it does not want to go back, it wants to continue social reforms. And in this sense, the fight against poverty meets the needs of society, which wants this poverty to be conquered, reduced. Yes, she will not disappear at all, but she can retreat, and retreat very seriously.

But our fight against poverty, in my opinion, should largely begin with the fight against poverty as a territorial phenomenon. Because here you come to Moscow and understand: oh, the rich live here. And you find yourself in some Ural region and understand: oh, everyone is poor here. To the Siberian region: and everyone is poor here! Still in some national republic in the south - oh, and here everyone is poor! How does this happen? And the reason is that we have unevenly distributed funds, resources, including taxes, and, generally speaking, we have a federation, but there should be a unitary system, a unitary state with a cultural federation, that is, everything is needed. still pursue a policy of equalization.

Recently, the Chinese authorities announced that they had defeated poverty. Well, it is clear that they could not overcome poverty. But they said that they were able to liquidate it, as I understand it, as a territorial phenomenon, when they not only have a rich south, but also the north, north-western regions, they also somehow develop. Jobs have been created for people, state employees are paid non-beggarly wages, while, for example, somewhere in the rich south they would have been paid more, that is, there is a certain tendency towards building some kind of evenness.

In our country, the difference in teacher salaries between Moscow and the provinces can be up to 5-6 times, this is unacceptable, it is necessary to eliminate everything, there must be uniform standards, uniform rates, and so on throughout the system. And by the way, then people in the regions will be able to buy housing, relying on this very preferential mortgage, on a decrease in mortgage rates, and we will get a very important such basis for economic growth along with infrastructure projects, along with an increase in world food prices, oil , for any other products that Russia can export.

Alexander Denisov: Let's take a break with the audience, yes, and continue again.

Tamara Shornikova: Lyudmila, Arkhangelsk region. Hello.

Viewer: Hello.

Tamara Shornikova: Yes, we are listening.

Viewer: Here is what I want to say. Poverty is such a thing ... After all, when you have 7-8 thousand left for food in the Arkhangelsk region, how to say, poverty or a good life? This time. And secondly, everyone says, all of a sudden, all of a sudden - and suddenly there is only a bunch of Russian in Russian, excuse me, all of a sudden nothing happens.

So I say, now all people are smart, I am such a woman, simple, I just want to ask you: how to live? I was an entrepreneur, I didn't get rich. Excuse me, I am a pensioner now and also, excuse me, I am between the line of poverty and a little bit, a little, little prosperity, which my children help me to keep, they will feed me, they will give me something, they will buy something. But if I lived on my one pension, it’s hair on end, to be honest.

How to feel sorry for our own people. Let's put it this way, somehow they don't regret it a little. We must help everyone. I do not argue that we are kind people, but when you help everyone, and you yourself, as they say, excuse me, have been wearing boots for the fifth year, then, forgive me, this already says something else.

Alexander Denisov: Lyudmila, but you say to help everyone, but we forget that we live in what country? Lyudmila, yes, you say that helping everyone - we live under capitalism, isn't this word not enough to forget about the word “everything,” for example?

Viewer: ... I put the little one in line, I run, I grab the older one, and these three people, the fourth husband, are standing in line. Well, it's good to live in socialism, but still somehow I would not like to stand in line.

Alexander Denisov: Yes.Lyudmila, you didn’t hear me, I’m saying that you are saying that to help everyone, but let us remember what country we live in, capitalist, when the main interest of a person is to make money for himself, and not for everyone. You see, not everyone wants to pay higher taxes with us, but you tell everyone. We already live in a completely different country, what about everyone?

Viewer: Yes, I do not want to help everyone that you are! I need to feed myself.

Alexander Denisov: All clear. Yes, basically a good answer, I understand you.

Tamara Shornikova: Thank you.

Alexander Denisov: We also have Nikolai from Mordovia.

Tamara Shornikova: Let's listen.

Viewer: Hello.

Alexander Denisov: Hello.

Viewer: Hello? Hello.

Tamara Shornikova: Yes, your opinion, Nikolai.

Viewer: So I would like to say a big thank you to the guys, Alexander Buzgalin, Vasily Koltashov, they are smart. But, unfortunately, for some reason such clever girls are not allowed into the power structures that they could come up with.

Here I have a question for them - is it possible to show political will and these enterprises, institutions, so that managers, regardless of the form of ownership, whether private or state, would receive their salaries with a small coefficient? And the people would have, the people would have money that they could spend and improve the economy, because the purchasing power. So I myself am a pensioner, and I now see how ordinary people live - they just survive. Just billions, turn on the TV every day, billions every day.

Alexander Denisov: Nikolay, we get it, thank you.

Tamara Shornikova: Yes thank you.

Alexander Denisov: Alexander Vladimirovich, but can I sharpen the question of both Nikolai and Lyudmila? By the way, this was a gorgeous answer from Lyudmila: "Why should I think about everyone?" Again, here Nicholas is talking about the state, but let's remember the famous formula of Louis, I don't remember which one, XIV, XV, God bless him: "The state is me." We can also say about ourselves: the state is us. This is how we choose our path of life, this is how we live. Here Lyudmila says: why do I want to take care of everyone? That's all, here's the answer, we each think about ourselves. And now we must wait for what the state thinks about everyone. Is there not a schizophrenic contradiction in this, I really do not want to offend anyone, but nevertheless it seems to me that this is a schizophrenic contradiction.

Alexander Buzgalin: You know, the state in Russia is not us, the state in Russia is they. This is the power of big business, which represents, creates a certain bureaucratic apparatus that governs the country in its interests. We can influence this with great difficulty and as a result of serious solidary social activities. As long as everyone strives, “I will somehow get out myself”, there will be no sense when we understand that we need to together through legal democratic institutions, I specifically emphasize this, to change the state so that it thinks about us and our interests were realized in the first place, then the result will be obtained.

Alexander Denisov: Understood, Alexander Vladimirovich.

Vasily, weren't we, in 1991, the same guy who lifted, so to speak, onto the cables of Dzerzhinsky and changed everything else in our country? Didn't we choose the path we would take?

You know, I’ll give you a gorgeous example, I came across the book “Everyone is Free”, a good title, this is what Yeltsin said to his subordinates when he made a decision. God bless him that a liberal wrote this book, the more valuable it is. An example is given there with Mikhail Fridman, the owner of Alpha. When there were loans-for-shares auctions and Potanin was running around, this idea came to him to take Norilsk Nickel, that is, to give the state some kind of loan, in return to take the enterprise, they understood that the state could not return this money alive, it was then a beggar, then these the enterprises then left. He told this scheme to Friedman, Friedman considered it nonsense, he says: "No, no one will give anything for a penny," - they gave everything for a penny.

And when the revenge of communism loomed, when Zyuganov went to Davos, everyone began to welcome him there, according to the polls he was ahead of Yeltsin, then Yeltsin's people explained to them, they said: guys, if we’ll go to the Kremlin in the second term with our feet first, whatever you like, , you will be left without everything, without pants, with one bare spot, here. As a result, they were interested in supporting, and Fridman then said an interesting phrase (what am I getting at), he says: “It’s clear for us it’s bad if Zyuganov comes and there is a revenge of communism, but maybe it would be good for the country ".

That is, imagine, this man of capital, he did not look the way all of him, so to speak, his comrades in this whole capitalist company looked. Why am I? - did we choose this path ourselves?

Vasily Koltashov: Well, you understand, of course, we chose this path ourselves. In this sense, when people complain about some problems, they should ask, on the one hand, from themselves, because what they did in the 1990s, where and how they participated in change or in resisting these changes in country, and in the 2000s. partly too.

And finally, now the question is in their daily participation in public life, it is not prohibited, this public life. But the fact is that people prefer to deal with their private economic life and impose all the responsibility and expect something from the top Russian bureaucracy, which is not equivalent to big business and is not its representative in its pure form, otherwise why then do we have in the past year, a campaign was carried out to partially deoffshorize economic processes, when offshore countries received a prescription, a requirement to accept Russian taxes in fact, so that this loophole would not exist. This, of course, is not enough, it was, of course, in my opinion, not enough, over time, for offshore companies it is necessary to tighten the entire regime of their work, but nevertheless, it obviously contradicts the interests of these large companies, our large financial figures, financial corporations. So everything is not so simple here.

But this, you see, is only one side, and people themselves do not have time to participate in this public life, and they do not have those social structures that would force them to participate in public life. In the Middle Ages, these were workshops, the workshop organization of society: where will you go from the street of butchers, if you are a butcher and all butchers, so they discuss and decide something? Or weavers, you’re not going anywhere, you’ll participate in this social life right here in your workshop. Or large-scale industry during the period of rapid industrial development, the Fordist economy, it also created such a community, even a community of people in the shop.

And now the automation of production, the fragmentation of society is increasing, and it seems to me that, being imposed on this petty-bourgeois consciousness and the desire to become richer, to accumulate something and be happy in their private life - all this makes it difficult for people to participate in some then real social life makes it so very strange, fragmented. If we talk about how our society is.

Alexander Buzgalin: Allow me.

Alexander Denisov: Basil, and to summarize, maybe this is how we vote for the choice of the further path, so to speak, a passive choice, silence is a sign of consent, so we are satisfied with the rules of the game?

Vasily Koltashov: You know, very often not participating in something is also a conscious act. For example, the fact that the Russians did not come out to the Navalnist protests is a conscious, firm decision not to participate.

Alexander Denisov: A firm no, yes.

Vasily Koltashov: ... in a game played by this faction.

Tamara Shornikova: Wait a second, are we not overestimating the personality of a person in this whole situation? Because there have already been phrases that everyone forges his own happiness, including material well-being, we ourselves choose, and so on, and so on. Of course, each person should try to overcome his personal poverty by his own efforts, apply them as much as possible. But if you look, for example, take the statistics of the happiest countries, Scandinavians are regularly there, because if you look at why they find themselves in these statistics, it turns out that the state there spends a huge amount of money on each specific person. This leads to good income, and this leads to everyone's happiness.

So, accordingly, if we are talking about the fight against universal poverty, maybe, after all, the state, now specifically ours, for example, should spend more money on us? We talked about the fact that, for example, we not only scattered money a lot, as in the West, our commentator recently spoke, and this is also why our economy probably did not fall so much - or maybe we should have scattered ? Maybe now we can afford to spend more on each specific person, and this will lead to an increase in wages, an increase in domestic demand, and so on, and so on? Maybe we still need to talk about the collective responsibility of the state for poverty in our country?

Alexander Denisov: Yes, in Scandinavia they are so happy that Finland has the highest number of suicides, so this kind of nuance must also be taken into account. This, apparently, from an overabundance of happiness, I think, occurs.

Tamara Shornikova: Yes, Alexander Vladimirovich, we can start with you, yes.

Alexander Buzgalin: I would be involved in this conversation. First of all, of course, Scandinavia is not an ideal model, just better in comparison with others. And the question is that today in Russia, if every person, especially those who live on 10, 12, 15 thousand rubles, tries exclusively on their own to solve their problems, we will not solve the problem of poverty, this is absolutely certain. Yes, our state sometimes does something for the country as a whole, yes, our authorities sometimes give something to citizens, yes, they slightly restrict private business. If they do nothing at all and exclusively serve big business, the country will simply fall apart and they will collapse along with the country, you see, they certainly have a certain sense of self-preservation.

I have already said once that the state is like the Serpent Gorynych with three heads: one head watches for the interests of private business, the second for the interests of the bureaucracy, one that he loves, and only the third thinks a little about people. Here we need to strengthen this third head. How? My colleague is right, indeed, it is very difficult in Russia to participate in public political life, it is almost impossible to organize a strike, there are no real trade unions and they are under pressure, social movements are very weak, ecological, local self-government, and so on.

Alexander Denisov: Alexander Vladimirovich, how difficult is it? The elections will be in the fall, come and vote for whom you like, and please, at least for a single-mandate person, at least for a faction.

Alexander Buzgalin: You know, this is true, but, unfortunately, such a program as we have with you, on the same channel and once, and programs that manipulate people, which inspire a person not only from television, but also in all directions, advertising , anywhere, that only the market, exclusively you on your own, exclusively every man for himself, this squall comes from kindergarten, where they say: "Give dad money on loan and take a percentage from him," - they teach financial literacy like this. As a result, a person is formed who does not believe, is not capable of solidarity actions, he simply does not understand what it is, it’s like a belief in Martians who do not exist, whom he did not see.

Alexander Denisov: You see, Alexander Vladimirovich, you and Tamara started about the state and again descended to the level of a specific person who nevertheless makes a choice on his own, this is how he wants to live, selfishly, you again descended.

Alexander Buzgalin: He does not want to, by manipulation they are forced to live like this, do you understand what is the matter? Therefore, the responsibility actually rests with the business that forms it, the state that behaves this way and preaches this ideology. We do not have a social trend in ideology, we have a patriotic and rather demagogic, so to speak, a line about the solidarity of history and so on. There are very few real social imperatives, the organization of people from below, the self-organization of people, this sociality is very small everywhere, both in the officialdom, and even in the left environment. In our country, even the left-wing environment in the Duma is allowed only the one that says only what is supposed to be said.

Alexander Denisov: That's right, Alexander Vladimirovich.

Tamara Shornikova: I'll just return Vasily.

Alexander Denisov: Yes. Vasily, here's the question. Well, since we, so to speak, have established ourselves, under capitalism it is difficult to fight poverty, then someone blames the state, although they themselves also have a snout in the cannon. Another option, here in Solzhenitsyn's "The First Circle", two comrades argue at the end of the book, so to speak, about a just society, capitalist, socialist, and so on. And there one of the heroes expresses such, so to speak, the third way, fair inequality, that is, both worked and ate. Let's take the same China - there it was not the state that pulled them out of poverty, they themselves pulled themselves out of poverty, as well as their grandfathers, so they dropped taxes on this money.

Alexander Buzgalin: No, no, the state has done a lot there.

Vasily Koltashov: ... now grandfathers from mountainous regions are being transferred to new quarters, similar to our Imereti Valley in Sochi. Vasily, do you think this is a path, fair inequality?

Vasily Koltashov: Well, you know, this prisoner, he, apparently, was from the category.

Alexander Denisov: From the sharashka.

Vasily Koltashov: ... such real Stalinists who said: what, under Comrade Stalin, fair inequality - all the stakes were raised for the commanders, the Stakhanovites are buying gramophones, and if you are ineffective from the point of view of the system, well, then you do not prosper in it, you cannot afford chocolate and allow champagne for the New Year, like successful Soviet people. That is, this philosophy, this rhetoric has always been.

I am afraid that inequality, it is unlikely to be very fair, if it is such a large inequality as we have, and it is now huge, this is inequality, it would be desirable to reduce it. And in this sense, we, of course, need progressive taxes, and we need to preach such a seemingly non-conspicuous consumption, not hedonistic behavior. Here Alexander Vladimirovich said interesting things, yes, but look, what's the matter. This is our man, who complains, who is forced to do the wrong thing, he wants to be forced to do that. Do you understand what a dilemma is unusual in our society?

And if we talk about the state, then for the state it is a matter of survival to a large extent, because we are in a situation of international conflict, a new rivalry between powers, there is no longer the Washington Consensus, this elite agreement, which would be convenient. If there is no development, there will be no Russia.

Alexander Denisov: That is, Vasily, it is dangerous for us to live by the rules of slaughter capitalism, did I understand your idea correctly? That is, it is dangerous for us to live by the rules of slaughter capitalism in the future, does it threaten a split?

Vasily Koltashov: Impossible, impossible. At least these rules need to be limited, do you understand? I dream, of course, that they will not exist at all, but to be honest, I would like to live the coming era with these limited rules, so that we have a welfare state, so that the poor get support from us, and most importantly, get the opportunity in terms of education, in terms of work to solve their problems.

So we need the development of the social system, and at the same time, of course, the load must increase on capital, on the private sector, there can be no other way, this is a task, in general, the state, and the state will do so. True, this capital will be rewarded if the Russian economy follows the path of reindustrialization, in which case competitors in the external market will simply pay. You know, once upon a time, in 1905, Russian Social Democrats tried to persuade, well, they did not persuade, but argued with Moscow merchants about an 8-hour working week, and the merchants said: “Okay, to hell with you, but just let competitors will pay. "

Tamara Shornikova: Let's listen to the viewers, it's time. Let's listen to Oleg from Moscow. Hello.

Viewer: Hello.

Tamara Shornikova: Yes, we are listening.

Viewer: You can hear me, right?

Tamara Shornikova: Great, go ahead.

Viewer: I am listening to this discussion, it is quite interesting, thanks to the hosts, thanks to the experts, distinguished guests. I would like to express several thoughts about poverty and the prospects for further or the absence of these prospects.

Firstly, I myself, I will say right away, is not a poor person, but not rich either, an ordinary, normal, average Muscovite. At the same time, what is said here is our respected expert, who is young and handsome with a beard.

Alexander Denisov: Basil.

Viewer: Yes, yes, yes, your pretty expert. And in general, and Buzgalin, he has calmed down a little now, and this is how I always greet him, all his expressions, statements, they appeal to me.

I would like to say that, unfortunately, the problem of poverty, I absolutely agree with the leader, the problem of poverty in the current Russian conditions, it is my deep conviction, to eliminate it under the existing system, under the existing order. Yes, I agree that, of course, it is our own fault, in the 1990s, when we shouted "Yeltsin!", "Yeltsin!"

Alexander Denisov: Oleg, and not because the state does not want it, it can sincerely strive for it, but in the given conditions it is impossible in principle, because society is organized in a completely different way.

Viewer: Yes Yes. But nevertheless, it was not for this purpose that it built this system of state administration, economic administration, in order to take everything like this and refuse those preferences that certain clans have achieved during these times.

Alexander Denisov: Oleg, thank you very much, great idea. Alexander Vladimirovich, so, summing up, Oleg said, "this system was not built for that." At the Davos Forum, the President gave figures there and so on, a colossal stratification is going on in all countries. This China, which we applauded yesterday for bringing 100 million citizens out of the poverty line, it is not a fact that they will not step back there, God forbid, of course, that everything will remain so, but not a fact at all, colossal stratification, this Gini index, which everyone in our country has already learned, the gap between the income of the poor and the income of the rich, it is increasing in America, in Europe, in Russia, in China, around the world, it is more terrible than any pandemic, Alexander Vladimirovich. That's right, we built the system like that, Oleg said yes.

Alexander Buzgalin: Yes, we have built a system like that. But the more important is the task of changing it, you understand, and pressing from below, as far as there is strength, even in very difficult conditions. And the state can change a lot. Accept a different Labor Code, and people will force business, they will force it by strikes, and legal protests will force businesses to organize production in a different way, so that the salary of a worker, engineer, specialist would be higher, the salary of the speculator sitting at the top would be much lower. Change the situation in education, because there are resources in the state budget, and Vasily quite rightly said that a teacher in any region of Russia should receive the same payment.

Alexander Denisov: Both a doctor and a doctor.

Alexander Buzgalin: And the doctor is the same, and the museum worker, and so on and so forth. Solve the problem when the living wage, minimum wage and pension will be 2 times higher, if we just introduce the model of income distribution that exists in the Scandinavian countries, not the best, but still a little fairer than in Russia, we will introduce today us, then up to 20 thousand, even more, it will be easy to raise the minimum wage.

Alexander Denisov: Alexander Vladimirovich, we understand. We'll give Vasily another floor. Vasily, I'm not sure about the strikes, do you agree about the rest?

Vasily Koltashov: You know, I recommend that our viewers watch two analytical reports that I wrote at the end of last year, "Left in the West" and "Left in the East of Europe." They are mainly about society, about the evolution of society, how it became the way it is now. Therefore, everything is not so easy with strikes, there are a lot of players here, frankly, there is no such concentration of workers that we get such.

Alexander Denisov: And it is not a fact that there will be benefits. Thanks.

Vasily Koltashov: I'm skeptical here.

Alexander Denisov: Vasily Koltashov was in touch with us, the head of the Center for Political Economic Research of the Institute of the New Society, as well as Alexander Vladimirovich Buzgalin, professor at the Moscow University of Finance and Law.

Too many tambourine dances?

Perhaps someone will say: "Wow, too much dancing with tambourines!" But there are a lot of letters, and the actions are simple and not time consuming! But the result is worthy! I felt such a thrill cutting down HEALTHY bushes that were bearing fruit! I realized that plants, like humans, can only be healed by a set of measures. After all, if we have caught an acute respiratory disease, we will also get up on our feet much faster, if we drink warm tea, and we rinse our throats, and we steam our legs and put on warm socks. And if we also ventilate the room, then we will not infect our loved ones!

I hope my experience and advice will help someone cope with the malicious late blight. Perhaps someone has their own effective recommendations - please share in the comments!

Py. Sy. This treatise was intended for those who already have phytophthora on their plots. Methods for dealing with it are described for indoor conditions. And to those lucky ones who were not disturbed by this infection, I want to say this: it is a great happiness to grow adorable tomatoes on healthy soil! But be careful, especially if you buy ready-made seedlings, and do not grow yourself.

I wish you health, dear friends, and your plants! Good luck to all!

Watch the video: Late Blight on Tomato - Common Plant Diseases in the Landscape and Garden

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