Raspberries are full of baskets ...
Raspberries, which is one of the oldest berry crops, has become so common in summer cottages and garden plots that there are practically no new proposals for its cultivation in the literature and periodicals. And the well-established recommendations for a number of agrotechnical requirements for the cultivation of raspberries are outdated today and already need to be seriously revised.
Having analyzed the existing cultivation methods and taking into account the personal experience and experience of other summer residents and gardeners, I believe that I can offer a number of significant findings that have already been confirmed by the practice of growing raspberries in garden plots.
Based on the recommendations available in the literature that the root system of raspberries lies in a layer of 30x30 cm, the dimensions of the trenches in depth and width are usually no more than 40 cm.In fact, the roots of raspberries go deep and to the sides for a much greater distance. Taking this into account, for a long time I have been making a landing trench on my site both wider and deeper - up to 60-70 cm (Fig. A). I know that many other summer residents and gardeners also plant raspberries.
As a result of such planting, the raspberry root system began to receive better nutrition than from virgin soil, which has a positive effect on the harvest.
If you look closely at the raspberries in the forest in clearings, you will definitely notice that raspberries grow best in rotting heaps of dead wood, twigs and stumps. After seeing this in nature, several years ago I implemented this technique in a new trench for raspberries (Fig. A).
At the same time, instead of the manure or humus recommended in the literature mixed with peat and mineral fertilizers, organic matter (stumps, roots, branches, twigs) was first laid in the trench, sprinkled with sawdust, wood chips and shavings and poured with weed infusion, and above 45 cm, soil was filled with soil, consisting of 60% of the land taken in the trench, 30% of compost and 10% of ash.
After that, seedlings were planted in the trench with a pitch of 0.7 m instead of the 0.4-0.5 m recommended in the literature, and the leaves were removed from them and they were pruned to a height of 30 cm.
For this purpose, along all the side walls of the trench to a depth of 20 cm, boards made of cardboard or boards wrapped in several layers of plastic wrap are installed (Fig. Thanks to this, even such strong weeds as wheatgrass, creeping and others do not crawl into the planting of raspberries. slugs; this also helps to prevent raspberry shoots from penetrating outside the trench area.
As in natural conditions, mulching of raspberry plantings is most effective with a complex mixture, including compost, rotted sawdust, ash, needles and foliage in approximately equal proportions. Due to this, it was possible not only to avoid the appearance of weeds in the trench zone, but also to use loosening of the soil instead of the digging recommended in the literature.
As a result, it was possible to provide raspberries with more favorable thermal, water and air conditions during cultivation.
In this case, the first pruning is carried out in late May - early June, when the shoots grow to a height of 1 m. The second pruning is done in April - early May of the next year for all lateral growths of the previous year.
I note that in both cases, the shoots are shortened by 15 cm, and in the first year 4-6 lateral shoots grow from the awakened buds in the leaf axils, and in two years instead of one shoot, bushes with 10-15 shoots are obtained, distributed throughout the stem. I will only note that only if the term for the first pruning is observed, the side branches have time to ripen before winter, and after the second they can already give an increased yield.
With such a garter (Fig. B), which has a firmly stretched twine on both sides, in the spring from each bush, one half of the stems is attached to one twine, and the other to the opposite. Due to this, free space is formed in the middle of the bushes, and all branches are more evenly illuminated by the sun than with other methods of garters. And raspberries are exactly what is required, since they do not tolerate darkening well.
In conclusion, I note that due to the implementation of all the above recommendations on the site, the raspberry harvest was almost doubled, and berries of clearly better quality were obtained than with traditional agricultural technology.
Care includes carefully loosening the beds, tying up the bushes and trimming them. Raspberry bushes grow quickly, some can fall and crush the rest.
If you do not cut and tie up the bushes, then the lower tiers of light will not be enough, in fact, as well as moisture. This also includes pest control.
Track diseased bushes and remove them from healthy ones. Like any plant, raspberries need simple regular care that does not require a lot of money, you just need to devote time. Well-groomed bushes will delight you with an abundance of berries.
Views: 10453 Posted: 14-01-2015, 17:27 Comments: 0 Posted by natanikola
There is a method of growing remontant raspberries, thanks to which not only the process of caring for the plantation is simplified, but also the yield is significantly increased.
Basically, remontant varieties of raspberries give two harvests each year. In the summer, the berries are formed on the shoots of the last year, and in the fall - this year. If you transfer such raspberries to one-time fruiting, then the return will pleasantly please any owner. In addition to an amazing harvest, there are many more advantages of this technology: there is free time during the period when you need to harvest the main varieties, caring for raspberries becomes easier, the plantation is less damaged by insect pests and is practically not damaged by frost in winter. Now more about this method of growing remontant raspberries.
How to plant a raspberry plantation
Repaired raspberries are less whimsical than ordinary raspberries and can be grown in ordinary beds. They need to be organized according to the same principle as ordinary beds - up to a meter wide for easy processing.
When digging land for a future plantation, 1 sq.m. land will need to be brought in about two buckets of humus, a glass of ash (wood). After 15 days, you can start forming the beds.
For this purpose, you need a rake and two cords. At a distance of up to a meter, cords are pulled parallel to each other, then with a rake you need to rake the soil from the center of the garden to each cord. As a result, there is a groove in the center, and an embankment along the edges. This shape of the garden bed is good for watering - water flows directly to the roots, and the mulch holds well in the recess.
Next, you need to take the seedlings and place them in a depression along the center line of the prepared beds, at a distance of half a meter from each other. When planting, the root collar should not be allowed to deepen, therefore, after planting and compaction of the earth around the roots, the seedling is tugged and again compacted around the root collar, which should be at surface level.
Subsequently, with the growth of the raspberry, the width of the ridge can be increased to 1 m, and all excess plants outside the garden are removed, preventing the rows from growing together - the remontant raspberry needs a sufficient amount of light inside the row. Some gardeners make a bed initially 1 m wide, and a row spacing of 2 m and, claim that this is very convenient.
With the usual method of growing raspberries, you need to prune three times per season. According to the same technology, such a procedure is carried out once - in the fall, when the first frosts have passed, and even then you cannot call it pruning. With the described method of cultivation, after fruiting, the completely aboveground part of the plants is cut off, only a small part of the bush with a height of 3 to 5 cm is left above the ground.
The plot is mulched using rotten manure and straw. In the spring, the bushes are well fed with ammonium nitrate (at the rate of 40 g per 10 l of water), then the plants will grow rapidly, and the raspberries will bloom together in the early days of July. Then the fruiting period will come and will delight the diligent owners with a bountiful harvest until frost.
You need to plant raspberries in spring or autumn. It all depends on the climatic conditions of a particular region.
For the northern regions, it is better to plant the plant in spring, namely in the second half of April and until the first half of May. After the cold weather, the ground should warm up enough so that the roots can catch on better. If planted in the fall, the plant will die during frosts.
In the southern regions, on the contrary, it is better to plant in the fall from late September to mid-October due to the mild winter, then in the spring there will already be the first raspberry harvest.
This is one of the important reasons why some have a large harvest on a small plot, while others have nothing on a large plot.
Choosing a place for planting raspberries
Raspberries are very fond of light, so they need to be planted on the sunny side, but it is still desirable to have trees nearby so that at least three hours a day it is under the shade.
This plant loves moisture very much, but in moderation, therefore, it is also not recommended to plant it with a drain or in places where a lot of water periodically collects.
When choosing a place, you also need to take into account that raspberries have been growing for about five years in one place, so it must be planted so that the bushes do not interfere with each other while caring for other plants. Basically, raspberries are planted around the perimeter of the garden.
After choosing a planting site, you need to check the soil for acidity. Buy a special litmus paper and use the indicator to see which color it matches. If the indicator shows low acidity, then peat must be added to the soil, if it is high, then lime.
If you plan to plant in the spring, then it is better to dig up the raspberry plot in the fall before frost. In the fall, planting is best done a month after the site has been dug up.
It is imperative to soak the soil in this area with useful substances, most often ordinary manure is used.
There are two planting methods:
To do this, dig a hole 50 cm wide and 50 cm long, the distance between adjacent holes is 90 cm, and between the rows a little more than a meter.
They are planted in bushes, each with about four stems. The top is cut off by about 30 cm. It is advisable to soak the roots in a mixture of clay, and in the hole there should be a mixture of soil. Tamp the earth and fill it with water, for each bush no more than 20 liters. Loosen the soil around so that the water does not stagnate and oxygen passes through.
It differs from the first in that furrows are dug 50 cm wide and deep, and the distance between adjacent furrows is about a meter.
cutting, tamping, watering and loosening is similar to the first method. Only in the first case, they were planted with bushes, but here separately along the stem and the distance between them should be more than 30 cm.
Not only site selection and planting are important, but also care. Raspberries need to be watered on time In the sultry heat, watering should be increased, and in rainy ones, it should be reduced or even given up for a while from watering.
After watering, it is necessary to loosen the soil, as well as after rain.
Weeds should be removed; this can be done while loosening the soil.
Nutrition with useful substances. Some of the gardeners feed on ordinary manure, and someone uses nitrogenous compounds, they increase the yield.
And don't forget about pests and diseases. It is necessary to carry out pruning and immediately try to determine the cause of the disease, and after determining, process the plant completely.
Most early raspberry varieties produce crops on current year's shoots growing from last year's branches. Prune raspberries annually to maximize yields.
Early fruiting weakens the young bush and prevents a good harvest next year. Therefore, during one summer, regularly remove the formed ovaries. This will help develop a strong bush and ensure a good harvest next summer.
Starting from the 2nd year, cut off the raspberry branches immediately after the end of fruiting, shortening all the shoots of the first year to a height of 15 cm from the ground. Remember to remove any weak or diseased shoots. Tie the remaining shoots to the trellis as they grow.
Unlike ordinary remontant raspberries, it is endowed with a valuable feature: it is capable of producing crops both on last year's shoots and on the branches that appeared in the current season. Depending on the method of pruning remontant varieties, the timing of their fruiting also changes.
Raspberry pruning is carried out in early spring. They examine overwintered last year's shoots, remove non-viable specimens, and thin out healthy ones, leaving the optimal number of the strongest branches in the garden - they will give the first harvest in June or July (depending on the variety).
Repaired raspberries are capable of producing 2 crops per season
At the beginning of summer, new shoots will grow up on the plantation and they will require another thinning - to remove the underdeveloped ones and leave the strong ones. Such twigs in the current season have time to lay flower buds, bloom and, by the end of summer, please the gardener with a new portion of berries. In order for the young growth to develop well, after the first wave of fruiting of remontant raspberries, the fruiting shoots should be immediately removed.
In the fall, after harvesting the second harvest, the branches of the current season are shortened by 10-15 cm and prepared for wintering, and next spring the above steps are repeated again. It is worth noting that such pruning of remontant varieties of raspberries is suitable for the southern regions. In the northern regions, the second crop often does not have time to ripen.
In the northern latitudes, a different method of pruning remontant raspberries is practiced, which allows you to get only 1 crop. But this harvest is generous and of high quality, and the plants themselves bear fruit within 2-2.5 months - from the second half of summer to frost (depending on the variety).
Repaired varieties bear fruit until winter
In the fall, before the onset of stable cold snaps, all shoots are cut off at ground level. In the spring, the amount of young growth is adjusted, preventing thickening of the plantation.
It is worth noting that remontant raspberries are much more capricious than their ordinary "relative" and will require more reverent care from the gardener. The key to success will be not only strict adherence to agricultural technology and correct pruning of such plants, which will directly depend on the growing region, but also the selection of zoned varieties.
On our market you can find seedlings of remontant varieties of raspberries. To do this, go to the appropriate section Raspberry remontant.
It's up to you to decide which approach to take when pruning raspberries. The main thing is that in the list of annual summer cottages this procedure should be marked with the "Important" checkbox. It is this attitude that will appeal to your raspberries most of all, and she will certainly thank you for your care with a generous harvest of large sweet berries.
With careful attention to pruning, raspberries will delight you with a decent harvest
Dear readers, in what way do you cut your raspberries? Share with us in the comments your secret pruning techniques to help you get a good harvest from this crop.