Red Voskovnik (Myrica rubra) is a dioecious fruit tree from the Voskovnicev family, the Voskovnitsa genus. It is also called Chinese strawberry, yamberi, yamamomo and waxy berry for the unusual color of the fruit. The red berries have a white, translucent shade, as if they were covered with wax, or made from wax. The tree is light-loving, loves abundant watering, but is not at all demanding on the quality of the soil. It prefers a warm climate, but can withstand frosts down to -5 ° C. Propagated by seeds, cuttings.
Red rose flower grows in East and Southeast Asia. The inhabitants of China and Japan have been growing this tree for more than one hundred years, cultivating it, and developing new varieties. For the Chinese regions south of the Yangtze River, the yamberi crop is one of the main sources of income.
The tree can grow in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. The fruits have a short shelf life, so they are rarely found outside the growing areas.
A tree 10-20 m high with a smooth gray bark and an even, neat hemispherical crown. Elongated leaves of bright green, blue-green or marsh green color have an even shape with straight, not carved edges. The width of the leaf increases smoothly from base to end. Flowers are small, dioecious, located at the ends of the branches.
Ripe fruits of the red gumboil are red and red-violet berries with a visual effect of a waxy structure. They are round in shape and grow up to 2-2.5 cm in diameter. The delicate sweet pulp is covered with a dense shell with a rough surface, similar to an accumulation of many small grains. There is one large seed in the middle of the berry.
The taste of the fruit is sweet, slightly tart, juxtaposed with a combination of strawberry, cherry and blackberry flavors.
The berries of the red gumboil are eaten fresh. They are dried, canned, juices, compotes, and alcoholic beverages are made. Dyes and medicines are made from the bark of the plant.
The fruits are rich in useful micro and macro elements. Contain iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, manganese, zinc, vitamins A, B, C, E, PP, tannins. Their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, tonic, anti-sclerotic action has been proven.
Berries increase immunity, remove toxins, improve metabolism, and prevent the development of cancer. The high iron content helps to increase the level of hemoglobin, therefore they are recommended for anemia, in the postoperative period. The fruits are prescribed for patients with muscular dystrophy.
Due to the high content of acids, the red gum disease negatively affects the tooth enamel, it is not recommended for people with acute diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and diabetes mellitus.
The decorativeness of the tree is undeniable. It is grown in parks and forest parks to decorate the area.
Berries are a favorite food at any time on the table. The sweet pleasant aroma of berries beckons to itself. Here are the names of berries that will make drooling, but some of the names of berries you will hear only for the first time.
Did you know?
You will come across some amazing berry names on the list that are actually berries. You may be confused, but some of the fruit names are not berries. The fine line that separates these fruits is the classification defined in botany.
In this article, “Edible Wild Berries,” we propose to get acquainted with berries in more detail. And in this article you can familiarize yourself with the List of fruit names with photos. In this article, you can already familiarize yourself with What fruits and types of fruits are.
How is the term berries understood in botany? Berries are fruits that have inner flesh, edible rind, pericarp, produced from a single ovary. In other words, it is one pulp ovary that grows in a juicy fruit, and there is no barrier between the seeds and the pulp that these seeds feed on.
Non-professional understanding of berries: All small juicy, colored fruits with pulp are berries.
Barberry: Barberry fruits are small berries that are red or dark blue in color. Barberries are long and narrow fruits. They are used to make jams and liqueurs. They are rich in vitamin C.
Elder: They have antioxidant properties that reduce cholesterol levels, improve vision, strengthen the immune system, and eliminate heart problems, coughs, colds, flu, bacterial and viral infections, tonsillitis. Also added to ice cream and many other products: cocktails, jams, convenience foods, muffins and syrups.
Grapes: Grapes contain vitamins A, C, and B6. They also contain potassium, calcium, magnesium, and folic acid.
Honeysuckle: They are rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, vitamin C and quercetin (an acid that fights free radicals). Honeysuckle has been used in Chinese folk medicine for centuries. There are some poisonous varieties of honeysuckle. Therefore, it is better to buy honeysuckle in the store than to pluck it in nature. You can read about honeysuckle juice here.
Viburnum reddish: These berries can be eaten raw or processed. After being plucked from the tree, they quickly deteriorate, and can only be stored for 3 days in the refrigerator, or they need to be frozen, canned or dried. All parts of the plant are used in medicine.
Red currants: These are small round red or white berries that are used to make jams, pies and salads. They contain a lot of vitamins C, iron, potassium and dietary fiber.
Gooseberry: These are small, round, striped berries. Unripe fruits are green in color, while ripe fruits are pink to yellow in color.
Mahonia holly (oregon grapes): They look like grapes and are blue or purple in color. They look like they are covered in powder. They are known as anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents in nature.
Sea buckthorn: These orange berries are about the size of grapes. They are rich in antioxidants and vitamins that can help you lose weight and ward off dementia.
Podofil: Podophilus grows wild, mainly in the forest. Most podophiles do not bear fruit and only have one leaf. Those that bear fruit have 2 leaves and only one flower, which then turns into a fruit. In the budding phase, the fruits are green, tough and poisonous. However, it gradually turns yellow and softens, and tastes good when ripe.
A tomato: It is a common vegetable-fruit in the human diet and is botanically classified as a berry. Tomatoes are the most common fruit in garden plots.
Currant: These are red, green, yellow or black berries. They were dried and used as raisins.
Black currant: These are popular aromatic berries similar in appearance to red currants. From them I make jams, pies, ice cream, cakes, etc. Black currants contain vitamin C. Berries also contain potassium, phosphorus, iron and vitamin B5.
Rose hip: These are red oval berries, also known as wild rose. They are the pome fruit of the rose. Berries are rich in vitamin C.
Aronia: There are two types of chokeberry, chokeberry and red mountain ash. Purple chokeberry is a hybrid of the above berries. Berries are used to make juices, jams, etc. They are also used as a flavoring and coloring agent. Berries are high in vitamin C and antioxidants.
Asai: These small round black berries are Brazil's largest commercial crop. They make juices, cocktails and various other drinks. These berries are known for their antioxidant properties.
Barbados cherry (acerola, cherry acerola, Malpighia nude): This berry is native to the West Indies and Central America. The juice of these berries is also popular in the West Indies, as well as orange juice in America. The content of vitamin C in this berry is almost 65 times more than in an orange!
Dereza ordinary (Goji berries): Outwardly, the berries are similar to dried and shriveled berries. They are also called wolf berries. They are usually prepared before consumption. They are used to prepare herbal tea, wine, rice water, goji juice, etc. They contain 11 essential and 22 trace dietary minerals, 18 amino acids, 6 essential vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, dietary fiber, etc.
Irga canadian: Berries have large seeds with a hardened rind. Ripe berries are red or purple in color. They are mainly eaten by birds. The berries are sweet.
Canadian arrogance: These are seasonal berries with a stone, blue-black color. They are food for birds and animals.
Fruit tree frame: Winter fruit turns red or orange when ripe. Although the fruit is edible, it is rarely used in food. However, they are eaten with pleasure by wild birds and animals that eat them throughout the winter.
Persimmon: They are not considered berries, but they are in fact according to the botanical classification. Persimmon is red or orange in color. Contains glucose and protein. Persimmon is used medicinally.
Virginia bird cherry: Unripe red berries have a sour, astringent taste. Ripe berries are dark in color and taste not very tart. Berries are used to make jellies, preserves, and syrup. They require a lot of sugar or sweetener to preserve.
Emleria: Berries are oval green and tough at the time of ripening and subsequently turn reddish, while ripe berries are black and purple in color.
Lingonberry: Lingonberries make jam, juice, syrup, compote, sauce, etc. Lingonberries are rich in vitamin C, provitamin A, vitamin B (B1, B2, B3), potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus.
Crowberry: These dry black berries are very similar to blueberries in appearance and taste. They are used as a natural food coloring. Native Americans use them to heal sore eyes. They are low in vitamins and high in water.
Cranberry: Berries are white when unripe and red when ripe. They are used to make juice, sauce, wines, etc. Eating large quantities of cranberries is very beneficial for health. Berries contain high levels of vitamin C, fiber, mineral salts, and manganese.
Bearberry: Berries are brownish red. Berries have many medicinal properties. Bearberry herbal tea is used in the treatment of nephritis.
Blueberry: Berries are dark blue or purple in color. They are used in jams, purees, juices, pies and muffins. They contain high levels of antioxidants and can help prevent the development of many diseases. For example, diseases of the stomach, heart, dystrophy.
Juniper Berries: They are green when the berries are not yet ripe and are purple-black.
Boysen Berry: These berries are burgundy in color, shiny large juicy berries are a hybrid between raspberries, blackberries and logan berries. They are added to pies and pies.
Voskovnik: The birthplace of berries is China. The berries are dark red in color. These berries can be eaten or used to make jams, pickles, wine, and juice.
Blackberry: This berry is the most common in the UK. These are small, dark, purple berries that are the main ingredient in jams and pies. Berries contain a lot of vitamin C.
Blackberry gray: They belong to the blackberry family and are sweeter than blackberries. Unripe berries are dark red, while ripe berries are dark purple. However, the striking feature is that the male and female plants grow separately.
Irga: These are red berries, ripe black and blue. They are similar in size to blueberries. They make jams, muffins, etc.
Irga spiky: These are sweet berries that are used to make cakes and jams.
Irga alder-leaved: This berry is native to Canada and looks very similar to blueberries. Berries are rich in vitamin C, manganese, magnesium, iron, calcium, potassium, copper and carotene.
Strawberry: It is the most popular fruit in the world. Various culinary dishes, jams, ice cream, sauces, pies, cakes, milkshakes, etc. are made from strawberries. Strawberries contain a high content of vitamin C, manganese and folic acid.
Loganberry: These are ruby red, sweet, juicy berries. They are used in juicing. Berries contain vitamin C, calcium, iron, potassium, fiber, and carbohydrates.
Raspberries: These are small red berries that ripen in summer or autumn. They are used to make jams, jellies, pies and ice cream. They contain a lot of vitamin C, manganese, vitamin K and magnesium.
Fragrant raspberry: The berries are red. These fruits are so fragile that they can break when you pick them up.
Raspberry purple: These are red or orange berries. Contrary to their name, they are not suitable for the production of wines due to their astringency.
Cloudberry: Ripe berries have a pleasant taste and color from yellow to orange-red. They make jams, sweets, marmalade and wines. Native Americans eat these berries with dried red caviar, hence the English name Salmonberries.
Mulberry: These berries are red, purple and black. Berries are used to make pies, cakes, liqueurs and jams.
Marionberry (marion berries): It's a hybrid. They are darker than blackberries and are used to make pies, cakes, ice cream and jellies.
Olallieberries: These berries are found mainly in California. They are rich in vitamin C and fiber, which are helpful in reducing the risk of cancer.
Youngberry Large: Sweet reddish black berry, blackberry / blackcurrant hybrid. They ripen 2 weeks earlier than blackberries. Berries are rich in vitamins A, C and B1, calcium, cellulose.
Wolfberry (Wolf bast): The berries of this plant have a fragrant odor and are poisonous. Come from Eurasia, North Africa and Australia.
Voronet: The berries grow on flowering herbaceous plants belonging to the family buttercup... Poisonous berries contain a cardiogenic toxin. These toxins affect heart muscle tissue, leading to cardiac arrest and death.
Common crow: These large berries are white in color and have a black mark that resembles an eye. The berries are very poisonous.In English, the berries are called Doll's Eyes Berries.
Lakonos(phytolacca): These dark purple berries are poisonous to humans, but birds eat them. Two species of this plant grow in Russia.
Lily of the valley: This plant is completely poisonous due to its content of convallatoxin. In Russia, it is distributed in the European part, the Mountainous Crimea, Transbaikalia, Priamurye, Primorye, Sakhalin and the Kuriles.
Ligustrum (privet): The berries of this plant are poisonous and have a black color. One species grows in the South of Russia. The flowers of this plant are purple in color.
False nightshade (Jerusalem cherry): Yati berries are poisonous, they are often confused with tomatoes. Like many relocated plants and fruits to Australia, False Nightshade has become an aggressive weed there.
Holly berries: These are red berries used as decorative ones. If ingested, they can cause vomiting and diarrhea.
Yew berries: These red or blue berries contain poisonous seeds. If you need to survive, consume these berries without seeds.
Such a huge selection of berries allows you to enjoy them to a sufficient extent. However, be careful when you are in nature and want to pick a berry that you do not know hanging on bushes and plants, it can be a very poisonous berry. So the list of berries is over, please add the names of berries not mentioned in the comments!
The witchcraft calendar contains 13 full moon holidays and 8 Sabbats. They are also called power days.
On full moon days, there are only thirteen full moons in a year (there are thirteen full moons), the release of sacred energy, which is associated with the moon and the great goddess. These thirteen full moons traditionally coincide with the thirteen lunar holidays. The ritual of the lunar holiday is performed in honor of the creative life force that permeates the universe of the sorceress, they often make requests to the lord and mistress and work magic with candles to achieve their goals. Full moon days give each believer a special opportunity to connect with the spirit. A personal connection with the spirit is vital for any witch.
In ancient pagan times, more than 4000 years ago, there were only two fiery holidays: Beltane and Samhein, which divided the year into two halves. At the appointed hour, people kindled bonfires on the tops of the hills: they flashed one after another, until the surroundings were illuminated with hundreds of bright lights. Some sorceresses still call the days of fiery holidays the days of power. Subsequently, on the territory of modern Europe, two additional holidays were added to the two original ones: Imbolg and Lagnasad (Lammas). The Germanic pagans added the days of the equinox and the solstice, resulting in a system of eight sacred days of the year. Sabbath dates mark key moments in the movement of the sun in the annual cycle, and are believed to bring good luck and prosperity in the part of the year that the holiday corresponds to. This means that covens are seasonal in nature, and we use the energy of the changing seasons to improve our lives. The cycle of birth and death is sometimes called The wheel of the year.
Samhain (Halloween, Spirits Day, Hellomus, November Christmastide): October 31
Samhain is a witchcraft holiday celebrated on October 31st. Known as Christmas Eve, Hellomus, Halloween and Ghosts Day. This is the most popular holiday among sorcerers. On this day, magical actions are carried out related to getting rid of something interfering, stories about vampires, werewolves, ghosts, etc. are remembered. This is the Festival of Death and the Day of Apples, it celebrates the day of sacrifices. At this time, in the fall, in ancient times, cattle were slaughtered and stocks were prepared for the long winter.
The first Fiery holiday, a kind of New Year, the day of the spirits, the Celtic Festival of the Dead. Samhain symbolizes the triumph of eternal life, death, the rebirth of the universe, a holiday of carnivals and entertainment with a touch of black humor. Heralds the death of summer and the arrival of winter. On Samhain, the gates to another world are opened, the line between the material world and the kingdom of spirits, between good and evil is erased. The celebration sometimes includes an element of mourning for Cherridwen (Kerridwen, Cerridwen). On this day, try to remember your deceased relatives. On this day, the strength of totem energies increases. The house and the altar are decorated with candles and pumpkins, as well as autumn leaves, magical rituals are held to get rid of everything that interferes.
This is a witchcraft New Year and the main Sabbath, from which everyone else counts. Some sorceresses say that on the night of Samhain, the hills of the hidden people, the people of the goddess Danu, open up, meeting with whom there are great opportunities, for good or for evil. At this time, the veil separating the world of the dead and the living becomes much thinner: we remember the loved ones who left us. We know that our loved ones do not disappear forever and that their souls continue to exist. In this sense, Samhain symbolizes the triumph of everlasting life. Samhain is a time when people look at the past years, realizing that we have no control over only one thing in our life - over death. Sorcerers remember their ancestors and all those who lived before. Many sorcerers try to contact their dead on the night of Samhain.
ancestors and friends, but the soul of a person whom we knew well, now, perhaps, has already moved into another body, and communication with it will be very difficult, if not impossible. Especially if a lot of time has passed since the time of death. Therefore, nevertheless, it is better to remember them with peace and love, rather than invoke their souls.
Herbs traditionally used to decorate the altar, the space around the magic circle, and the entire home: heather, patchouli, sage, oak leaves, chrysanthemum, wormwood, apple, pear, hazel, thistle, pomegranate, any cereals, garden fruits and nuts, pumpkin, corn.
December 21-22. The sun enters the sign of Capricorn - the winter solstice occurs.
Yule is a holiday that marks the moment when the Sun is reborn.
The holiday of winter and the veneration of ancestors, the day of the winter solstice, the triumph of the Great Darkness, the shortest day of the year, the holiday of winter and the veneration of ancestors, the Celtic Festival of the revival of the Sun. The rituals of this day express a desire to help the Sun change its path in the sky. During the day, rituals associated with the element of Water are held. Time for meditation, discovering new abilities in oneself.
Yule marks the point in the year when the sun returns, so sorcerers burn candles and bonfires, inviting sunlight to return. On this day, it is customary to leave the lights on in the house, or at least the candle on the altar, on. For modern sorcerers, this is a reminder of the cycle of rebirth. One of the traditions is the construction of the Yule tree. It can be a living tree, transplanted into the ground, or felled. The sorceresses represent the Yule tree as a wish tree. Part of the tree is saved so that the next Yule holiday is burned at the sacred fire. Most of the trunk is sometimes used in the ritual of creating a protective barrier by tapping the ground around the outer circumference of the magic circle. The barrel is kept for use as a May pole at Beltane. Wiccans hang letters on branches with wishes that should come true next year. Even on this holiday, it is customary to burn a wooden image of God, symbolizing rebirth.
For this, it is best to choose pine or oak. Cut out the symbol of god a circle with horns with a white knife. Set it on fire and imagine warm days, the coming of spring. The altar is decorated with branches of pine, rosemary, laurel, spruce, juniper, cedar. A cauldron with a red candle is also placed on the altar. It may seem that the sorceresses are trying to copy the Yule customs from the Christmas holiday, but this is not the case. Theologians never came to a consensus on the exact date of Christ's birth. As the church sought to convert to Christianity as much as possible
more pagans, the birthday of Christ was simply combined with an ancient pagan holiday.
Herbs traditionally used to decorate the altar, space around the magic circle, and the whole house:
laurel, waxweed, thistle, cedar, chamomile, evergreens, incense, mallow, juniper, mistletoe, moss, oak, pine cones, rosemary, sage, holly, ivy, apples, oranges, lemons.
rosemary, cedar, pine, rosemary.
cat's eye, ruby.
red, green, white, gold, silver.
Imbolg (Brigitte's Day, Oymelk): February 2
Imbolg is a witchcraft holiday celebrated on February 2. It is also known as the “burning candle” Luperkaliya, the feast of Pan, the feast of torches, Oymelk, Brigit's day. On this day, as many candles as possible are lit, rituals are performed using snow water. Let the Fire melt the snow - this is the leitmotif of this holiday. Celtic Candle Festival. This is the triumph of light over darkness, the beginning of the awakening of natural forces after winter. The only holiday that starts in the morning, not in the evening. Celebrating the departure of winter and the return of spring, the rebirth of the power of the Sun.
Imbolg is the first day of spring in the earth magic tradition. Sometimes sorceresses call it "the festival of lights" or "the festival of light". This is the Sabbath of purification after the reclusive life in winter. On Imbolg, at sunset or after the ritual, it is customary to light all the lamps in the house for a while. Or put burning candles in every room. You can also light a kerosene lamp with red glass and put it on the window - but not over the entrance to the house. There is snow outside, and the image of the Sun is painted on it, invoking warmth. White flowers should be installed on the altar, as well as some snow in a crystal vessel. The melted snow symbolizes the arrival of spring. An orange candle rubbed with musky
cinnamon, incense, or rosemary oil, unlit yet, should also be on the altar. The snow will melt and the melt water can be used to create a circle.
Herbs used to decorate the altar, the space around the magic circle, and the whole house:
angelica, basil, laurel, benzoin, heather, myrrh, all yellow flowers, snowdrop, mountain ash.
basil, myrrh, wisteria.
amethyst, pomegranate, onyx, turquoise.
white, red, pink, brown, lavender.
Ostara is a witchcraft holiday on the spring equinox on March 21st. Ostara marks the start of an astronomical spring as snow and ice give way to grass. A holiday of spring, the awakening of nature, as well as harmony and balance (day is equal to night). Celtic Bird Festival. It is believed that Ostara originates from the Dionysian rituals. On this day, magical actions related to predicting the future are carried out.
It is known as the first day of true spring.
In some traditions of earthly magic, one week before the vernal equinox, each sorceress makes a list of all the insults and injustices she inflicted on her friends and loved ones. These individual lists, compiled during the week, are aimed at restoring harmony in human relationships through sincere apologies, returning old debts, etc. On the night of the holiday, the witch brings her list to the circle indicating what she did to correct injustice and cleanse her karma. During the ritual, the paper is burned, and this serves as a symbolic confirmation of spiritual cleansing. In a narrow family circle, it is customary to paint eggs, especially if the witch has children.
Since the guys go to school, many witches endure the day
the celebration of Ostara is closer to the date of modern Easter celebrations so that children can take part in the celebration.
Herbs traditionally used to decorate the altar, the space around the magic circle, and the entire house: acorn, celandine, quinfoil, saffron, daffodil, dogwood, lily, honeysuckle, iris, jasmine, rose, strawberry, tansai, violets, daffodil, olive, peony, all spring flowers.
benzoin, myrrh, sage.
carnelian, lapis lazuli, sapphire, yellow agate.
dark red, orange, yellow, indigo, brown.
Beltane (Beltane, Walpurgis Night, May Christmastide): night of May 1
Beltane (or Beltane) - usually celebrated on April 30 or May 1, also known as May Christmastide, Walpurgis Night. The name is from the Catholic saint Walpurgia, whose memorial day (May 1) coincided with the holiday. The second, in importance, holiday, fiery holiday, bonfire day, the great holiday of fertility, the other side of Samhain, the holiday of May, the day when the Queen of May is chosen, the Celtic Flower Festival, the day of the triumph of earthly existence. The ancient Germans have a holiday of the beginning of spring, from the 8th century, according to German folk beliefs, the holiday of witches ("great sabbath") on Brocken in the Harz mountains. Beltane is one of the main Fire festivals. This day marks the transition from cold to warm months of the year. It is believed that it is on this day that spirits and demons are closest to a person, you just need to use this wisely. On Beltane night, Sabbaths are held in the forest or on the top of a mountain. Beltane celebrates the symbolic union, the marriage of the feminine and masculine aspects of the deity, and is associated with the beginning of summer.
On this day, people celebrate the fertility of the land and people, so youth parties and fun are traditional. You can decorate your altar with snowdrops, stones with natural holes. Romantic feelings play an important role in the Beltane celebration,
because these days people become the embodiment of the highest love between the sovereign and the mistress.
The May Queen was the only one who could wear green clothes on this day, as if in honor of the friendship of people with fairies and elves. Ordinary people cannot wear a green or red cap on this day, otherwise the little people will become angry. On this day, the people of the goddess Danu appear between people, and it is to this day that the stories of magical lovers disappearing suddenly and inhumanly relate to this day. In many traditions, this day serves as the beginning for the formation of new groups, initiation ceremonies, open lectures and lessons, and other projects, the day is favorable for new beginnings. People decorate window sills and thresholds of houses with green branches or sprinkle primrose petals so that the fairy people do not think to enter people's homes while they are celebrating. All of this must be cut off without the aid of steel, in order only to remove the fairies and not offend them. They do not tolerate steel and iron. No one should cut and tear a hawthorn on this day, because this will bring misfortune and love failure. Before the celebration, and even more so the ritual, it would be nice to take a bath, purifying, in every sense, with herbs, flowers, candles around and incense. Moreover, for the most part, Beltane is celebrated at night. It is necessary to celebrate in the forest or near a living tree. Make a small symbol or amulet in honor of the marriage of God and the Goddess and hang it on the tree. Also decorate the tree with ribbons, beads, flowers, and in general whatever your imagination is enough for. Then collect the circle of stones, collect the altar, light the candles and incense burner. Further, it is recommended to recite the Song of Blessing or any other introductory spell pronounced at the beginning of the ritual. Then call on God and the Goddess, feel and thank these forces for the fact that spring has come.
Herbs traditionally used to decorate the altar, the space around the magic circle, and the entire house:
almonds, angelica, mountain ash, bells, five-leafed leaves, daisy, incense, hawthorn, ivy, lilac, marigolds, meadowsweet, primrose (primrose), rose, woodruff, honeysuckle, St. John's wort.
incense, lilac, rose.
emerald, orange carnelian, sapphire, rose quartz.
Midsummer is the summer solstice, usually around June 21, one of the witchcraft holidays, an excellent night for magic. It coincides with the pagan holiday of Kupala. On this night, dreams and reality mix with each other. During the day, magical rituals associated with the elements of the Earth are held. Longest day of the year.
Medicinal herbs are collected on Lita.
During this season, witches make solar amulets to protect their families and traditional rituals. Make a mental list of your troubles, problems, griefs, regrets, and illnesses. Write it down on paper and tie it with a red ribbon. Place it on the altar to be used during the ritual. The cauldron should also be on or near the altar. Even if you use candles to indicate elemental directions, the red candle in the candlestick should still be present on the altar. If the ritual is performed outdoors, a small fire is lit and a bag of herbs is thrown into it. All medicinal and sacred plants, as in the tradition of the Druids, have the greatest power on the eve of the summer solstice. Sorcerers collect these plants on the night of June 21-22. Spirits - keepers of the hearth and pets are honored on this day. Sorceresses introduce animals into a magic circle for blessing and protection from disease. The Midsummer Festival is a classic time for magic of all kinds. Healing, love and protective magic are especially suited to this day. Herbs can be dried over a ritual fire if you are performing the ritual outside. Jump over the fire to purify and renew energies.
Herbs traditionally used to decorate the altar, the space around the magic circle, and the entire house:
rose, lily, oak, verbena, lavender, ivy, yarrow, fern, elderberry, thyme, daisy, carnation, chamomile.
bright yellow, red.
Lagnasad - celebrated on 1 August. Known as August Eve, Lammas, Bread Festival. A holiday in honor of the Sun, the first harvest, the forces of nature and earth, wine, the Celtic Grain Festival. It is sometimes called a wedding celebration. Often there is an element of reverence for any gods of the sun and light (Apollo, Helios.). The sun is the main symbol of Lammas and the whole month. He celebrates the first harvest when the earthly fruits have already been collected and hidden in the bins for the dark winter months. The day is ideal for magical activities aimed at wealth and prosperity.
This Sabbath is held primarily in honor of Lug, a Celtic solar deity. The Gaelic name for this holiday is Lugnassad. Sorceresses usually place the fruits of the land or sea on the altar and place a large refectory table next to the ritual site. Unlike many other covens, Lammas is usually celebrated around the clock, with picnics, games and lively conversations. The sorceresses of North America consider Lammas to be the main grain festival and often include ritual baking in their ceremonies.
Lammas reflects the idea of witchcraft thanksgiving and is the pioneer of modern American Thanksgiving. Place on the altar a sheaf of wheat, barley or oats, fruit and bread, possibly baked in the form of a sun or a human figurine. The bread will symbolize God, and the bread doll will symbolize the Goddess. Weaving from straw, making a bread doll is an appropriate occupation for Lammas. Visit nearby places in nature.
Herbs traditionally used to decorate the altar, the space around the magic circle, and the entire house:
acacia flowers, aloe, corn cobs, cyclamen, heather, mallow, myrtle, oak leaves, sunflower, wheat, any cereals, grapes, blackberries, wild apples, pears, thorns.
aloe, rose, sandalwood.
aventurine, citrine, peridot, sardonyx.
Gold, yellow, orange, green, light brown. wore on
Mabon - September 21, the autumnal equinox, when the sorcerers celebrate the second harvest. Mabon is an echo of the ancient harvest festivals, which in one form or another were widespread throughout the world. A holiday of autumn, wisdom, teachers (in the broadest sense of the word). Just like the vernal equinox, it symbolizes harmony. It is associated with the element of Air, so it is usually celebrated somewhere in the open. The holiday is calm, without noisy fun, rather - with silent reflections on life.
The name Mabon comes from a Welsh deity who symbolized male fertility in the cycle of myths about King Arthur. The sorceresses did not celebrate this Sabbath, like Ostara, until the Scandinavian invasion of England. Mabon has two aspects: liberation from everything old and obsolete, and giving honors to the deceased members of the female half of the family. On the day of Mabon, many sorceresses make new staves for themselves and carve runes from elm wood - a custom that came from our druid ancestors. Autumnal Equinox is the second harvest festival in the tradition of earthly magic. Autumn leaves, ripe fruits, pumpkins, dry ears, etc. are usually placed on the altar. On the days of the equinox, the length of day and night is the same, these are days of great power from the point of view of balance in the universe. The winter solstice, when the day is the shortest, marks the rebirth, or reappearance of the sun. Then the days begin to lengthen gradually. On the eve of the summer solstice, the sun reaches its highest strength, and its flaming disc symbolizes the greatness of the masculine aspect of divinity. Sorceresses view the solstices as days of joy and fun, while equinoxes are more for spiritual reflection and self-esteem. For the holiday, decorate the altar with acorns, oak branches, pine and cypress cones, corn cobs, and wheat stalks. Place on the altar an ordinary small bucket filled with dry fallen leaves of various trees and shrubs.
Herbs traditionally used to decorate the altar, the space around the magic circle, and the entire house:
acorns, asters, benzoin, fern, honeysuckle, marigold, myrrh, passionflower, pine, rose, sage, thistle, hazel, poplar, acorns, oak sprouts and leaves, autumn leaves, wheat straw, cypress and pine cones, ripe ears of corn, corn.
In terms of the content of vitamins and minerals, black currant can be equated with raspberries. But in terms of the amount of vitamin C, currants are ahead of it. Among other trace elements, it is necessary to highlight: manganese, silver, lead, sulfur.
It is recommended to eat currants for those who want to recover from the following ailments: various kidney diseases, heart failure, liver diseases, respiratory diseases, atherosclerosis, various inflammatory processes.
In order to preserve as many nutrients as possible in black currant, it must be frozen.
But to get even this amount, flowers are harvested early in the morning when the oil content is at its maximum. By noon, it falls and, accordingly, the return with the same labor costs will be much less. Collected flowers cannot be stored. They try to recycle them as quickly as possible.
There is little oil both in the flowers that have not yet blossomed, and in the already fading ones, so the collection is carried out practically every day. Dust storms are the worst enemy of flowers. The particles of sand, like sandpaper, scratch the surface of the petals, on which the essential oil glands are located. The essential oil in rose petals is in the form of glandular spots just under the cuticle of the epidermis, covered with a waxy coating. They are damaged, and the essential oil, volatilizing, is carried away by the wind. The optimal weather for picking pink flowers is cloudy skies, moderate temperatures and almost no wind.
Interestingly, the phase of opening of the flower during collection depends on how it will give the essential oil. A flower with unfolded outer petals contains maximum of bound oil. This means that during distillation, some of this oil will remain in the distillation water. A fully opened flower with yellow stamens will give maximum free oil, which is easily distilled with steam.
In steam distillation, fresh flowers are poured with water, the quality of which is very important. In our country, fermentation was often used. Before processing, the flowers of the rose were kept in a solution of sodium chloride, which increases the yield of rose oil by 50-70%, and, in addition, excludes spoilage of raw materials during the period of high plant load associated with the massive flowering of the rose. Fermentation is carried out under "mild" conditions in order to keep aliphatic alcohols unchanged to the maximum extent.
Distillation, as a technological process in the modern sense, was created by Avicenna. In Bulgaria, it is traditionally carried out in copper containers on a fire supported by wood.
From the movie "Perfumer" most people remember that the oil yield is very small - many petals and only one drop of oil. Indeed, the oil content in the Columnar rose is 0.02-0.04%, in the Damascus rose a little more - 0.05-0.08%. On average, it is believed that only 1 kg of essential oil is obtained from 3.5-5 tons of flowers. 30 flowers is just 1 drop.
The oil is light and transparent, freezes in the cold, its smell is heavy, sweet, warm, deep floral, spicy with a herbaceous honey bottom note, and the poets define it as captivating.
The essential oil is obtained from a rose with a columnar method of extraction with organic solvents from freshly harvested flowers, and from a damask rose and a Kazanlak rose - by the method of hydrodistillation, that is, distillation with water vapor. This difference is due to the fact that most of the essential oil in the rose petals is in a bound state and therefore it comes out rather poorly with steam. But for a damask rose, distillation is the main method of obtaining.
The essential oil contains about 400 components. Most of them are found in small quantities, but are of great importance for both aroma and pharmacological properties. Distillation and extraction essential oils differ significantly in composition. The distillation essential oil contains 65-75% geraniol and citronellol (about 24%), contains about 4% geranyl and citronyl acetate, 2-3% phenylethyl alcohol, methylheptenone, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, phenylethyl acetate, α and β- pinene, myrcene, β-caryophyllene, germacrene, α-humulene, α-guayenne, α-terpineol, hexanol, heptanol, nonanol, transfarnesol, nerolidol, eugenol, methyleugenol, trans-α-damassenone, β-damascenone and many other components. Stearoptenes make up 17-21%, their presence leads to the fact that the rose oil solidifies upon cooling.
Both types are used to obtain rose essential oil by extraction. Columnar rose oil is called Rose de Mai. The aroma is warm, pink, with a long-lasting honey note. It looks more like a rose scent than a distillation essential oil. Extraction is carried out in petroleum ether or gescanol. When extracting rose petals with petroleum ether (Rosa damascena and Rosa alba) and evaporation of the solvent, concrete is obtained with a yield of 1 kg per 450 kg of petals (0.22-0.25%), Concrete is a waxy mass from light greenish to dark brown in color with a solidification point of 44-45 ° C, with a characteristic odor roses, partially soluble in alcohol. The presence of residual petroleum ether greatly lowers the pour point.
From concrete after reconstitution in alcohol, filtration and evaporation, 520 g of absolute are obtained. The absolute contains 35-41% volatile essential oil, which is not a commercial product, but is used to assess the quality of an absolute. It is a viscous, greenish-brown liquid, readily soluble in alcohol. Its smell is strong and characteristic of a rose. Compared to oil, the aroma of the absolute is softer, but more juicy and more durable. In addition, the absolute shows the right rotation, and the oil - the left one. Phenylethyl alcohol is essential for aroma. But during distillation, almost all of it remains in the distillation water, the so-called rose water. Therefore, rose water and rose oil are not the same both in composition and in smell. In absolute, the phenylethyl alcohol content can reach 60% of the volatile fraction. This oil contains much less monoterpene alcohols (citronellol - 7-9%, nerol - about 1.5%, and linalool - generally traces). At the same time, the content of esters is significantly higher and they determine the strong effect of this oil on the emotional state.
One of the most important trace components is β-damascenone. Due to its small amounts (0.01%), this substance has a significant effect on the quality of the essential oil. It is formed together with structurally related compounds β-damascone and β-ionone from plant carotenoids. In a similar way, aromatic compounds are obtained in saffron and in pandanus leaves.
Genus bird cherry (Padus) belongs to the Pink family (Rosaceae) and has about 20 species growing in Europe, East Asia and North America. However, Western botanists combine all bird cherry with plum. (Prunus), including apricot, cherry, etc., on the basis of a similar structure of fruits - drupes.
In Europe and Siberia, bird cherry is common, or avian (Padus avium) - a large shrub, sometimes a tree more than 10 m high. The bark on adult shoots is brown with white lenticels. In late April - early May, inflorescences with white fragrant flowers appear, collected in a brush about 10 cm long. It is no coincidence that it is also called the bird cherry.
In central Russia, the flowering of bird cherry is a period that marks the arrival of the long-awaited spring. In the forest during this period, the loud-voiced trill of nightingales is heard. There is a lively belief among the people that the flowering of bird cherry is associated with a short-term cold snap, which really occurs in the middle lane. Then the warmth comes again, and now the bushes are fading, throwing crumbling white petals on the surroundings: “The bird cherry is covered with snow, The greenery is in bloom and dew. "(Sergei Yesenin, 1910).
In July, black drupe fruits ripen at the common bird cherry. They have a sweet-astringent taste and a very bright juice color. Fruits are one of the oldest medicines. In addition to organic acids, sugars (up to 5%), tannins are valuable - tannins that cause a tart and astringent taste. In folk medicine, the fruits are most often used for indigestion, for gastric tea and for the prevention of scurvy. (See article Bird cherry ordinary: medicinal properties).
Bird cherry is not always desirable in landscaping because of insects eating its leaves. Colonies of common bird cherry aphid or bird cherry ermine moth are often found, which severely damage shoots with leaves. The appearance of the foliage is spoiled by the bird cherry gall mite, which damages leaves and buds. Gardeners and gardeners strive to acquire original varieties that are more elegant and suffer less from "uninvited guests".
Colorata (Colorata) with pale pink flowers and bronze-green leaves, selected in 1957 in Sweden, gained great popularity. A very similar variety is known to it Purple Queen (Parple Queen) - drooping, pink, with the smell of almonds, black fruits on burgundy stalks. Foreign varieties Plena (Plena) with double flowers and Summer Glow (Summer Glow) with red-burgundy leaves are not widely spread in Russia.
Our domestic varieties include the variety Tenderness – tall, profusely flowering shrub up to 4 m high with pink-white inflorescences. Domestic red-leaved varieties Krasny Shater, Purple Candle, Siberian Beauty are suitable for landscaping, having a bright crown in summer and autumn. Yielding varieties Sakhalinskaya Black and Sakhalinskaya Ustoichivaya are distinguished by tasty large black fruits, but are still common only in Siberia, where they were obtained.
From the Far East came into the culture of the Maak bird cherry, or bearish (Padus maackii) - a tree with a height of more than 15 m. It is used in landscaping and is easily recognizable in parks by its golden-bronze tint on the light brown bark, streaked with horizontal rows of lentils. Unlike common bird cherry, its leaves are ovoid, and the brushes are wider. Inedible small black fruits ripen in August. Inside the fruit there is a juicy dark purple pulp of a very bitter taste.
In Eastern Siberia and the Far East is growing bird cherry (Padus asiatica), the leaves of which are covered with reddish pubescence from below along the main vein. However, many botanists do not recognize the independence of this species, classifying it as a geographical variety of the common bird cherry.
Another Far Eastern bird cherry is interesting, which is rarely found in culture. This is about bird cherry Siori (Padus ssiori)... It also grows in the north of Japan, in the south of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, where it has a local name - "Ainu bird cherry". A tree with a narrow crown reaches a height of 5 m. The bark is dark gray, also with large lenticels. The leaves are elongated-elliptical with a sharp-edged edge. Inflorescences are narrow, long brushes, Fragrant flowers. The fruits are black fleshy drupes, twice as large as those of the common bird cherry, with a pleasant taste. In Moscow, it is stable, gives root shoots. In the open area, the leaves burn in summer, the fruits are tied weakly and not every year.
In the Far East there is bird cherry Maximovich (Padus maximowiczii) - a tall tree (over 10 m) with light gray bark. However, it is often referred to as cherries (Cerasus maximowiczii). She has obovate leaves, double-toothed along the edge and with pronounced venation, which is not very typical for bird cherry. The brush contains 3-9 white flowers with large toothed bracts. Rounded drupes (6 mm in diameter) turn from red to black as they ripen. The fruits are inedible, the taste is bitter. The plant is winter hardy.
From Japan bird cherry (Padus grayana) - a tree with a spherical crown and dark bark, more than 7 m high. The leaves are oval, with a strongly elongated apex, up to 8 cm long. The flowers are creamy white, in racemes up to 10 cm long. The species blooms in May. The fruits are black drupes. The chemical composition of plant organs has not been studied, but it is known that the content of hydrocyanic acid is less than that of common bird cherry. In folk medicine, the plant is not used, while in Kyrgyzstan, an extract from the aerial part of the plant is popularized, which increases immunity, like ginseng, which is necessary for infectious and oncological diseases. Probably, the plant can withstand the climate of Central Russia. It is winter-hardy, grows well under the forest canopy with moderate moisture.
Some North American bird cherries are widespread in Russia. The most common bird cherry is virginiana (Padus virginiana), originating from central North America. In Moscow, it grows mainly in the form of a multi-stemmed bush with a height of 3-5 m, giving abundant root shoots already at 2 years of age. In parks and gardens, it forms large clumps with uneven-aged shoots, drowning out neighboring plantings. Oval-lanceolate leaves are located on dark brown shoots. In May, white flowers appear, collected in 15-30 pieces in narrow brushes. Dark red drupes with a diameter of 1 cm are edible, but have a sour astringent taste. In decorative gardening, red-leaved varieties are appreciated - Atropurpurea (Atropurpurea) and Shubert (Schubert) with darker, burgundy-purple leaves.
In Siberia, as a result of hybridization of Virginia bird cherry with ordinary bird, breeders obtained winter-hardy hybrid varieties Pamyati Salamatova, Mavra, Pozdnyaya Radost, Early Kruglaya, Cherny Blesk and Plotnokistnaya. The inflorescences of these varieties are elegant, large, with white flowers. The leaves are dark green. Fruits are shiny black, weighing up to 0.7-0.9 g. They are edible, of good taste. The fruits contain 24-34% dry matter, 10-16% sugars, 0.8-1.5% organic acids, 10-16 mg / 100 g of ascorbic acid. Fruit yield - more than 10-15 kg per tree.