Carrots are the most popular vegetable among consumers. It can be purchased on store shelves all year round. But the root crop will be of great benefit if you grow it yourself in your summer cottage. This can be done subject to certain rules for growing carrots.
Almost any crop must be fertilized before planting in the spring, and this can be done in the spring after planting in the country, or fertilized later directly into the hole. How to properly care for carrots, how much and what kind of fertilizer to apply, about the little tricks of applying manure and humus, how to water frequently and how to love the plant, we will tell you in the article.
Before sowing seeds in open ground, the gardener must decide why he grows carrots and when he wants to get a harvest. Sowing dates:
If sowing is done at all possible times, then fresh vegetables will be on the table all year round.
With podzimny sowing, the formation of root crops occurs at a time when the carrot fly is just beginning its life activity. She is not yet capable of harming the crop in the garden, the vegetables will be of better quality.
It's no secret that carrots are an unpretentious root crop, but to get a rich harvest, you still need to create comfortable conditions. When choosing a place for the beds, the gardener must take into account:
Large, well-shaped roots grow on peat soilsthat were formed after the drying up of the swamps. And on clay soil, carrots will take on an ugly shape due to strong resistance during growth.
Before freezing, the area for vegetables must be dig up, remove roots and stones... But do not drive the shovel too deep into the ground and destroy the fertile layer. Digging should be about 0.3 meters deep. With the onset of spring, smooth and deeply loosen the surface.
Gardeners practice a variety of methods of planting carrots, they all have their own advantages and disadvantages:
Regardless of the chosen planting method, it is better to sow seeds less often, so that in the future there is no thinning.
The garden can be cover with foil for 2-3 weeks before the first shoots appear. Thus, weeds will not interfere with plant growth, and a crust will not form on the soil, preventing moisture penetration to the roots.
If dry planting material is selected for sowing, then additional preparation is required. You can disinfect by soaking the seeds in water heated to 40 degrees. But you better hold them in a solution of potassium permanganate - 1 g of substance per 100 ml of liquid. The procedure time should not exceed 20 minutes, after which the seeds must be rinsed well with clean water and dried.
Some gardeners use specialized plant growth stimulants already at the stage of seed preparation. But to get an environmentally friendly harvest, this is not recommended.
Carrots belong to poorly germinating and slow-growing vegetable crops. Do not think that by sowing it, you can forget about the beds until the very harvest.
In order for the roots to turn out strong and large and correspond to the varietal quality, they should be looked after.
The gardener will collect an average crop in terms of quality and quantity, if he limits himself to fertilizing during the autumn digging of the site.
The plant needs feeding during the entire growing season.
So, first time feed the vegetable a month after the entries. In 10 liters. water dissolve 1 tbsp. l. nitrophosphate is a classic mineral fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The same solution is used and in the second feeding after 2 weeks and in the third - at the beginning of August.
The best potash fertilizer is such a folk remedy as ash tincture... For its preparation, it is necessary to pour parts of 150 g of dry ash into a bucket of water. Stir the mixture until the ash is completely dissolved. dilute with 1 liter of water. tincture and this liquid, feed and water the root crops of carrots or beets during the second half of the growing season.
In addition, it is recommended to put foliar dressing during the period of formation and ripening of vegetables. Spray the green aboveground part of the plants with a solution of boric acid (1 tsp for 10 liters of water).
When growing root crops special meaning watering system plays. Indeed, with insufficient soil moisture, the young roots of the plant will die, and the overflow of the beds will lead to the fact that only livestock can feed on the crop.
Therefore, immediately after sowing, the period of correct watering of the beds begins:
Before digging up root crops, it is advisable to moisten the soil a little. Thus, the process is facilitated, and the yield improves the ability to keep fresh.
One of the things gardeners don't like most is weeding the beds. But you cannot do without this tedious activity, otherwise you can lose the entire harvest due to the "attack" of weeds.
At the initial stage, when the plants have not yet sprouted, a plot with crops is recommended cover in several layers with newspapers, and cover with foil on top... With this method, the soil warms up well and moisture is retained in it, but weeds cannot actively grow. After 2 weeks, the innovative shelter should be removed and the seedlings should be awaited.
After 10-15 days, the plant appears first real leaf - this is the signal to start weeding. The procedure must be done very carefully so as not to capture the cultivated shoots along with the weeds.
When the 2nd leaf is formed, weeding combine with thinningif the sowing was carried out chaotically and the planting was thickened. There should be a distance of 2-3 cm between the plants. In this case, it is important to pull the sprouts up, and not to the side, otherwise the root of the neighboring vegetable will be damaged.
It is most convenient to thin out with the help of a female eyebrow plucker - tweezers... It captures even the thinnest sprouts without harming other plants.
During the entire growing period, between the beds and the plants, it is necessary to weed and loosen the soil. A month after the first thinning, repeat the procedure so that there is a distance of 4-5 cm between the roots, but the vegetables that have already been pulled out can be eaten.
It takes a lot of time and effort to grow carrots, but a rich and high-quality harvest of a healthy vegetable will cover all the inconveniences. The main thing is to follow the basic rules of planting and caring for plants. And then a delicious and crispy vegetable will be in the daily diet of the whole family, it will give all its nutrients and trace elements.
Carrots are a very healthy vegetable for the body. She is one of the most popular vegetable crops, which is present on our table all year round.
Carrots are the secret of beauty and longevity. There are no other vegetables and fruits that contain as much carotene. In addition, this root vegetable is very rich in vitamins such as vitamin E, D, B and C. Carrots, unlike other vegetables, do not lose their beneficial properties until spring.
It has been proven that boiled carrots have three times more antioxidants that protect the body from aging and tumor diseases than raw carrots. And in the tops of carrots there is a lot of selenium, more than in the carrot itself. One young carrot leaf eaten will provide you with this element for the whole day. Selenium strengthens the immune system and increases the body's resistance to cancer.
Growing good, large, juicy carrots is not difficult at all. It is enough to know some rules for caring for her. You can sow this root crop before winter and spring. In spring, carrots are sown early, in April - early May. The timing of sowing seeds depends on the variety. In the twentieth of April, you can start sowing early-ripening varieties, from April 25, mid-season varieties begin to be sown, and planting of carrots for winter storage is carried out on June 10-15.
Before sowing, the soil must be dug deeply so that there are no lumps, and all roots must be removed from weeds. Carrots need very loose soil, preferably sandy soil. Ugly roots will grow on solid ground. Acidic soils are also not suitable where fresh manure was introduced. The sowing beds are made high, and the edges are strengthened to avoid spillage.
It is best to plant carrots in the area where they grew last year: onions, tomatoes, potatoes or cucumbers are the best predecessors.
Before sowing, the seeds can be sorted in a 5% solution of sodium chloride, selecting for sowing large seeds that have sunk to the bottom, or you can keep the seeds for 20 minutes in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, and then rinse well and sow immediately.
If you want to germinate faster, seeds can be germinated in a damp cloth at 20-25.
It is very convenient to plant seeds in granules or on a ribbon. These are now commercially available. When planting them, you need to water the garden abundantly before planting and after, so that the water soaks the shell and the carrots germinate faster. The method of planting seeds on ribbons is very convenient because it saves time and effort in the spring-summer period - the carrots do not have to be thinned out.
Many gardeners themselves stick the seeds to the paper strip using paste. After all, it is not always possible to buy exactly that kind of carrot. which you need. The paste is made from starch or flour. First, droplets from the paste are applied to the paper at a distance of 5 cm, then the seeds, previously tested for germination, are laid on them. After the tapes are dry, they are rolled up.
Carrots are planted in rows, the distance between which is 20 cm, between the plants after thinning should be 4-5 cm.The seeds are covered to a depth of 2-3 cm.
Above the bed, you can stretch the film so that the seedlings appear faster, and when the seedlings appear, the film can be removed. Under the film, seedlings are even and no crust is formed on the soil.
The main carrot care is watering, loosening and weeding.
The root crop needs watering, especially in the initial stage of growth. It should be timely and moderately abundant, at least once a week, 1-2 buckets per 1 sq. m. If the regularity of water procedures is disrupted, then the core of the fetus thickens, and the shell begins to crack.
Seedlings should appear in 10-15 days. Under unfavorable conditions, seedlings appear 25 - 30 days after sowing. Sprouts can withstand frosts up to minus 4 degrees, but they do not tolerate waterlogging and overheating.
As soon as seedlings appear 1 cm high, it is necessary to thin out the carrots. During the initial thinning, it is advisable to leave 1 sprout at a distance of 1 cm from each other.
After 2-3 weeks, you need to re-thin out - this time you need to leave 3-5 cm between the shoots, depending on the type of carrot.
The main enemy is the carrot fly. The first sign of damage is the appearance of a bronze tint on the leaves. It is advisable to plant onions and garlic next to the carrots. Onions scare off carrot root flies, and garlic scares off onions.
Folk remedy for the control of carrot fly larvae: Mix tobacco dust with ash or slaked lime at the rate of 5-10 g per 1 sq. M. and sprinkle this mixture over the soil along the rows of carrots. You need to do this treatment 2-3 times with an interval of 8-10 days.
Harvesting should be carried out in October, as August and September are the period of the main mass growth.
Dig up the carrots with a pitchfork, cut off the tops. Root crops are sorted, selecting large and without damage. Store in a pit in boxes.
It is not necessary to fertilize the soil just before planting, as this will lead to curvature of the root crops. It is possible to introduce organic or mineral fertilizing only in the fall, that is, the sowing site should be fertilized before the onset of stable frosts.
The sowing bed must be prepared in the fall. In the fall, the garden needs to be dug deeply. Free her from the weeds. If it's dry autumn, then it is good to spill it with water. You don't need to cover it with anything.
Swampy areas near fruit and woody forest crops are not suitable for growing vegetables. In order for the carrots to be smooth, they must receive enough light. Shaded landing sites are recommended to be eliminated immediately.
The vegetable grows well in deep and loose soil, which normally absorbs moisture. If you plant carrots in fine gravel, then they will grow slowly, and the roots will turn out to be of an irregular shape. The culture is not recommended to be planted near tall plants.
The acidity of the soil must be normal, otherwise a good harvest cannot be harvested. To achieve the desired indicators, the following is introduced into the soil:
This should be done one year before sowing carrots. Root crops are small if the soil has been improperly prepared. Using chlorine fertilizers will give the same effect.
Carrots are loved for their taste and health benefits. To get a good harvest, the crop must be provided with nutrients and moisture.
In the kitchen, a carrot is a necessary vegetable. Almost no hot dish can do without it, and recently a lot of salads have appeared, in which carrots, fermented in a special way, occupy a dominant place.
The current market relations made it possible to see this root crop on supermarket windows every day, and, it would seem, what is easier - bought a couple of root vegetables and put them in the refrigerator.
It is not worth spending your precious time on growing it.
However, with the arrival of spring heat, the quality of store carrots decreases significantly. It loses its taste, and the price rises. By the beginning of summer, these factors are even more aggravated, and how can you not remember the young, fragrant, crispy carrots of the new harvest ...
People who have a vegetable garden or a summer cottage necessarily provide for a small bed for carrots. It would seem that it’s easier - sow seeds in the ground and wait for the harvest. However, growing carrots has its own nuances that must be taken into account.
Choose a carrot bed in an area with fewer weeds. The fact is that the weed always germinates earlier and does not allow carrot seedlings to develop normally. The soil for this root crop should be light and loose. To do this, add sand to it. If the soil is heavy and hard, then the grown carrots will turn out to be shallow, clumsy and bent.
When preparing a bed, crop rotation should be taken into account. It is best if, before that, onions, garlic, cucumbers, tomatoes, potatoes or cabbage were grown in the area allocated for carrots. After root crops close to carrots (for example, parsley), pests that feed on carrots can also remain in the ground.
A garden bed for this vegetable should be dug up in the fall. It is advisable not to introduce fresh organic matter into the ground. It increases the acidity of the soil, and carrots do not like this and reduce the yield. Mineral fertilizers are more suitable here: superphosphate, ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride. Fertilizer consumption is low, and consumption rates are indicated on each package.
Carrots prefer settled soil, so when spring comes, you should not dig up the garden again. It is better to re-feed the site with mineral fertilizers a couple of weeks before planting.
Having decided to plant carrots in the garden, you should understand its varieties. Now there are a great many of them and it is difficult for an inexperienced gardener to understand this variety.
Generally speaking, carrots are divided into three varieties: early, medium and late.
The harvest of an early vegetable can be obtained in June, mid-season varieties are harvested all summer, and late varieties are well stored in winter. Only after deciding on the ripening time of carrots, you can pay attention to the shape and color of root crops, of which there are also a great many.
The time of sowing seeds also depends on the variety. Early maturing varieties can be planted even in early spring to get the harvest as quickly as possible. Some especially advanced gardeners practice planting early varieties even in the fall. Mid-season carrots are planted in May. Late species for winter storage are planted until mid-June.
Before planting, you should know that carrot seeds germinate extremely slowly, over two weeks. To speed up this process, they can be prepared before planting.
In advance, the seeds are soaked in clean and warm water for 2 hours. After that, they should be laid out on a damp cloth, covered with the same one. The seeds are kept at a comfortable temperature until they swell deeply.
The cloths should be soaked from time to time to prevent the seeds from drying out. After the seed swells and even begins to hatch, it should be hardened. The seeds are placed in the refrigerator under the freezer and kept there for up to 10 days. The quenching temperature should be within 2-3 degrees Celsius.
Before sowing, the seeds are dried and mixed with dry sand. This folk method perfectly helps to save carrot seeds, because they are extremely small, they are hard to see and when planting, a very large overrun is obtained.
Sand reduces the number of seeds in the total volume of planting material, so they are scattered more evenly and more economically. Basically, if you want to plant one or two rows of carrots, you can replace the sand with semolina. The effect will be the same. The ratio of seeds to sand should be 1/5.
After preparing the seeds, you can proceed to sowing them. To do this, grooves are made in the bed at a distance of 30 cm from each other using a hoe or elementary squeezing it out with a handle. This is to simplify the handling of sprouted carrots and so that they can grow more freely.
The finished places are watered with water, after which seeds are sown in them. Their consumption during planting should be 4-5 grams per plot of 10 square meters. The sown seeds are covered with loose soil with a layer of about 2 cm and lightly pressed from above. This is necessary so that they have full contact with the ground.
After the shoots appear, loosen a little and mulch between the rows with humus. In the future, the depth of cultivation of row spacings can be increased to 7-10 cm.
The first time the crops are thinned out after the first full-fledged leaf appears on the plant. The next thinning will be after the appearance of 4-5 leaves. As a result, the distance between the shoots should be 4-5 cm, which will allow the remaining root crops to grow freely and not compete with each other. You don't need to feel sorry for the carrot you are breaking through. The main indicator is the final yield.
On the 10-15th day after the emergence of shoots, the first fertilizing with mineral fertilizers should be carried out. This is where the same nutrients go as for preparing the land. After another month, feeding is repeated.
Watering carrots should be 5-6 times a season and only to maintain soil moisture. If the moisture level in the soil is high, the roots can rot right in the ground. At low humidity levels, the carrots will not be juicy, but tasteless and “wooden”.
The carrot itself is a neutral plant that does not create any difficulties for its neighbors in the garden. But for her, neighbors are important. It is best to plant onions nearby, which with its pungent smell drives away carrot flies. In turn, carrots help the onion by driving away its pest - the onion fly. The beds with these plants can be placed side by side or alternately, one after the other.
Throughout the season, it is advisable to dig up carrots for food with narrow pitchforks. The main crop is harvested in September and stored.
How to grow good carrots... Carrots are one of the main and most beloved root crops that are grown in our plots. How to grow a good harvest of carrots.
What is carrot care.First of all, it is necessary to pick up good seeds, and secondly, to properly care for the carrots.
Crops need timely watering, weeding, loosening of the soil, thinning and feeding. When choosing seeds, pay attention to the sowing time. I prefer to choose coreless carrot seed varieties with a blunt tip and good disease resistance. It is advisable to do a bed with carrots in a sunny area, constantly weed from weeds and loosen the soil. Crops of carrots must be thinned out. Thinning is recommended to be carried out twice a season. The first thinning is carried out in the phase of three leaves, leaving the distance between the plants two centimeters. We thin out the second time after three to four weeks and increase the distance between the plants to five centimeters. Good, large root crops grow only with free sowing; with thickened sowing, thin tails grow. It is better to thin out in the evening, and then loosen and be sure to water the plants. Thinning is a laborious process, so many people use carrots on a belt when sowing.
Carrot care.Carrots are demanding on soil fertility and timely feeding. The best carrots grow on light, loose soils. On poor soils, it is advisable to feed the carrots two or three times per season.
The first top dressing is best done two or three weeks after germination with nitrogen fertilizers (20 grams of urea per 10 liters of water). We do the second in a month with nitroammophos. The third with potassium chloride a month before harvesting.
However, everyone decides on their own how to feed. I prefer to feed the carrots with well-rotted humus, wood ash and liquid humic fertilizers. Also infusion of nettle with mullein or bird droppings. In the second half of summer, I water the carrots with water with the addition of ash infusion, this is the best potash fertilizer and is very well absorbed by the plant.
You cannot fertilize carrots with fresh Novoz, the roots will grow ugly and branched. It must be remembered that the enthusiasm for large doses of nitrogen fertilizers has a bad effect on the keeping quality of root crops. Experienced gardeners advise to water the plants with a solution of boric acid a month before harvesting, this improves the taste of root crops (one teaspoon per ten liters of water).
How to grow good carrotsWhen growing carrots, problems often arise. One of them is cracking of root crops. The reason is uneven irrigation, sharp jumps in irrigation must not be allowed. Very often, the top of the carrot root crop is exposed, and later turns green. In order to prevent this, carrot crops must be mulched or slightly podkuchenie. I wish you success and good harvests.
Small, bitter, woody fruits of carrots are obtained with a lack of moisture, especially during the period from sowing to germination, and in the phase of intensive growth of root crops. Before germination, the topsoil is made constantly wet. Watering during this period is best done in the evening, mulch aisles with fine mulch no higher than 2 - 3 cm.When the humidity regime fluctuates and excessively abundant watering, carrots can form a large root crop, but it will be tasteless and replete with cracks.
After germination, the culture is watered weekly until the root crops grow, and then they switch to watering 2-3 times a month, but the irrigation rate is increased. Mulching the carrots is mandatory after each watering. It prevents crust formation and lowers the temperature of the topsoil. Watering is stopped 2 weeks before harvesting.
When growing carrots, attention is paid to the composition of the soil, light, watering and other conditions that affect the taste and quality of the crop.
Before planting carrots, check that they have been grown in this area before. Crops that have occupied the garden can affect the taste of the root vegetable, positively or negatively.
Ideal “predecessors” that will benefit root crops:
Do not plant carrots after growing:
The key to delicious carrots is a well-lit place. On darkened beds, the yield drops, and the taste of the vegetable sharply deteriorates. Therefore, it is important to choose a flat area for her, on which the sun's rays fall all day.
Important! It is not recommended to grow carrots in the same place for several years in a row. It is advisable to change it every season.
Even the best varieties will not be able to fully express their taste in the wrong soil. Heavy, clayey or acidic soil is detrimental to carrots. In such a soil, the roots are small, deformed and with an unpleasant, herbaceous taste. A large number of small roots on root crops is also a sign of improper soil composition.
To get a sweet and juicy harvest, the vegetable is planted in light sandy or loamy soil. The acidity level should be low or neutral. Carrots prefer loose and fertile soil. It is desirable that the arable layer is at least 28-32 cm.
Important! To improve the quality of the harvest and the taste of carrots, potassium and phosphorus are added to the soil in autumn (before spring planting). They are necessary for the formation of sweet, even and beautiful root crops for the next year.
It can be planted in early spring, early summer or autumn. Carrots are cold-resistant crops. Its seeds will sprout even at a temperature of –3… –4 ° С. But for planting, it is advisable to wait until the soil warms up to at least + 3 ... + 5 ° С. Before winter, carrots are planted in late October - early November.
Important! It is not recommended to plant winter varieties earlier than the end of October. Carrots can sprout and die in case of frost. The "third wave" of landing is relevant for central Russia. In areas with more severe climates, seeds can die even under a thick layer of covering material.
Early ripening and winter varieties are not suitable for winter storage, but will provide fresh carrots on your table. Vegetables planted in June can easily be stored until spring.
For planting in early spring, the beds are prepared in the fall, the seeds are soaked in water to accelerate germination. The seeds of "summer" carrots are not soaked, they sprout quickly anyway. Sowing is most convenient on a belt, so as not to thin out the beds later.
For normal development, it is enough to feed carrots 2-3 times per season. The first fertilizer is applied 2-3 weeks after germination.
Use the composition:
The second time, the soil must be fertilized after another 2-3 weeks. A solution is suitable:
If the culture develops poorly, has pale leaves, there may be a lack of nitrogen in the soil. To compensate, carrots are fertilized with bird droppings or mullein. For 1 bucket of water - 1 liter of the product. To enhance the effect, add a little urea. To keep the crop better, a month before harvesting, the vegetable is fed with potassium chloride. And for the sweet carrot taste, wood ash is used: at the rate of 100 g of ash per 1 m².
Important! Fresh manure is not suitable for fertilization. It will attract pests and aggravate the situation.
Lack of moisture is one of the main reasons for the bitterness and wilting of the root crop. Carrots are watered once every 3-5 days with water at room temperature. Watering directly from a well, well or water supply is undesirable. A weak root system does not absorb low temperature water. It can also provoke root rot. It is better to let the water settle and warm up in a special container.
In order not to flood the plant, especially at the germination stage, a watering can with a splitter and a low water pressure is used for watering. Hose watering will have to be abandoned. The garden with the grown vegetable is watered so that the ground is moist to a depth of 30 cm.
Important! Water the carrots in the evening. This will protect the plant from moisture evaporation.
To get large and even root crops, it is important to avoid thickening of the crops. The first thinning will be needed as soon as real leaves appear on the plants. At this moment, the distance between the "neighbors" is about 2-3 cm.If the seeds were planted sparsely, this step can be skipped.
The signal for re-thinning is the appearance of two pairs of leaves. Now the distance between the carrots is doubled.
Weeding carrots is an obligatory process: weeds draw strength and sweetness from carrots. Weeds are removed as soon as they appear, their roots are still weak and easily removed from the soil.
If the carrots are planted in even rows, the aisles are periodically loosened. To do this, use a Fokin plane cutter or any other convenient tool. An alternative is to cover the aisles with foil strips.