The grapes are a very important and welcome guest of our household plots. Variety of varieties in terms of taste and ripening time, it allows you to have fruit bushes in the country for every taste.
But there are two problems associated with grapes: where to find and buy your favorite variety, and how to preserve the grapes in winter. The solution to the first problem in most cases depends on honesty of grape sellers... But the preservation of the acquired varieties in winter is already the concern of the owner of the plant.
Many people believe that grape vines covered with a hummock of land successfully winter and do not require other intervention. But this opinion is wrong. Probably, in the long-term practice of every gardener, there were complaints about their frivolous attitude towards wintering grapes, which resulted in the loss of a fruiting bush or the variety in general. But the plant cannot be returned, and if the root is alive, it will take two years to restore the bush.
So, everyone who wants to happily meet the swollen buds of all their favorites in the spring should know that only a healthy bush can winter well. Summer drought, lack mineral fertilizers, untimely getting rid of diseases, overloading with fruits - all this greatly reduces the immunity of the plant. Therefore, proper care of the grape bush is the key to a successful wintering.
Amateur gardeners know that there are frost-resistant varieties and the so-called "covering". This means that some grape varieties are able to withstand long-term frosts down to -15 ° С, and short-term ones up to -30 ° С without shelter. But such tests can only withstand mature shrubs with mature wood. Before the bush becomes strong enough to withstand the winter in its bare form, it is covered in the same way as the “cover” one.
There are several ways sheltering grapes... Each method has its own pros and cons. It all depends on the characteristics of the environment, on the size of the bush, on its flexibility.
The most common type of covering is covering with a bump of earth. This method is acceptable if there are no fields near the summer cottage, from where mice will come to you en masse in the fall, and if the groundwater lies deep from the surface of the earth. Robbers like mice will not be able to destroy the bush at all. But eating all the buds will rob you of the next year's harvest. But the close groundwater in frost gives dew on the vines, and they, saturated with moisture, will simply rot.
These are the minuses, and the pluses are that this is the most reliable way of wintering grapes. The process of covering the grapes with earth is carried out in the fall, after the leaves from all plants have flown, in dry, calm weather. It should be noted that if you intend to use this method, then the plant must be planted in a hole so that the trunk or root collar does not burst when bent. And so that roots do not form in the folds, you need to put a plastic bottle on the root collar.
Now you need to think about the covering material. It can be pine branches, preferably dry, needles, large sawdust or reeds. As for the latter, it is ideal as a covering material. The reeds with the scent of their leaves scares away mice and is not subject to decay, although, at the same time, it absorbs moisture. Having decided on the covering material, we lay it on the ground next to the bush, on top we lay the vines tied in a bunch.
The vines themselves must be attached to the ground with a thick wire so that they do not unbend, while lifting the bump of the earth. Then we cover the top of the vine with the same material that lies below, and on top of this heap we spread roofing material or polyethylene, pressing it along the perimeter with bricks. And already from above, all this is thrown with a layer of earth of 30-50 cm.
The second method is used to cover first-year grapes. Naturally, in most cases, grapes do not have time to fully form strong bark and buds in the first year. It is generally not recommended to bend a one-year-old tree - it is fraught with the breakage of young roots. Here you need a bush-type shelter. As a rule, a one-year-old vine, forming, cut at a distance of no higher than 60 cm from the ground, or 3-4 buds are left on it.
It is very simple to build a house for such a twig. Everyone has a bucket full of holes in their personal plot - this is where it comes in handy. We cut out the bottom of the bucket and put it in this form on the vine. Then we fill the bucket to the top with needles or large sawdust. From above, such a structure must be covered with polyethylene. If the remaining vine protrudes from the bucket, then it must be wrapped in burlap.
The vines of the bush, formed for the gazebo, are unlikely to be completely covered on the ground, and in spring they are very difficult to spread along the trellis. Therefore, such grapes need to be covered directly on the support. The best material for such a shelter is paper or burlap. If possible, the vines are collected in a bundle and wrapped with the selected material, and on top they are "bandaged" with a polypropylene bag cut into bandages. In this case, the winding should not be tight. The purpose of such a winding is to prevent icing of the vine, but at the same time it is necessary to allow it to breathe freely and receive the warmth of sunny winter days.
Covering grapes in the fall for the winter, it should be remembered that this is only half the battle. Grapes should be prepared for wintering from early spring, freeing them from winter shelters in time, until late autumn, by properly caring for the plant.
Shelter of grape bushes with agrofibre for the winter implies the sequential implementation of the following actions:
Stationary shelter trench
The grape bushes are bent to the surface of the earth.
Some growers suggest another way to cover with agrofibre. It is suitable for single bushes.
Shelter circular trench
It is important, before carrying out the shelter procedure, to carry out all the necessary preparatory measures:
Vertical shelter on a trellis
It is better to lay and bend the bushes when covering them in specially prepared trenches. Thanks to this measure, convenience and level of protection are increased. After the grapes are laid, they are fixed with special staples made of wood or metal. Specially prepared arcs are installed along the length of the laid plants. The distance between them should not exceed 50 cm.
Metal or wood can be used as the material for the arcs. The length of each arc should not exceed 100 cm.
Agrofibre is neatly laid on top of the arcs, so that a kind of tunnel is obtained. It is important to fix the edges of the covering material. Experienced growers for this purpose harvest special pegs from wood. The ends of the tunnel are left open for ventilation until the temperature drops below 8 degrees. After lowering temperatures to this level, they cover themselves.
Growing grapes in cold climates? Be sure to cover him! But remember, the plant must be ready for winter. If you cover it ahead of time, immunity will decrease, which will affect the quality of the crop. When choosing a material, take into account the peculiarities of the climate, as well as the whims of the garden culture.
Today, more and more owners of private houses and household plots grow grapes, pampering their loved ones with sweet juicy berries or even homemade wine. And in order to get a rich harvest every year, it is strongly recommended to approach the issue of sheltering the plant with all responsibility, remembering how dangerous frost is for the vine. Experts have compiled detailed instructions on how to cover grapes for the winter, taking into account climatic features and the availability of covering materials.
A grape bush can die if it is not covered in time and correctly. And this can be done in several ways and means:
This method is used exclusively in those regions in which there is an abundance of snow, and snow falls with the onset of frost.
The vines are placed on transversely folded wooden beams (boards). Then they cover themselves with a film so that they do not get wet from the melted water in the spring. And a hill is pounced on the film, with a height of at least 40-50 cm of snow.
If there is little snowfall, this is the most effective method. Sprinkle the vine with earth, a layer 30 cm high. And from above, the hill of earth is covered with a moisture-proof film.
In harsh regions, or if the soil is sandy, it is worth making the hill of soil higher. In this case, every 15-20cm should be shifted with sawdust or straw.
First you need to lay the branches of conifers on the soil. The height of such a pillow is from 15 cm and more, depending on the climate of the region. A vine is laid on the spruce branches and it must again be covered with spruce branches. Such a structure must be covered with a film. The film is dripped in or firmly pressed by stones.
On the soil under the bush, you need to cover the film. Vineyard branches are laid on top of the film. And already from above, the branches are covered with sawdust. The height of the layer is not as important as the fact that all branches are under the wood waste, and nowhere rise above the layer of sawdust. From above, the sawdust is covered with a film or roofing material.
5. Roofing material or slate.
Previously, along the bush, at a distance of 40-50 cm from the near-trunk trunk, a trench is dug to a depth of 25-30 cm. The vine is laid in the trench. Slate is laid on top of the trench and buried in soil.
6. Film or agrofiber.
If a film is used, then it is worth stopping your choice on a reflective one so that the air under it does not warm up.
It is advisable to place such a shelter on low greenhouse arches so that the grapes "breathe". The edges of the film are pressed tightly to the ground with stones or boards. Or, they can be buried.
In cold regions, it is worthwhile to additionally use a different insulation: polystyrene, expanded polyethylene, or natural material: straw, sawdust, etc.
7. Multilayer method, also called dry.
You will need branches or beams. They are laid directly on the soil. A vine is placed on them. The next layer is sawdust, dry leaves, straw. From above, the structure is tightly covered with a waterproof film, the edges of which are pressed down or buried. And on top is placed roofing material or slate.
Whichever way we cover the grapes, it is important to take care of the trunk circle. The soil at the trunk should not be allowed to freeze, otherwise the bush will die.
Before you cover your vineyard bush:
Now you can wrap up the vine, preparing it for wintering.
By the way, in relatively warm regions, a single vine can not be removed from the supports, but can be insulated with agrofibre right on the trellis.
Breeding methods for grapes.
Propagation of grapes - an important stage in the life cycle vine... let's consider what are the ways of propagation of grapes and we will carefully analyze the features of each method.
Propagated grapes by seedlings, unrooted cuttings (shanks), elongated cuttings, layering... But the first way is preferable. Bushes grown from seedlings develop better, come into fruiting faster, are more resistant to drought and frost.
Cuttings can be purchased in nurseries or prepared from your own most productive bushes. To do this, during the autumn pruning of vines, the healthiest cuttings are selected and stored all winter in a basement or pit, sprinkled with wet sand. The best storage temperature is around 0 ° C. Cuttings must not be allowed to dry out.
At the lower ends, whitish nodules (callus) and tubercles-root rudiments are formed.
For quick rooting of cuttings and their normal development, special pre-planting processing is recommended. kielchevanie... In cuttings that have undergone this procedure, whitish nodules are formed at the lower ends (callus) and tubercles - root rudiments.
Kilchevay is carried out like this:
3-4 weeks before planting, the cuttings are dug up, sorted, cut from the bottom under the very knot and tied into bundles so that all the lower ends are at the same level.
Then the cuttings are soaked for 1-2 days in water and placed tightly in the pit, with the lower ends up. Wet sand is poured at the bottom of the pit, and the cuttings are covered with a layer of humus earth (8-10 cm) on top, then with fresh manure (25-30 cm), and then again with earth (about 5 cm). It is desirable that the manure layer occupy an area 1.5 times larger than the surface of the pit. At night and on cool days, the pit with cuttings should be covered with glazed frames, mats or some kind of insulating material.
Kilchevanie grape cuttings.
When kilchevaya, you need to especially carefully monitor the temperature under the layer of manure, where the ends of the cuttings are located. If the temperature starts to rise above 28 ... 30 ° С, it is necessary to reduce the layer of manure and compact the remaining one. In the event that the temperature does not reach 13 ... 15 ° C, you need to water the manure with hot water or add fresh hot manure and insulate the pit well.
Usually at a temperature of 20 ... 25 ° C after 12-15 days, kilchevka ends.
As soon as the soil warms up well, they start planting the cuttings in the school. The best planting time is the last decade of April. Cuttings are planted in pre-prepared ditches, the soil of which is loosened to a depth of 60-70 cm.
The landing technique is:
The soil in the ditch is mixed with humus at the rate of 1 part of the earth to 2 parts of humus.
Planting unrooted grape cuttings.
Cuttings are installed along the ditch wall to a depth of 30-35 cm and 10-12 cm apart. The upper 1-2 eyes should be 10-12 cm above the soil surface.
Then the ditch is filled up to half, the ground near the cuttings is trampled down and watered at the rate of 2-3 buckets per 1 running meter. m.When the water is absorbed, the groove is covered to the top with earth, and the ends of the cuttings are covered with loose moist earth with a layer of 3 cm.
During the summer, the soil is loosened 4-5 times, weeded and watered 3-5 times.
In order for the plants to grow faster, they need to be fed before the first 2 waterings (in June and July) with diluted slurry or a solution of any nitrogen fertilizer (ammonium sulfate or ammonium nitrate at the rate of 15-20 g per 1 m 2 ). In early August, for better ripening of the shoots, phosphorus-potassium fertilizing is needed (superphosphate (20-30 g) and potassium salt (10-15 g) per 1 m 2 ).
In years with relatively cold and rainy summers, for better ripening of shoots, it is recommended pinching and chasing tops.
By the end of summer, the seedlings take root and are usually ready for planting in a permanent place.
In order to damage the roots of the seedlings as little as possible during digging and to facilitate the work, you need to dig a groove 45-50 cm deep from one side of the row at a distance of 15-20 cm from the plants.
Then, on the opposite side of the row, cut the plant with a bayonet shovel and roll it into the groove with a lump of earth.
Saplings are selected by hand, shake off the earth from them and tied in bundles according to varieties.
Seedlings intended for autumn planting are temporarily sprinkled with moist earth, and those that will be planted in spring are placed in the basement for winter storage.
If there is little planting material or it is obtained from very valuable varieties, seedlings can be grown from 1-2-eyed cuttings. They are best grown in crates or small greenhouses.
Shortened cuttings are a must prokilchevatb, and then plant in boxes with a layer of sand at the bottom of the box 8-10 cm, and above the upper ends of the cuttings - 12-14 cm.
After the frost has passed, the rooted plants, together with a lump of earth, trying not to disturb the root system, are planted in open ground.
When growing seedlings from shortened cuttings directly in the open field, cuttings are planted in well-processed ridges so that the upper eye is 2 cm below the soil surface.
The planted cuttings are first covered with earth, and then with a layer of sand or chopped straw. In the first days after planting, you need to water the cuttings after 1 or 2 days, after rooting - after 1-2 weeks, and at the end of the growing season - 2 times a month.
If the seedlings are left for the winter in the ridges, it is necessary to carefully cover them with soil with straw, reeds, etc. First, put a layer of straw 10 cm, then the earth - 10-15 cm, and on top of the manure - 3-5 cm.
Propagation of grapes by layering.
For the propagation of rare grape varieties, the Chinese layering method is used. It is very simple and produces many well-developed seedlings. For the Chinese layering, a vine is taken from the mother bush and laid, without plucking out the eyes, into a groove 15 cm deep, pinned with twigs and covered with 5-6 cm of loose fertile soil mixed with humus, and watered well. During the summer, the layers are watered 2 times a month, the soil is loosened and the shoots are sprayed.
As the shoots grow, the groove is filled up. By the fall, each node has a root system and well-developed shoots. In the second half of October, the layers are dug up, cut off from the mother bush, cut into pieces (one node in each) and used as planting material.
Even better results are obtained when the cuttings are not laid directly in the ground, but in baskets or boxes buried next to the mother bush. In this case, the entire root system of the seedlings is completely preserved, and they root out very quickly during transplantation.
Propagation of grapes by elongated cuttings.
There is also a way of planting vineyards with elongated cuttings, which should be widely used in garden viticulture. The advantage of this method is that a large supply of nutrients in elongated cuttings ensures their almost 100% survival rate. Developing plants usually always have a strong root system and grow very well.
For planting with elongated cuttings in the fall, vines up to 150 cm long are harvested, tied in bunches and stored in the basement. In the spring, just before planting, the vines are soaked for 6-12 hours in water and plucked out for better root formation (blind) eyes on the part of the vine that will be laid in the hole. Then the vine is given a ring-like appearance, for which it is wrapped around a log, hemp or bucket and tied in 2-3 places with a washcloth. A rolled-up and connected vine is placed on the bottom of the planting pit, and the upper end of the vine with two healthy eyes is brought up and tied to a pre-set stake so that the upper eye is at the level of the soil surface.
Hello dear friends!
In the regions of northern viticulture, frosts often reach -35`C, which significantly exceeds the resistance to low temperatures of many grape varieties. To ensure the safety of the bushes from the destructive effects of frosts and to guarantee the harvest, the grapes are covered not only with the root base, but also with the upper above-ground part.
In the first life cycle, young seedlings are covered before the arrival of frost. The simplest protection for wintering is a bulk soil mound 35-40 cm high. In order not to expose the root branches, the soil should be taken at a distance from the plantings.
At -5`C frost, the fruit-bearing bushes are covered with an earthen rampart 10 cm lower than the young growth; on light soils, the embankment is made higher.
Additional shelter of grapes for the winter from straw, dry shavings, old bark or sawdust of deciduous tree species are carried out in winters with little snow. It is unacceptable to use the generally accepted "folk insulation" manure, since the vine and eyes are blown out until spring. All embankments must be checked for cracks in frost and snow that has fallen must be swept to the bushes.
Gardeners who have plots near forest belts can use coniferous spruce branches, which will serve as a climatic barrier if the vines are placed between pine branches and covered with non-woven material from above. Under a layer of snow, such a coniferous shelter is guaranteed to protect the grapes from freezing.
The experience of winegrowers from Belarus and the Baltic States is interesting, it is customary to use straw and dry foliage there to protect the vines and roots. The bent, pinned branches are covered with small straw with foliage and covered with sheets of roofing material. After wintering, bulk plant components are used to mulch the same grapes, leveling the layers and trampling them well around the base of the bushes.
Eastern Europeans grow grapes mainly according to the French Guyot method, placing branches from the mother vine vertically along the trellis. They cover the bole and branches with thick paper for the winter. This method is suitable for areas with little snow with low temperatures, the paper protects well from the chilly wind, if wrapped in several layers and secured with tape.
Rural growers who cultivate their plantations in the vicinity of the fields usually cover the root part with tied straw sheaves. One-meter sheaves are tightly set along the planting on both sides of the bushes and tied around the perimeter with a rope, trampling the lower part of the plant structure. In a similar way, residents of Kazakhstan, rich in lakes, fence off grapes, only instead of straw they tie reeds into mats.
It may seem that shelter of grapes for the winter the latter method is rather doubtful, but it is also used without consequences for plants. When, before the snow appears, they do not take any action and the vine is bent directly under the snow that has already fallen, manually sweeping drifts from above.
Preparing grape vines for shelter
Preparation of grapes for shelter begins immediately after harvest. It includes the following activities:
The pruning procedure is performed about a month before the grapes are sheltered.
The procedure may vary depending on different conditions. In any case, all preparatory activities will have to be completed while the air temperature is positive.
Such preparation times will be considered optimal if the vine can stand for about 3-4 weeks from the moment of the first morning frost on the soil to the first frost... During this time, the process of outflow of nutrients from the branches to the root system will be completely completed. In this case, by the time of the first days with a negative air temperature, the plant will come up completely ready for shelter.
Autumn care procedures
Top dressing of the vines before wintering is usually carried out in two stages:
Basically, root fertilization is used.
These events are separated in time by about 1.5-2 months. The following fertilization procedure is recommended:
To improve the growing season for the next year, you can add 1 g of boric acid to the mixture. This will stimulate increased chlorophyll synthesis in grape leaves. To combat chlorosis and increase the general immunity of mature vines, it is recommended to add no more than 2 g of zinc sulfate to the mixture.
The treatment of grapes against pests should be comprehensive and include the use of the following means:
The time when you need to process the grapes is usually chosen based on the climatic characteristics of the area. Typically, the timing recommended by the drug manufacturers should be followed. So, for example, in warm regions, processing is carried out from 5 to 15 September. In the Middle Lane, it shifts by 2 weeks.
As preparations for complex processing, ready-made mixtures are usually used (for example, Mikal, Horus, Fundazol, Topaz and the like). If the antifungal treatment is performed using a solution of copper or ferrous sulfate, it is done a little later (around the second half of October).