Red cabbage: planting and care in the open field, varieties


Garden plants

Red cabbage is a type of garden cabbage. It is very similar to its white-headed relative, but its leaves are colored purple or purple due to the high content of anthocyanin. Red cabbage is not as productive as white cabbage, but it is much more resistant to harmful insects and infections. The seeds of this variety can be sown directly to the garden, but it is better to grow seedlings, and then transplant them into the garden.
We will tell you how to properly plant and grow cabbage with purple forks.

Growing red cabbage outdoors

Plot for cabbage

This cruciferous crop needs a sunny area, otherwise the seedlings will grow slowly, the forks will turn out to be loose, and the foliage is not thick purple, but greenish. The soil of this culture needs a loose, light, rich humus, preferably loamy and neutral.

It is good if green manure crops, onions, cucumbers, potatoes, carrots or legumes were previously grown on the site, and after cruciferous vegetables, it is better not to plant cabbage, since they are affected by the same pests and infections.

Site preparation for red cabbage

They begin to prepare the site in six months - in the fall: the soil of a normal or slightly alkaline reaction is dug up with organic matter - compost or humus, and if this is not possible, then Nitroammofoska is added. Acidic soil two weeks before fertilization is limed with deciduous tree ash or lime at the rate of 200 g / m².

Sowing seeds of red cabbage in the ground

If you decide to sow seeds directly into the ground, then you should know that their consumption will be much greater, and care for seedlings at the initial stage will be laborious. In the south, seeds are sown in March or April, and in cooler areas in May or June. But no matter what method of cultivation you choose, the seed must be disinfected: hold for a quarter of an hour in a thermos with fifty-degree water, and then immediately lower it for 2 minutes in cold water. Then the seeds are wrapped in a damp cloth and kept at room temperature for a day, and then for a day at a temperature of 1-2 ºC.

Store-bought colored seed does not need to be pickled or stratified: it is ready for sowing.

Chilled and dried seeds are laid out in holes to a depth of 4 cm: 4 seeds in each. The holes are covered with a mixture of humus and peat in equal parts, but if the land on the site is fertile, you can fill the holes with earth. The distance between the holes should be 50-60 cm. After sowing, the garden bed is watered, and the next day, to prevent the appearance of a cruciferous flea, the surface of the site is powdered with ash. Seedlings are thinned when 2-3 true leaves are formed.

Growing red cabbage seedlings

In early or mid-March, a disinfected substrate consisting of peat and sod land is placed in a container, it is well moistened and seeds are sown to a depth of 2 cm.It is advisable to grow seedlings in a greenhouse, since the temperature regime is very important for this culture, which is maintained at home. not easy. As soon as seedlings appear, the seedlings are transferred to a room where the temperature is maintained at 7-8 ºC, otherwise the seedlings will instantly stretch out. After a week, the regime is changed, maintaining the daytime temperature within 15-18 ºC, and at night - no higher than 10 ºC. Good lighting is also necessary for the seedlings to develop, and it is likely that you will need to install an additional light source for them. It is necessary to moisten the substrate regularly, but in moderation: excess moisture leads to a fungal disease of the black leg.

In the photo: Seedlings of red cabbage

Two weeks after the emergence of seedlings, they are picked in separate cups, but it is better to transplant the seedlings into peat pots so that when transplanting to a garden bed, you do not have to disturb the root system of young plants again. Before the procedure, the substrate in the box must be watered abundantly. The central root of the seedlings is shortened by a third, after which they are immersed in the ground by cotyledon leaves.

After picking, the seedlings are watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate and kept for 3-4 days in the shade at a temperature of 18-20 ºC, but as soon as the plants adapt in a new container, they are again placed under bright light and restored to the previous temperature regime.

Fertilizers are applied twice during the seedling period: the first time - at the stage of development of 3-4 true leaves, and the second - a week before transplanting into the garden. It is best to use mineral complexes for feeding, for example, Azofosku. Prepare the solution in strict accordance with the instructions.

A week before transplanting to the garden, they begin hardening procedures: the seedlings are taken out into the open air every day, gradually increasing the duration of the walk. Watering at this time is gradually reduced.

Transplanting red cabbage seedlings to the garden

Seedlings ready for transplanting should reach a height of 17-20 cm and have 5-6 well-developed leaves. Seedlings are transplanted into the garden in May. The holes are placed at a distance of 40-50 cm from each other, leaving a row spacing of 60 cm. The seedlings are buried 2 cm below the previous level, the soil around them is compacted and the seedlings are watered with warm water at the rate of 2 liters per plant.

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Caring for red cabbage

The subsequent cultivation of the crop includes watering, weeding, loosening the soil, hilling and preventing diseases and pests. Watering the beds should be done regularly. It should be especially abundant during the formation of a rosette of leaves and rolling them into a head of cabbage, and it is advisable to use a sprinkler method for moistening so that the water flows down the leaves into the ground. However, waterlogging and stagnation of moisture in the roots should not be allowed.

Two weeks before harvesting red cabbage, watering should be stopped altogether.

After watering, weeding and loosening of the row spacings are carried out. You need to loosen the soil until the cabbage leaves close. In addition, during the growing season, it is necessary to spud early and three times late cabbage with moist soil twice: the first time - a week after transplanting the seedlings to the garden, and the second - two to three weeks later. This procedure increases the stability of the heads and strengthens the root system.

Photo: Growing red cabbage in the garden

The first feeding of cabbage - nitrogen - is carried out during the active growth of the leaf mass, and the second - potassium-phosphorus - when the heads of cabbage begin to form. It is best to use organic solutions such as cow dung or chicken manure. Wood ash and a handful of superphosphate are added to the composition for the second feeding to the organic solution.

The third feeding is needed only for late-ripening varieties. It is carried out 30 days before harvesting: two handfuls of wood ash are insisted in a bucket of water for a day, and then the composition is diluted 4 times. This amount should be enough for 10 plants.

Protecting red cabbage from diseases and pests

The same insects damage red cabbage as white cabbage: aphids, scoops, cabbage, cruciferous fleas, thrips, mole and flies.

It is better to collect slugs by hand, and the rest of the pests are destroyed with a solution of Karbofos 60 g of the drug per 10 liters of water, but the last spraying is carried out no later than a month before harvesting. Other insecticides can be used. In a later period, herbal insecticidal agents are used - a decoction of tomato leaves, for example.

Of the diseases, the greatest danger to red cabbage is dry rot, black spot and keel.

It is easier to prevent the development of all these diseases than to fight them. In order for the cabbage to grow healthy, you need to observe crop rotation, disinfect the seeds before sowing, do not plant plants too close to each other, regularly remove weeds, and after harvesting, free the garden from plant debris.

Harvesting

Early varieties that are not intended for storage begin to be harvested at the end of summer, and late-ripening varieties are cut in mid-autumn, as soon as the air temperature reaches 5 ºC during the day and does not drop below 0 ºC at night. On the cut forks, leave no more than two integumentary leaves and a stump 2 cm long, dry them, discard forks affected by infection or pests and store in a room with a temperature of 0-1 ºC and an air humidity of 95%, placing the heads of cabbage on a wooden floor with stumps up.

Red cabbage varieties

  • Summer debut - an early variety that ripens 60 days after transplanting seedlings into the garden. Tight forks weighing up to 2 kg are painted dark purple.
  • Topaz - also an early variety that is well kept. Heads of cabbage are round, purple in color.
  • Early beauty - early variety resistant to diseases of cruciferous crops with small rounded red-violet heads of cabbage weighing from 1 to 2 kg.
  • Nurima F1 - an early hybrid with heads of cabbage weighing up to 2.5 kg, not intended for storage.
  • Kalibos - mid-season variety, bred by Czech breeders, with cone-shaped purple heads of cabbage of excellent taste weighing up to 2.5 kg.
  • Mikhnevskaya - mid-season variety with round, dense purple-red heads of cabbage with good taste.
  • Anthracite F1 - a mid-season hybrid with purple heads of cabbage with a waxy bloom, the weight of which can reach from one and a half to two and a half kilograms.
  • Vanguard F1 - mid-season variety with a vertical rosette of blue-green leaves with a waxy shade, forming a dense, rounded head of cabbage weighing more than 2 kg.
  • Late beauty - a variety with dense purple heads of cabbage weighing up to 3 kg.
  • Mars - a late-ripening variety resistant to cracking with small dark purple heads of cabbage weighing up to one and a half kilograms.
  • Gako 741 - frost-resistant and resistant to cracking late variety with purple heads covered with waxy bloom, the weight of which can be from 1 to 4 kg.

Useful properties and contraindications of red cabbage

This culture is no less useful than other varieties of cabbage. Red cabbage:

  • strengthens the immune system, blood vessels and heart muscle;
  • normalizes blood pressure;
  • positively affects the functioning of the thyroid gland;
  • helps to increase intestinal motility and eliminate constipation;
  • frees the body from toxins and toxins;
  • is a prophylactic agent against kidney and liver diseases;
  • protects the body from radiation and oncological formations;
  • relieves inflammation from the joints, relieves the condition with bruises;
  • is a dietary product.

You can not use red cabbage with individual intolerance to the product and exacerbations of diseases of the digestive system. It is also not indicated for lactating and children under one year old.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the Cabbage family
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online

Sections: Cruciferous (Cabbage, Cabbage) Garden plants Plants on K Collard greens Cabbage


Choosing a variety of cabbage for planting

The choice of cabbage variety depends on the ripening time and the use of the crop:

  • early varieties (Transfer, Pharaoh, Express) are ideal for fresh consumption. They "lie" badly and are not suitable for salting
  • mid-season varieties (Aggressor, Slava, Gift) - ideal for canning, pickling and pickling
  • late varieties (Sugarloaf, Amager, Valentina) are grown for long-term storage in a cellar for the winter.
Cabbage of different varieties

Growing cabbage in the open field of different varieties will allow you to harvest several times per season, and stock up for future use for the whole year.


Site and soil preparation

Clay soils and loams rich in moisture and humus are the best option for white cabbage. If at the same time they are also slightly acidic, you can make plans for a good harvest. Cabbage also grows on sandy neutral soils, but the harvest in this case is more modest.

Early maturing varieties are best planted in areas where cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, turnips were previously grown. For late varieties, beans, peas, and potatoes are considered the best predecessors. A general recommendation for all varieties is that the site should be unshaded. Soil preparation is done as follows:

  • after the spring snowmelt, the soil is loosened with a rake
  • fertilizers are applied (in case this was not done in the fall)
  • urea (or ammonium nitrate), superphosphate, potassium chloride is used as fertilizers
  • the site is re-dug up
  • in areas with high humidity, it is necessary to prepare ridges for planting, 1 m wide, up to 0.25 m high, if the soil is of normal moisture, the ridges do not need to be prepared.


Growing cauliflower

Growing can be done in a variety of ways. If it is inclement weather and the heads have not had time to fully form, then they can be pulled out by the roots and transferred to the basement or cellar. There, the plants are hung on trellises with their roots up. Growing is carried out at a temperature of +1 .. + 3 ° C without access to light and humidity within 80-90%.

Plants of late sowing dates, which did not have time to form a developed head before the cold weather, are grown in greenhouses or greenhouses without access to light. For growing, plants with developed leaves and a head diameter of at least 5 cm are selected. The plants are dug up with roots and, without shaking off the soil, are densely laid in rows in previously watered 15 cm furrows. Head growth lasts up to 30 days at an air temperature of about + 10 ° C and an air humidity of 85-90%. With a decrease in temperature to +4 .. + 5 ° C, the process is extended to 40-50 days. During this period, the heads can gain weight up to 0.5 kg. If growing takes place in greenhouses, they are insulated as the air temperature decreases.


Watch the video: Bejo Red Cabbage - Winter Crop Video


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