Homer called the fruit of a pear a gift from the gods. Nowadays, there are more than three thousand varieties of this popular fruit. The choice is huge, but gardeners of the middle lane are especially interested in pears of the Belarusian selection, which are resistant to diseases and winter cold. One of these varieties is Belorusskaya Late.
Belarusian late bred N. Mikhnevich, G. Kovalenko and M. Myalik - employees of the Belarusian Research Institute of Fruit Growing. It was grown from the seeds of free pollination of the French pear Good Louise. The variety is included in the State Registers of Belarus (1989) and Russia (2002).
Belarusian late was created by employees of the Belarusian Research Institute of Fruit Growing
The tree of the Belorusskaya late is not high, the crown is spherical, the branches are with the ends directed upwards. The main ones extend from the trunk at an almost right angle.
Light green leaves are small, elliptical, with wavy jagged edges. Large white flowers appear on the ringlets. They are considered self-pollinating, but the yield will be greater if pears Bere Loshitskaya or Maslyanistaya Loshitskaya grow nearby - the best pollinators for Belorusskaya late.
Not far from the late Belarusian pear, it is worth planting other varieties - Bere Loshitskaya or Maslyanistaya Loshitskaya
The tree begins to bear fruit early, already in the 4th year of growth. The harvest is plentiful - a young pear can give up to 100 kg of fruit, and an adult one - up to 180 kg. The fruits of the Belorusskaya Late variety are of medium size (110–120 g), have a regular wide pear-shaped shape and almost the same size. They are covered with a thin, rough skin with light brown dots. When removed from the tree, pears are colored green with a brownish-red integumentary tint. Fruits usually ripen by the end of September, and they can be stored until February of the next year and longer. When the fruits reach consumer maturity, the color turns into a rich yellow, close to orange, and the cover shade becomes a blurred crimson.
The fruits of the Belorussian late pear are regular in shape and almost identical in size
Pears have straight, short stalks, located with a slope, and a shallow narrow funnel. Fruit hearts are small, slightly elongated. The seeds are brown, small. White pulp of medium density, juicy, tender. Pleasant sweet taste with a slight sourness was rated by tasters at 4.2-4.4 points out of 5.
Belorussian late is universal for its intended purpose, it can be used fresh, for the preparation of desserts and dried fruits, for preservation.
The indisputable advantages of the late Belarusian pear are:
The disadvantages of the variety include:
It is better to plant a late Belarusian pear in early spring 5-14 days after the snow cover has completely disappeared. An autumn planting of a tree is also possible in the time interval between leaf fall and the first frost.
Before buying a late Belorusskaya pear sapling, assess whether you have conditions favorable for its good growth and development. The process will go very slowly if at the place where the tree is supposed to be planted:
The pear loves good lighting and warmth, fertile soil, into which air and moisture can easily penetrate. In addition, the tree must be allocated at least 16 m.2 (platform 4x4 m).
When buying a seedling, carefully examine the tree and its roots. The branches should be elastic, the crown is dense, the bark is smooth and without thorns, the leaves are healthy, the roots are sufficiently moist.
Preparing for landing:
The roots of the tree must fit freely in the planting pit for the pear.
To saturate the roots with moisture, the seedling is kept in water before planting.
The roots of the seedling should not bend or overlap.
Each seedling is watered with water in a volume of at least 3 buckets
Mulch under the seedling will prevent weeds from growing and retain moisture
Later, the trunk circle can be mulched with cut grass. This not only protects the soil from drying out and compaction during watering and precipitation, and the roots from overheating, but also gives the tree additional nutrients.
Cut grass as mulch will protect the soil from drying out and serve as fertilizer
Pear Belorusskaya late is unassuming in its requirements for caring for it. The main thing is to feed the tree in a timely manner, prune the crown and treat it with drugs for pests and diseases. In a drought, the tree is watered twice a week, using up to 70 liters of water.
It is important to cut a young pear correctly in order to form a beautiful crown and strong skeletal branches. When planting, the seedling is cut for the first time, shortening the main central shoot by a quarter of its length. They strive to form a few skeletal branches on the tree, so only 3-4 of the strongest are left from the side shoots, shortening them by five buds.
In the future, pear pruning is carried out in spring and autumn, since the variety is prone to thickening of the crown. Cut out weak shoots, frozen and damaged, diseased branches, as well as those that touch each other or shade others.
The first 2-3 years Belarusian late feeding does not require, the tree has enough nutrients that were introduced during planting. In the future, root dressings are regularly carried out:
Although Belorusskaya late tolerates winter frosts well, it is still necessary to prepare it for the cold season.
Late Belarusian easily survives frosts, but young seedlings need to be insulated
To protect the trunk of the tree, it should be wrapped in paper and secured with a strapping. A special tape can perfectly protect the bole from temperature drops.
A special tape will protect the tree in summer - from burns, in winter - from cold
A layer of wood shavings can serve as a good protection of the upper roots from the winter chill.
One of the most significant disadvantages of the Belorusskaya Late variety is its average resistance to scab infestation. With this ailment, brown spots appear on the leaves of the tree and fruits. To help the tree resist the disease, the pear is treated with Bordeaux liquid three times during the growing season:
You can use various fungicides according to the instructions.
With scab, brown spots appear on the leaves of the tree and fruits
Such prevention not only protects the tree from scab, but also prevents another disease - moniliosis, or fruit rot.
Moniliosis makes pear fruits inedible
A dangerous pear disease is a bacterial burn. Infection occurs through flowers and spreads very quickly. In just a few days, the leaves and ovaries become twisted and darkened, as if scorched by fire. Having discovered the disease, first of all, all the affected branches are carefully cut off and burned so that the infection does not spread throughout the garden. The tree is treated with an antibiotic (Streptomycin has the best effect), and then once every 10 days the pear is treated with a solution of a mixture of drugs that strengthens its immunity: 4 drops of Cytovite and Zircon are dissolved in 1 liter of water, two grains of the Healthy Garden are added.
A bacterial burn quickly spreads in dense crowns, so timely and competent pruning of trees is very important.
A sign of a fire blight is twisted dry leaves
The beautiful hawthorn butterfly can do great harm to the pear harvest.
Hawthorn butterfly can significantly reduce pear harvest
Caterpillars hatched from hawthorn eggs eat buds, leaves, buds. For the winter, they pupate and hang on a tree. To get rid of these pests, cocoons are collected and burned, and in early spring the tree is treated with a saturated solution of urea (0.7 kg of the drug is dissolved in 10 liters of water).
The hawthorn caterpillar feeds on leaves and buds
A large number of pears on a tree can be damaged by caterpillars that hatch from eggs laid by the pear moth moth. She leaves a clutch of eggs on the surface of the fruit, and her children gnaw the pear and get to the seeds that they feed on. Pupae of these caterpillars hibernate under a tree in the ground. To get rid of this scourge, a month after flowering, when it is time for newly hatched butterflies to lay eggs, the tree is treated with an insecticide. Fitoverm gives a good result.
Caterpillars of the pear moth gnaw the fruits and get to the seeds
The apple blossom beetle (a tiny weevil beetle) feeds on the buds and lays eggs in the still unopened flower embryos, and the larvae, hatching, eat them from the inside. In the fight against this pest, a trapping belt on the trunk of a pear helps. You can shake the beetles off and pick them by hand when they are least mobile in cooler weather. The greatest effect is obtained by treating the tree with insecticides when the buds are at the green cone stage.
Apple flower beetle larvae eat flower buds from the inside
The caterpillars of the pear sawer can almost completely destroy the foliage of the tree. The female of the insect lays up to seven dozen eggs on the lower plane of the leaf. The hatched caterpillars weave cobwebs and eat the leaves.
The caterpillars of the pear sawfly eat the leaves of the tree in large quantities
With a small number of caterpillars, their nests can be collected and burned. If there are a lot of them, the tree should be treated with an insecticide.
Colonies of green aphids can be seen on the leaves and tops of young shoots. Pests feed on their juice. You can destroy aphids by spraying the tree with a mixture of Fitoverm and 1 tbsp. liquid soap dissolved in 1 liter of water. If the tree is young and short, the shoots can be dipped in this solution and the pests can be washed off.
Pests feed on the sap of leaves and shoots
For many years of its existence, the late Belarusian pear has become widely known. It is grown by many gardeners, a wide range of fruit consumers are aware of the excellent qualities of the variety. On the market, you can now find varieties Belorusskaya early, Belorusskaya letnaya, etc. Similar names are given to pears by analogy with a well-known name, but this has no basis.
On the Internet, you can find many messages and notes describing the attractive features of the Belorusskaya late pear variety. But when deciding to grow this pear, one must also take into account the negative aspects associated with the fruit variety itself and the problems that arise when growing this tree.
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Belarusian late - autumn pear variety. Its main advantage is the long shelf life of the fruit, during which the taste is not only preserved, but also improved. In addition, the trees are distinguished by high frost resistance and unpretentious care. It is not surprising that gardeners today prefer the Belorusskaya late variety.
To obtain a stable harvest, in addition to the description of the variety "Belorusskaya Late", reviews and photos, the correct planting of the pear is important. To do everything correctly, you need to take into account several parameters:
Time. Planting pears of the Belorusskaya Lazydnyaya variety is best done in the spring. As soon as the snow thaws, they stand for 4-5 days and start planting work. The period during which you can safely plant pear seedlings is 2 weeks. In the fall, the variety is planted after the end of the leaf fall and before the first frost.
A place. Any kind of pear likes good lighting. "Late Belarusian" is no exception. The amount of light received depends on the sugar content of the fruit and the overall yield of the variety. For one tree, it is necessary to allocate a space of 4 mx 4 m.This area will be enough for the full growth and development of the tree
When choosing a place on the site, it is important to avoid places with clay or sandy soil, on which the pear variety does not bear fruit well. An ideal place would be a place with good black soil, without stagnant moisture, with a loose soil structure
The location of groundwater should be at least 2 m from the surface.
Planting material. The choice of pear seedlings is a very responsible event.
When buying, they pay attention to all indicators that correspond to a high-quality seedling. First, the absence of thorns on the barrel
The presence of thorns signals that you are being offered a wild pear. Secondly, the state of the root system. Choose a seedling with moist fibrous roots, without damage and dried out areas. The following requirements for the pear are as follows - a lush crown, elastic branches, dense bark.
The success of planting pears of the Belorusskaya Pozdnyaya variety depends on the preparedness of the soil. It is necessary to prepare the soil in advance so that the nutrients have time to go into a form that is easily digestible for the tree. Without nutrition, it will be difficult for a young seedling to grow and develop. Therefore, in the designated place for planting a pear seedling, they dig a hole 0.7 m deep. The selected soil is mixed with sand (2 buckets), compost (2 buckets), potassium (30 g) and phosphorus (20 g).All components are mixed and put back into the pit.
The pear "Belorusskaya Late" is planted in warm, dry weather.
First, you need to prepare a seedling. Leaves are removed from it, damaged parts are cut off and the tree is placed in water for 3 hours.
A deepening is made in a previously prepared hole. Its size depends on the condition of the roots. If the root system is open, then a recess is dug 80 cm deep and 1 m in diameter. If a seedling with a closed root system, then a deepening corresponding to the size of an earthen coma is sufficient.
A stake is inserted into the center of the planting pit, which is needed to fix the seedling. Then a tree is placed.
The root collar is not buried. It should rise 6-7 cm above the soil level.
The roots are covered with earth, the soil is tamped and watered with 3-4 buckets of water.
The trunk circle is mulched after moisture absorption.
Depending on the type of rootstock, a planting scheme is calculated for several trees. Saplings on a vigorous rootstock need 25 sq. m of food area, for middle-sized people - 11 sq. m.
In order for the pear to grow well and bear fruit abundantly, it must be properly planted. For abundant fruiting, it is useful to place a tree of another variety next to it, for example, Chizhovskaya or Severyanka.
Pear loves light and warmth. Belorussian late especially needs protection from cold northerly winds. Therefore, it is best to place it on the south side of buildings or near a fence. An adult pear can be up to 4 m high, so the distance between the trees is at least 5 m. Not suitable for the Belarusian late lowland, in which cold air accumulates, and in the spring there is melt water for a long time. When the water table is above 1.5 m, the tree quickly dies.
A pear, planted correctly, gives high yields and does not get sick
Gardeners of central Russia advise planting Belorusskaya late in early September. Before the cold weather, the seedlings will have time to take root, and with the beginning of the next season they will immediately grow. In regions with harsher winters, it is better to purchase seedlings in the fall and dig in for the winter (or store in a cellar until spring). The optimal time for spring planting is the end of April, before bud break.
It is good if the place intended for pear trees is free of weeds. Therefore, it is advisable to dig up the entire area, removing the roots of weeds and larvae of harmful insects. This is especially true of the May beetle, which can destroy young seedlings by damaging their roots.
When digging the earth, you need to choose the larvae of harmful insects
Places for future seedlings are marked with pegs. If there are no pear trees nearby that can pollinate the Belorussian late, then they must be planted simultaneously with it.
The pear loves loose, fertile soils with neutral acidity. If the soil in the garden does not meet these requirements, wide and deep holes are made with the desired soil composition.
If the soil in the garden does not meet the requirements, wide and deep holes are made with the desired soil composition
If the groundwater is high, you can lay a sheet of slate at the bottom of the pit, which will prevent the roots of the tree from going deep. Planting on an artificial hill 50–70 cm high will not give results, since the root system of a pear tree is located much deeper than that of other pome and stone fruit crops.
The older the seedling, the more it gets sick during transplantation. On sale, planting material can be of two types: with open roots (dug out of the ground before selling) and with a closed root system (grown in separate containers).
You need to choose trees very carefully. You shouldn't buy seedlings from random sellers. The surest thing is to buy a plant in a fruit nursery, where a tree will be dug out of the ground in front of you. Be sure to pay attention to the following signs:
In a seedling with a closed root system, the roots should be visible in the drainage holes, and the clod of earth should be densely braided with light roots. This indicates that the plant was grown in this particular container. The soil surface in the container should not be covered with moss and weeds.
Before planting, a clod of earth must be watered well. Then remove the tree together with the soil from the container and place it in the hole. Closed-root plants can be planted throughout the season, even in summer. When transplanting, the roots are not injured, so the seedlings will quickly take root in a new place.
It is useful to dip the roots of a pear seedling in a soil mash with the addition of growth hormone (Heteroauxin) before planting. Thanks to this, the plant will take root much faster. To prepare such a suspension, pour fertile soil into a bucket and add the drug and water, stirring constantly until the mixture becomes creamy.
The roots of the seedling should be located in the hole freely, without breaking.
Rotted sawdust, peat, humus can be used as mulch.
At the final stage of planting, the seedling is carefully tied to the support