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The special exactingness of onions to soil fertility determines the choice of a site for its cultivation. Warm and sufficiently moist soils are taken under the onions - sandy loam or light loamy is better. Cold, damp soils with a close location of groundwater, as well as swampy, peaty, sour, with a pH of 4.5-5.0.
Soils with lower acidity (pH 5.0-5.5) can be used for onions only after lime applicationto bring the pH to 6.0-7.0. If horsetail, sorrel grow on the site, this indicates acidity of the soil. It is necessary to add chalk or ground limestone, depending on the texture and acidity of the soil. It is best to grow onions 1-2 years after adding lime.
The area where onions are grown should be open and well lit.
In an individual garden, it is especially important to observe the correct alternation of crops and change the place under the onions annually. It should not be grown in the same place, as it is affected pests and diseases... It can be returned to its old place no earlier than in 2-3 years. The best precursors for onions are crops for which large doses of organic fertilizers were applied: cucumber, zucchini, early cabbage, potatoes, tomato and others. Onion itself is a good predecessor for all vegetable crops, except for garlic, with which it has common pests and diseases. It is advisable to plant onions at a considerable distance from perennial onions.
The soil for the onion must be worked very carefully. Processing begins in the fall, after harvesting plant residues. The soil is dug to a depth of 20-25 cm. It is not necessary to break up the formed clods and level the soil surface in autumn, since the uneven blocky surface contributes to better snow retention and moisture accumulation.
The main purpose of the pre-sowing tillage - cut it to a fine crumbly state. As soon as it is possible to enter the site in early spring, the topsoil must be loosened with a heavy rake to a depth of 5-8 cm in order to preserve the moisture accumulated over the winter. After the soil warms up and dries up, i.e. after 5-7 days, it is dug up to a depth of 15-18 cm.
Spring digging is always done 1/3 shallower than in autumn, so as not to turn out to the surface the top layer with pests and pathogens inhabiting it, which was sealed during autumn processing to a great depth. If the soil is loose, structural and does not apply organic fertilizers, in the spring you can limit yourself to deep (15-18 cm) loosening. After deep processing of the soil, it must be immediately leveled and loosened with a light rake to a depth of 3-5 cm.
In the North-West of the Non-Black Earth Zone of Russia, onions should be grown on ridges. They warm up better, and since the onion often lacks heat here, it ripens faster; in addition, the ridges create better conditions for aeration, especially in wet years. Onions are best watered in furrows, and the ridges provide all the conditions for this. When watering from above, the bulbs ripen poorly and are poorly stored. It is more convenient to place the ridges from north to south. This contributes to better illumination of the plants. The optimum bed width is about 1 m and a height of 20-30 cm. Before sowing, the soil must be slightly compacted.
The root system of onions is located mainly in the surface layer of the soil, therefore fertilizers bring in shallowly. Onions require a small amount of nutrients, but it is difficult to meet the need for them, since the root system is poorly branched. Very slowly, onions absorb nutrients in the first two months of growth, more intensively - towards the end of summer. It is especially important to supply plants with nutrients during the initial period of life and during the period of bulb formation. It is noticed that the yield increase in onions is greater when applying mineral fertilizers than organic fertilizers.
Fresh manure is not applied under the onion, only under the predecessor. If the soil is poor in organic matter, before plowing or digging in the fall, the soil is filled with humus or compost (3-5 kg / m²) or rotted manure is introduced. Mineral fertilizers not only increase the yield of onions, but also have a positive effect on its keeping quality. A good fertilizer for onions is wood ash - 0.5-1.0 kg / m². It not only provides plants with micro- and macroelements, but also reduces the acidity of the soil, which oppresses the plants.
Onion plants have poor salt tolerance, they are sensitive to the concentration of the soil solution, so the doses of fertilizers should be small. With layer-by-layer application, nutrients are distributed evenly over the entire depth of the root layer and are absorbed by the plant as needed. Therefore, mineral fertilizers: ammonium nitrate 15-20 g / m², superphosphate 25-40 g / m², potassium chloride 10-15 g / m² are applied to a depth of 8-10 cm, and 2/3 of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied in the fall, and the remainder and the full dose of nitrogen - in the spring.
Continue reading "Growing onions through the set" →
candidate of agricultural sciences
Selected onion seeds are not a guarantee of a quality harvest. This culture is very fond of light, with a lack of it, the growth of vegetables slows down. However, it is important to choose not only illuminated areas, but also to buy seeds that, due to their characteristics, germinate well in your area. In other words, to plant a zoned variety.
Southern onions tend to grow at maximum day length. During the time until the indicator approaches 13-15 hours, the culture is gaining sufficient vegetative mass, in parallel, a large storage organ is formed. What happens if a southern variety is planted in the northern part of the country? The growing season and the period of bulb formation will decrease. This is because in the summer in these areas daylight hours quickly reach a maximum. The culture does not have time to form, the phase of active growth is replaced by rest. Accordingly, the onion remains small, its mass does not increase.
Planting northern varieties in the South is also not worth it. The following will happen: in anticipation of the maximum daylight hours, the culture for a long time increases the leaf mass, but the formation of bulbs does not occur.
Conclusion: you cannot grow large heads without taking into account the photoperiodicity. Grow southern varieties in the appropriate territories, northern ones too. If you ignore this rule, the heads will be small or will not form at all. Also consider the agricultural technology of the zoned variety.
The land for planting seedlings should be light and fertile, while it is undesirable to apply manure when planting onions, otherwise there is a high probability of burns in the plant. The place should be light, with a slight shade, but you should not plant a set in a dark place somewhere behind a bathhouse or warehouse - onion feathers will reach for sunlight and will fall early, the bulb will not form.
To get a rich harvest, in no case choose the beds where the onion grew before.
The best precursors for planting seed are cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers and legumes. You can plant seed bulbs near carrot beds so that these crops protect each other from pests.
It is important to harvest on time, otherwise there is a possibility that the bulbs may germinate. Shallot nests are removed from the ground when most of its feathers are dry. After removing from the soil, the onions must be dried in the shade. After that, the dried leaves are carefully removed, and the nests are disassembled into bulbs. The crop is folded in a box, net or box and stored in a cool, dark place where there is no high humidity.
Sometimes shallots are stored peeled, but this option can only be realized by freezing the vegetable. In the same way, you can store its feathers; it is recommended to chop the onion before freezing. Do not be afraid that after freezing the shallots will lose their useful qualities - frozen onions will retain vitamins and important elements.
Growing shallots is not difficult, the main thing is to follow all the recommendations and feed them on time. Do not forget about regular checks for the presence of insect pests, because the earlier the disease is detected, the more vegetables can be saved.
The preparation of the land for early sowing must be carried out in advance, starting in the fall. This will give the most tangible effect next season.
Farmers engaged in the cultivation of various plant crops use onion sets to get a harvest of large turnip. This technique guarantees the growth of large bulbs and leads to a more economical distribution of the planting material. Due to the small size of the seed, it is very convenient to plant it in the garden, observing the required distance. Onion seeds are not a guarantee of a good harvest, and the reason for the failure lies in the wrong selection of the variety.