Iridodictium (Iridodictyum) is a perennial bulbous plant belonging to the Iris family. In this regard, earlier the flower was called iris - snowdrop or reticulated iris. The area of growth of the culture is the mountains of Central Asia and the Caucasus. But due to its unpretentiousness, iridodictium can grow in other places. The genus is small in number, has only 11 species. The flower itself is a primrose, and pleases with its birth in early spring, when the ground is still covered with snow.
The rounded bulbs are small and reach a diameter of about 2 cm. The outer layer is decorated with scales. The bulb produces only one flower of beautiful delicate shades, sometimes with stripes or spots. Moreover, the petals are endowed with yellow beards in the form of hairs. The leaves are narrow, elongated, sometimes stretching up to 15 cm.
The time for planting iridodictium should be determined depending on the region. If these are southern territories, you should choose the end of September. The northern regions, where the climate is cold or temperate, are planted in early autumn.
The site for good growth of iridodictium must be well lit.
It is better to choose the soil for planting a flower without stagnant moisture in order to avoid specific diseases of the root system. The primer is either neutral or slightly alkaline.
The iridodictium flower does not like moist soil. It is enough to water it only during dry periods.
Top dressing is carried out once in the summer, when the leaves are still green. For these purposes, they use complex mineral fertilizers.
Within 5 years, the iridodictium plant does not need a pick.
In rainy summer, it is advisable to dig up the bulbs after flowering and store them in a dry room until October. Then plant it in the ground to a depth of no more than 6 cm.
The flower tolerates frosts well down to minus 10 degrees. In a particularly cold winter, the iris should be covered with spruce branches, dry leaves, and humus.
One of the more popular breeding methods for iridodictium is by growing daughter bulbs. They appear at 4-5 years of age. There are 2-3 daughter heads per adult bulb. After flowering, when the leaves turn yellow, the onions are dug up and stored until September. If the children are very small, then when they are transferred into the ground, they are not deeply buried and are grown for 3 years.
When planting large individuals, they are placed 8 cm deep into the soil. If there are small specimens, 4 cm is enough for them. A good effect can be achieved by planting onions in groups, at a distance of up to 10 cm between them.
They are sown in the ground in autumn, shoots sprout in spring. Flowering will begin after 3 years. Planting is carried out in holes with a depth of 1.5-2 cm.The distance between the rows is more than 20 cm.The gap between the seedlings is about 4 cm.
When sprouts appear, the beds are weeded, weak and diseased seedlings are removed. After such treatment, the gap between the seedlings should remain at least 7-8 cm. The grown plants are planted, observing the distance between them 22-25 cm, and after 2-3 years of growth, they are transferred to a permanent place.
Fungus and associated infections are possible due to the large amount of moisture in the soil. Outwardly, the disease looks like a change in the color of the onion to an ink shade. Professionals recommend removing them from the site and destroying them. Then the soil should be treated with a fungicide.
For the prevention of fungal diseases, it is necessary to observe all plant growing technologies, spray the ground with antifungal drugs of a wide spectrum of action.
For a long time, the iridodictium flower has been planted on flower beds and lawns. Many varieties exude a wonderful aroma, giving the iris even more charm. A special effect can be achieved by planting crocuses, hyacinths or primrose next to it. Bright beautiful flowers peep out from under the snow early, delighting those around with the arrival of spring. Sometimes the plant is grown in pots.
Today, the iridodictium flower is an invariable attribute of the alpine hills. An excellent view will open to the eye of the observer if the iris is planted on the south side of the stones, and not in separate bushes, but in whole groups resembling asymmetric clearings.
Net iris - strikes with the color of its inflorescences and their size. Blue and purple tones look good when decorating garden plots. And the size of the inflorescences, up to 7 cm in diameter, attract the attention of lovers of ornamental plants.
Several varieties have been cultivated, such as Claretta, Natasha, Violet, Joyce and many others, which have preserved the properties of the progenitor and multiplied them.
Dunford's Iridodictium - the perianth is distinguished by an unusual shape, reminiscent of a glass. The outer lobe is usually yellow-green in color, while on the inner side you can see a bright double stripe of greenish tone.
Iridodictium Vinogradov - is rare. Large perianth, 8 cm in diameter, covered with light green paint. The core of the flower is bright yellow, and on the petals corrugated along the edges there are spots and dots of dark tones.
Kolpakovsky's iridodictium - the species is rare and threatened with extinction. The leaves of the plant are about 14 cm long, the perianth reaches 6 cm in diameter. The inner lobes are pale blue, vertical. The outer parts are unfolded, turquoise in color with small dots and a gray stripe in the middle. The beard is rich yellow with a purple tongue.
Bulbous irises, planting features. Garden World site
Even the natural forms of irises are unusually decorative., and many years of work to create many varieties have made them one of the leading horticultural crops.
Among the huge variety of irises there are plants that reach a height of almost two meters - this is, for example, the aire-shaped iris. There are very small ones, such as crested iris, only 10-15 cm high. There are drought-resistant inhabitants of sun-baked rocks and marsh irises, which feel good only "knee-deep" in water.
Some irises are extremely hardy, others do not tolerate even small freezing temperatures, and they need to be dug out for the winter.
There are species that bloom in early spring, as soon as the snow melts, and there are those that open their flowers only in the middle of summer. But they are all beautiful, loved by us and desirable in any garden. And we will try to help you create your own iris garden.
Many perennials of this family, related to ground cover plants, are not demanding on growing conditions. Iris can grow both in sunny areas and in shaded areas, on soils with both moisture deficiency and high humidity.
In a fairly short time, they are able to create carpets, flower coverings, low groups, arrays that replace lawns. And during the flowering period, they represent unusually colorful flower oases.
According to their biological properties, perennial plants of the iris family are subdivided into frost-resistant and thermophilic ones.
Frost-hardy plants can easily tolerate rather low temperatures even without shelter, but they cannot tolerate sudden temperature changes. Even light frosts are harmful to heat-loving plants. Therefore, corms, bulbs, rhizomes and sown seeds of these plants are stored in greenhouses in winter.
By ecological and soil condition environment, there are several subspecies:
Photo: Crocus Flowers (Saffron)
Low-growing irises are planted in alpine and rocky gardens: Marigold, Dwarf, Leafless, Alberta, Milky white, Horned.
Are planted near reservoirs: Irises Swamp, multicolored, Bristly.
Photo: Iris marsh yellow
The most famous varieties of Xifium, which are divided into three groups: Spanish, English, Dutch.
One of the known hybrids between Acidantera and Gladiolus – Glidanter.
The best varieties of gladioli – these are: giant, large-flowered, medium-flowered, small-flowered.
Creating conditions for long-term growth, flowering and fruiting of these perennials consists in good care when growing them. It is necessary for the favorable development of their root system (rhizomes, corms, tubers) and buds of plant growth renewal. Thus, the rapid development of these perennials and their high decorative effect are achieved.
Weeding is carried out regularly, while removing weeds that violate the water and nutritional regime of plants.
When loosening the soil the necessary soil moisture and air conditions are maintained.
Watering is necessary to maintain optimal soil moisture, abundant watering is necessary during the growing season of plants.
Top dressing with organic fertilizers - in the spring, at the beginning of the growing season, it is necessary to introduce humus, compost, mullein into the soil. This slows down the growth of weeds, which violate the hydrotechnical regime necessary for the plants.
Fertilizing with mineral fertilizers - in early spring, when watering, nitrogen fertilizers are applied, which are necessary for plants for the development of their vegetative organs. In summer and early spring, during watering, potash and phosphorus fertilizers are also applied, which are necessary for good fruiting of plants.
Disease protection: potash and phosphorus fertilizers, which are applied during watering in early spring and summer, protect plants from fungal diseases.
Shelter for the winter - Plants that cannot withstand low temperatures must be covered for the winter with dry leaves, a small layer of peat chips, lilac or pine branches.
Plant transplant - to rejuvenate plants, the transplant is carried out 4-5-6 years after sowing.
In seed propagation, the seeds of these plants are sown in early spring or autumn in well-prepared, open beds located in slightly shaded, leveled places. The soil for their cultivation needs light, drained, nutritious, free from weeds.
Before planting, the seeds are recommended to be treated with a solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection, then they need to be dried. Iris Yellow, Iris Swamp are rarely propagated by seed, since its rather slow development and low germination are observed.
The seedlings of Juno and Xyphyum, which bloom only 4-5 years after sowing, also develop slowly. In the second year after sowing, the seedlings of Iridodictium, Iris Low, Acidantera bloom. For breeding purposes, Gladioli and Iris (Iris, Cockerel) are propagated. Wildly growing species of Iris (Iris, Cockerel) also reproduce by seed.
Every year there is a renewal of the development cycle of perennial plants of the family Iris and Iris. Their growth, flowering and fruiting occurs due to rhizomes, corms, tubers, stems, separated parts of the bush of those plants that have undergone wintering.
The methods of vegetative propagation of these plants differ from the decorative-growing family of honeysuckle, there are much more of them and they are as follows:
Dividing rhizomes Iris (Iris, Cockerel), Iris Yellow, Iris Swamp, Iris Low are propagated. The rhizome is divided into as many parts as it contains leaf segments.
By dividing the bush three to four years of age are propagated by Iris Siberian. The division is carried out so that its divided parts contain growth buds, rudimentary shoots and roots.
Propagated by cuttings Iris Siberian. For this, stem summer cuttings are used, as well as those obtained from vegetative or apical shoots.
The separated parts of the rhizomes, bush and cuttings are planted for a year for growing, that is, to achieve their established conditions. They are planted in light sandy loam, nutritious, moderately moist soil. All this time, caring for plants consists in feeding, watering, loosening the soil, weeding. A year later, the plant is planted in a permanent place, at the end of August - at the beginning of September.
Bulbs are propagated Juno, Iridodictium, Xyphium. They are planted in open ground in August-September at a planting depth of 5-10 cm in a well-prepared nutrient soil. With the onset of stable cold weather, they are covered with spruce or pine branches, a small layer of peat crumbs or dry leaves by 10-15 cm. In the spring this layer is removed.
Corms are propagated Acidantera, Crocus, Gladioli. For planting plants, the soil is prepared by introducing well-decomposed humus, superphosphate into it, and dug deeply. Dry scales are removed from the corms before planting, disinfected for 1-2 hours in a 0.3% solution of potassium permanganate or kept in an infusion of garlic for 2-3 hours (1 kg of garlic per 10 liters of water). In the second half of April, after the soil warms up to 80 degrees, the corms are planted: large ones - in furrows to a depth of 12-15 cm, small ones - 10-12 cm.The distance between plants should be 15-20 cm, between rows - 25-30 cm.
To rejuvenate the planting material, it is recommended to sow children annually. They are sown in furrows to a depth of 4-6 cm, after removing the dry shell or soaking them in water at room temperature for two days. In early October, in sunny weather, the stem is cut to the ground, the corms are dug up, dried, removing the old roots. Dried corms are stored in greenhouses at a temperature of 4-6 degrees and an air humidity of 60-70%.
The main use of iris is in decorative floriculture throughout the world (iris, crocus, gladiolus, sisirinchium, ixia, tigridia, freesia, etc.).
Iridodictiums are propagated by seeds in the middle or at the end of summer, sown in prepared beds shortly after their collection, by daughter bulbs, during transplantation (after seed ripening) or vegetatively. They are grown on humus-rich, well-drained soils.
Plants can grow on slightly acidic soil, but it is still better to add dolomite flour, three-year rotted manure, wood ash before planting. When planting, it is preferable to choose open sunny areas, then in early spring you will be able to fully appreciate the beauty of these plants. But you should not plant them in places that are flooded in spring with flood waters, as well as with close groundwater. It is necessary to plant iridodictium bulbs in pre-prepared places with good drainage and no deeper than 10-15 cm. The further north the site, the smaller the plants need to be planted, but with obligatory shelter (at least mulch) for the winter. They can grow in one place for up to 5 years or more without a transplant. Iridodictiums are relatively winter-hardy, but in severe and little snowy winters, especially in the northern regions of the country, they need to be covered with a dry leaf or sphagnum. Top dressing with mineral and complex fertilizers with microelements is carried out after the snow melts or even often over the snow, so that they are washed into the root zone with melt water.
PhD in Biological Sciences
The scientific department of floriculture includes scientific workers of the department and laboratory of selection of flower and ornamental crops.
1. Preservation and replenishment of the collection of flower and ornamental crops.
2. Introduction of flower and ornamental crops by groups:
3. Preservation and reproduction of plants of the natural flora of the Caucasus - perennial decorative herbaceous, disappearing and listed in the Red Book of plants.
4. Study of varieties of intensive use - gardening, cutting, arrangement, container culture.
5. Technology of cultivation of flower and ornamental plants.
6. Landscaping and design:
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1. Galanthus or snowdrop (Galanthus)
The French call this delicate touching flower a snow bell, the British call it a snow drop. After all, this is the very first spring flower. Snowdrifts are still lying around, and this brave kid is already blooming on the first thawed patches. There is a legend that the goddess Flora, giving flowers to flowers for the spring carnival, gave a snowdrop snowdrop. Snow also wanted to participate in the carnival, but he was not entitled to an outfit, and he began to ask flowers to share their robes with him. But the flowers, fearing the cold, refused the snow, and only a small snowdrop covered it with its tunic. In gratitude for this, the snow has since sheltered the Snowdrop from the cold. So they are friends to this day: white snow and white snowdrop.
The name speaks for itself. The hellebore blooms in the cold. In its native places (in the Caucasus), it blooms in winter (at the end of February). Thanks to legend, the hellebore is sometimes called “the rose of Christ”. For the first time it was found near the stable where Christ was born, and since then, as if in memory of this event, the hellebore blooms in the south in winter.
3. Crocus or saffron (Crocus)
Crocuses are the favorite flowers of gardeners and city planters. Crocuses have bloomed - it means that spring has come. The ancient Greeks considered crocus to be the flower of the dawn goddess Aurora, the flower of awakening nature. There is a beautiful legend. On one of the spring days, on the banks of the river, love happened between the god Zeus and the Hero. The warmth of their passion awakened the earth, and the clearing was covered with beautiful white and purple crocus flowers. “Closing your eyes, imagine a noble saffron, and then you will see everything: the noble blue of the sky, the mysterious yellow moon, pink morning dawn and lilac-red twilight,” so they said about crocuses in the Ancient East.
4. Scilla or scilla
As soon as the snow melts, blue flowers of the forest appear, which many incorrectly, although deservedly called "snowdrops". Most species of tree species have bright blue flowers. The meadows of flowering plants in the garden resemble lakes, which reflect the clear spring sky.
In the inflorescences of this primrose, you can see both pink and dark blue flowers.
There is a legend that the dark blue flowers of the lungwort are the flowers of Adam, the first man. And the pink ones are the flowers of Eve, the first woman. Two different colors of flowers on one plant symbolize the unity of opposites.
However, from a scientific point of view, this is easily explained. Anthocyanins, plant pigments in plant cells responsible for the color of the petals, change their color depending on the acidity of the cell sap. With a decrease in the acidity of the cell juice, anthocyanins turn blue, and with an increase in acidity they turn pink. Freshly blossomed flowers have a high acidity of cell sap, so they are pink. And in the process of aging of flowers, the acidity of their juice decreases, so anthocyanins gradually turn blue
The name of this flower comes from the Greek word "narkao" - intoxicate, stun, which is probably due to its strong aroma. Many legends are associated with the beautiful daffodil. The Greeks consider him a symbol of cold beauty, narcissism, vanity and selfishness. This is connected with the story of the beautiful young man Narcissus and the unrequited nymph Echo in love with him. Narcissus, as punishment for neglecting love, Echo was condemned to love his reflection. According to legend, a daffodil flower grew where the beautiful Greek youth Narcissus, who fell in love with his reflection in the water, died of self-love. In ancient Persia, poets compared the eyes of their beloved with the flowers of a daffodil. The ancient Romans greeted the winners of battles with yellow daffodils. And now the daffodil is the most beloved flower of the British, to which even the rose is inferior in popularity in the UK.
8. Anemone or anemone (Anemone)
nemona or anemone is considered one of the first messengers of spring. Indeed, many species of anemone, including oak and buttercup, are early spring flowering plants. And the oak anemone in general is often called "snowdrop" for its early flowering and for the snow-white color of its flower. As soon as the snow melts and the buds of the trees begin to swell, this lovely delicate flower covers the space under the forest canopy with a solid white carpet. The most delicate petals sway from the slightest breath of wind, which is where the name "anemone" comes from.
In the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere, there are about 320 species of Corydalis. These are some of the earliest spring flowers to delight the eye after a long winter. Corydalis usually begin to grow under the snow, in March. And in April, very cute tassel inflorescences appear. In the forest in early spring, lilac islets of the corydalis are very beautifully diluted with the white seas of the oak tree anemone.