If you want to decorate your site, create an original hedge and at the same time harvest healthy fruits, pay attention to the Japanese quince.
Japanese quince is a low-growing ornamental shrub. She will decorate any garden in spring, when many huge (for its small stature) orange-red flowers up to 4 cm in diameter, which are strewn with all the branches, are blooming on it.
In summer, the plant attracts the eye with its glossy foliage with pouring fruits. In autumn, it is strewn with medium-sized yellow fruitsresembling small apples.
Gardeners mainly plant low shrubs for decorative purposes. A group of 3-5 plants looks very good on lawns. A small bush of quince will decorate a flower bed or an alpine slide, often used in landscape design.
Shrub blooms in May and, due to the uneven opening of the buds, the bright bloom stretches for 2-3 weeks.
Spireas, forsythia and magonia will become worthy partners in garden compositions for her.
Quince has the ability to grow in breadth due to abundant root growth, and this is its quality very often used to strengthen slopes (it holds the soil).
You need to be careful with shrubs, as there are sharp thorns on some varieties.
Henomeles (Japanese quince) due to its frost resistance (withstands frosts down to -25 ° well) suitable for growing in the Moscow region... With frosts below -30 ° C, the buds may freeze, but the bush will not die.
When properly grown, the shrub can grow up to 40 years old.
Japanese quince, or chaenomeles:
Quince is not demanding on growing conditions, but there are several conditions that must be taken into account when planting a seedling:
It is preferable to plant quince in the spring; during autumn planting, the plant may not have time to take root and freeze.
Further care for a young seedling consists of watering, but waterlogging of the soil should not be allowed in order to avoid rotting of the roots, regular loosening of the soil around the bushes.
Since during planting all the necessary batteries were introduced, then no need to feed the plant for two years after planting.
Adult plants in the spring, after the snow melts, are fed with ammonium nitrate about 20 g per bush. In the summer, they give liquid fertilizing with organic matter (diluted mullein or bird droppings). Superphosphate is introduced in the fall.
The plant is winter-hardy, but young seedlings in the conditions of the Moscow region for the winter in the first years after planting are better to insulate.
To do this, you can use spruce branches or covering small plants with covering material (spandbond or lutrasil), put wooden or plastic boxes on top and sprinkle with fallen leaves.
Quince fruiting annually, starting from the third year after planting.
Chaenomeles cross-pollinated plant, therefore, for better pollination and increase yields, 2-3 bushes need to be planted nearby.
Features of planting chaenomeles:
There are several ways to breed Japanese quince.
Due to the fact that varietal qualities are not preserved during seed reproduction, it is used when growing rootstocks with further grafting.
Seeds collected from fruits in autumn are stored in moist sand at a temperature of about 0 ° C throughout the winter. (thus they are stratified).
Seeds are sown in planting containers in February - March, after 1.5 months they dive into separate containers and at the end of May and beginning of June, the seedlings are ready for planting in open ground.
Regular watering and feeding is carried out until autumn., for the winter, seedlings that are not yet fully strengthened are insulated with fallen leaves.
The easiest way is to plant the seeds collected in autumn immediately in prepared rows, sprinkle with earth, cover with polyethylene and cover with foliage.
The germination of such seeds is excellent., since they have undergone natural stratification, in the spring dense seedlings must be thinned out, leaving the strongest ones. By the fall, the seedlings are ready to be transplanted to a permanent place of growth.
In early June, green cuttings are carried out... Annual cuttings with a "heel" (a piece of last year's wood) are cut. Slices are processed by "Kornevin" for better rooting and planted in the school at an angle.
To maintain humidity, cover the plantings with plastic wrap. By the fall, the seedlings are ready for transplanting to a permanent place, but it is better to do this in the spring.
You can cut ripe cuttings in the fall, dig under a bush at a depth of 20-30 cm, be sure to outline the place.
During the winter, callus forms at the ends of the cuttings, and with the onset of spring, the cuttings are planted immediately in a permanent place.
The easiest way to reproduce... Shoots with a well-developed root system are separated from the mother bush (root shoots) and transplanted.
Quince often grows creeping shoots, having dug in which you can get seedlings for subsequent reproduction.
The shrub tolerates pruning very well, but most gardeners, due to the thorniness of the plant, do not do it in vain. Quince pruning is necessary to improve growth and crown formation for decorative purposes.
There are three types of trimming:
In order to avoid the penetration of diseases into the plant, all sections must be treated with garden varnish.
Chaenomeles is not damaged by pests and has great resistance to diseases, but in cool and rainy summers such diseases as:
To combat diseases, spraying shrubs with solutions of copper sulfate (10% concentration) or a solution of foundationol (concentration 0.2%) works effectively.
In central Russia, low-growing varieties up to 1 m in height are grown, with arched branches and a spreading crown.
Of the domestic varieties, the most common are:
The most famous foreign varieties:
Quince fruits are small, hard and sour in taste, but very aromatic and with a high content of vitamin C. They are harvested in September - October, before the onset of frost.
They are stored at an air temperature of 1-2 ° C for 2-3 months. As a result of maturation, they become softer, the sweet aroma is enhanced.
The easiest way is to cut the quince fruits into slices or grate, sprinkle with sugar in a 1: 1 ratio and store in the refrigerator. This blank is used in the preparation of drinks and added to tea.
Jams, jams are also made from the fruits of chaenomelis, and added to compotes. Due to the high iron content, chopped fruits darken quickly.
Japanese quince. Northern lemon:
For 1 kg of quince you need: 2 kg of sugar and 1.5 cups of water. Wash the quince, dry it, remove seeds and hard white partitions, cut into small wedges.
Put slices in boiling syrup, boil over low heat for 10 minutes, removing the foam, then remove from heat and leave for 12 hours. Boil the jam again for 10 minutes, etc. until the quince slices become transparent.
We lay out the finished jam in sterilized jars, leave it until winter. In winter, aromatic jam will remind you of the beauty of flowering shrubs and the approaching warm summer.
Japanese quince is unpretentious in cultivation, it is undemanding in attention and it is easy to care for it, but at the same time it is beautiful in flowering and useful in application.
Japanese quince is an oblique arcuate branch, beautiful at the time of flowering, a dense crown and fragrant fruits. It is the trees and shrubs that make our summer cottage garden. If your site is located closer to the North Pole than you need, but you passionately want to have cultivated fruits of a tree, and to embellish the landscape design, then I advise you to plant a shrub in your country house that can replace it - Japanese quince.
Despite the sour taste of quince, amazing jellies, jam with walnuts, compote, marshmallow and baked homemade preparations for the winter are obtained from it. Let's not forget about the content of monosugar, vitamins and biologically active substances in fruits. In medicine, quince leaves are also used.
Japanese quince is planted in the spring before the start of sap flow or in the fall three to four weeks before the onset of frost. It is necessary to plant a shrub immediately in a permanent place, its root grows long, it is injured when digging up, it is undesirable to transplant the plant, it may not take root in another place. Usually, annual seedlings are sold with an open root system, and two-year-olds are sold in a container, they are planted with their own earthen clod, which helps young plants to endure stress.
Japanese quince, planting and caring for which does not require too much effort and time, loves warmth and sun, which means that you need to choose an open place for it, on the south or southwest side of the buildings. It can grow in light partial shade, but the larger the shade, the smaller the fruits will be, the slower the shoots will develop. It is advisable to prepare the soil in advance, the preferences of Japanese quince are in the rejection of heavy, too wet, alkaline, too acidic, peaty soils. She likes loose, breathable neutral soils, rich in humus, without stagnant water. If the soil at the selected location does not meet the requirements, it must be prepared.
For spring planting, in the fall, they clear a place, select all the roots of perennial grasses, dig up, add sand and leafy soil if necessary, add humus or compost, superphosphate and potassium salt. At a depth of 15 cm, a loose fertile soil should form, which is watered and left until spring.
In the spring, a pit with a diameter of 40 cm and a depth of up to 80 cm is prepared in a prepared place. The earth from the pit is mixed with humus, ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, and wood ash. Part of it is poured into a pit, a seedling is placed and covered so that the root collar is at ground level. It is not necessary to leave it on top so that it does not freeze, but it is not worth deeply deepening - not to provoke the growth of wild growth, it is best to focus on the level that was in the nursery.
If the quince (chaenomeles) does not grow singly, but in a group, then you do not need to plant the shrub closer to each other than after 50 cm, they are planted a little closer only for a hedge so that the plants close together.
The Japanese quince, of course, appreciates care, but it will grow even if it is forgotten. But then it may turn out that the shrub has grown terribly, occupies an ever larger area, does not bear fruit, and forms fewer flowers or freezes in winter. To prevent this from happening, you need to look after the plant - water, cut, feed, cover for the winter. Quince requires cross-pollination for the formation of fruits, therefore, at least one more plant of a different variety must grow on the site (possibly a neighbor).
Even varieties that are declared frost-resistant must be protected from winter frosts and blizzards. The shoots of the first year, not covered with snow, usually freeze out at temperatures below -20 degrees, there are no fruits on the branches affected by frost. But the deep bedding of the roots, more precisely, the long powerful root of an adult plant will save it from complete freezing, but with young bushes you need to be decisive and cover them completely.
The land around the shoots is mulched in the fall with compost, earth with sand, sawdust, crushed bark, pine nut skins to a height of 10-15 cm, capturing an area equal to the projection of the crown. Young, not very overgrown bushes are wrapped in lutrasil or similar material, and in winter they are covered with snow. Adult bushes are covered with dry leaves of fruit trees, and covered with spruce branches on top. It is necessary to specially hold back the snow, throw it on the bushes. Under a snowdrift, if the snow lasts until the end of winter, the Japanese quince will winter well, no matter how cold it comes.
Growing and caring for quince requires proper watering. This plant tolerates a lack of moisture more easily than an excess of it. It is enough to water adult bushes once a month, but abundantly so that the water gets to a depth of more than a meter; in the complete absence of rain, they are watered more often - after 2 - 3 weeks.
And young seedlings are well watered after planting, then they moisten the ground every decade (if there is no rain), gradually increasing the interval between waterings. In the summer, when the ground warms up enough, the area under the bush is loosened to a depth of 10 cm, and mulched after watering. The cleanliness of the land must be monitored all the time, weeds must be removed, but it is enough to loosen deeply twice a season - in early summer and autumn.
If, during planting, the site was well prepared and the hole was filled with fertilizers, then liquid fertilizing begins to be applied in the second, or even in the third year of life.In early spring and with the beginning of flowering, the plant needs nitrogen fertilizers, and in the fall potash-phosphorus fertilizers are applied, which will help to gain strength for wintering.
Quince well perceives humus, which is laid out in early spring under a bush, liquid top dressing with a solution of bird droppings, wood ash, superphosphate, potassium salts, ammonium nitrate.
Liquid dressings are applied after watering so that their consumption is slow and gradual. The first year the plants are not fertilized after planting.
In the spring, sanitary pruning is carried out annually - they remove frozen or injured shoots, remove excess root layers, which grow in large quantities every year. If they are not removed, then the bush grows at an incredible speed - a twenty-year-old plant can occupy an area of 2 square meters. Cut shoots growing parallel to the ground or inside the bush, forming its crown. Before cutting the chaenomeles, you need to disinfect sharp tools (saw, pruning shears) and protect your hands from thorns with thick gloves.
When the bush reaches the age of 8 - 10 years, they begin to carry out anti-aging pruning, remove shoots older than five years, keeping about 15 shoots. Quince tolerates pruning well, hedges are sheared annually, giving it the desired shape, shortening all the shoots, and not just removing the excess ones.
Quince is not such a popular fruit as an apple or a pear, while it can be safely called a natural pharmacy:
Quince in syrup can be stored in a dark, cool place for up to 12 months
The Persian scientist Avicenna, who lived at the end of the 9th century, used the fruit to relieve indigestion. In addition, he recommended that people with chronic liver diseases and weak stomachs drink a mixture of quince juice, vinegar and honey.
It is recommended to include quince fruits in the diet of men over 30. The beneficial substances that are part of the fruit are an excellent prevention of diseases of the urinary tract and prostate gland.
Since a woman's body undergoes physical changes while carrying a child, there is an urgent need for such useful elements as iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus.
All of these minerals are involved in:
Many women in the first trimester of pregnancy experience malaise, accompanied by toxicosis. During this period, it is recommended to use quince, because it has antiemetic properties. The fruits should be boiled and taken in 100-120 grams 3 times a day. Women who are breastfeeding should eliminate quince from their diet. The fruit causes constipation and bloating in the baby.
Low fat content, presence of dietary fiber and absence of cholesterol - all this makes quince a valuable dietary product.
Overeating quince can be harmful to health and provoke:
A quit apple contains a small amount of sugar. However, people with diabetes should take this fact into account when compiling their daily diet.
To know how to plant Japanese quince, carefully read the following tips from experienced gardeners. In principle, chaenomeles is distinguished by a certain capriciousness and exactingness only at a young age. During this period, the plant needs moderate moisture, which implies the absence of moisture stagnation.
In the future, such difficulties should not arise. True, one must nevertheless take into account that in poor lighting the plant may not bloom so luxuriantly and is unlikely to bear fruit.
How to plant Japanese quince correctly so that it delights you with its delicate flowers? As you may have guessed, you should choose a landing site that is sufficiently lit.
Further, do not forget that during the winter period of time the plant must be under the snow. Therefore, look for a spot where massive snow is forming. And if your snowstorms are very frequent guests, do not forget to cover the shrub with spruce branches or fallen leaves.
A very characteristic feature of the plant is that it is able to thrive and grow well in almost any soil. So if you plant a shrub on wet clay or poor sandy soil, Japanese quince will perfectly accept and give a lush color. But this will only happen if the land is moderately moist, as mentioned earlier, and rich in humus.
Only on such soils as calcareous and saline, chaenomeles will not be able to grow. Note that alkaline soil will cause chlorosis in the leaves.
It is best to plant Japanese quince in the area that is located on the south side of a country house, or in a secluded corner that is well protected from northern winds.
Pay attention to the photo of Japanese quince: if the planting was done correctly, your plant will give a similar fertile color:
You need to remember that if you decide to plant shrubs in the spring, you need to prepare the soil in the fall. To do this, you should completely clear the area of weeds, if any, and keep the selected area under black steam until planting. Be sure to apply such fertilizers to the soil as peat-manure compost in the amount of 10 kg / m2, potash and phosphorus fertilizers in the amount of 40 g / m2. This contributes to the creation of the necessary water and air permeable ball of the earth.
If you want to decorate your garden with a plant with an open root system and plant it in a permanent place, choose a time for planting in the spring, when the soil has already thawed, but the buds have not yet begun to bloom. In autumn, planting of Japanese quince is also possible, but since chaenomeles is thermophilic, it can suffer or even die.
Be sure to take a good look at the photo of the Japanese quince, the care and planting of which assumes that the shrub will be planted in small groups or along the paths so that a low hedge is formed:
In such cases, each plant should be at a distance of one and a half meters from each other if they are collected in a row, and at a distance of up to 1 meter if the quince forms a group.
Planting Japanese quince in the open field is considered incorrect: the root collar of the bush must be located at the level of the soil, but the root should never be exposed! It is also important that the root collar, too deep in the ground, does not contribute to a slowdown in the growth of chaenomeles.
Remember that this plant reacts very badly to transplanting, and an experienced gardener will never disturb him again. It is known that in one place quince can give a lush color up to 60 years.
Well, when chaenomeles is already planted, it's time to think about how to grow Japanese quince healthy and beautiful.
In order for the plant to bloom luxuriantly in summer, the soil around it is carefully loosened at a depth of about 10 cm. This procedure is combined with the destruction of weeds.
For an even more effective result, which you will see if you look at the photo, in caring for Japanese quince, a method such as mulching is used - that is, covering the ground with a layer of mulch (peat, sawdust or crushed bark) to protect the shrub:
To apply this method, it is better to stock up on everything you need in late spring and carry out the procedure while the soil is still wet enough, but already well warmed up. In autumn, mulching is performed only when a constant low temperature has already been established.
In the cultivation and care of the Japanese quince, which was planted a year ago, gardeners do not recommend using liquid dressings that can easily injure young roots. And without the use of these funds, the plant will have enough nutrients in the planting hole. But already in the second or third year, when spring comes and the snow melts, experts advise making organic and mineral fertilizers.
They will contribute to the lush color and fruiting, which you can observe in the photo of Japanese quince, which was also grown using fertilizers in the form of liquid dressings:
The best period for planting Japanese quince is spring, when the earth has already thawed, and the buds have not yet blossomed. A biennial plant planted from a container with closed roots takes root well. It is not advisable to plant quince in the fall, it loves warmth and may die before it really takes root. The plant also does not like frequent transplants, so it is better to immediately find a permanent place for it.
The heat-loving Japanese quince, when grown, prefers sunlit places, closed from the wind. It is better to choose a corner for her on the south side, well illuminated by the sun, since in the shade the plant blooms poorly and develops poorly.
It is not difficult to grow Japanese quince, it grows well on almost any soil, with the exception of peaty soils. The main requirement for the composition of the soil is the absence of salinity and lime inclusions. Chaenomeles grows best on soil that has good drainage, fertilization and moderate moisture. Beware of planting the plant on alkaline soil - chlorosis of the leaves will appear. The plant is resistant to dry periods, although at an early age, after planting, it needs moisture, but without moisture stagnation. Before planting Japanese quince, you need to clear the soil of weeds, poor and heavy soil must be "diluted" with leafy soil and sand, fertilized with peat-manure composition, as well as phosphorus additives.
The oldest of the existing varieties is considered to be the Portuguese quince, which was bred by the ancient Romans. The quince fruit tree is a very pliable plant for breeders.
Currently, several dozen varieties have been created, and this work does not stand still. The main centers for the selection of quince are Central Asia, the Lower Volga region, Moldova, Crimea, as well as the south of Western Europe.
Varieties from the Lower Volga region show high resistance to low temperatures:
The most winter-hardy Moldovan varieties:
The most productive among gardeners are the following varieties: Success, Sweet, Golden Moldavian, Stepnoy Champion, and the common quince varieties are famous for the best taste qualities of fruits:
In ancient times, the fruit quince was called the "golden apple" for a reason.
Its fruits are tasty and aromatic, in addition, they are also very useful - they have a beneficial effect on the nervous system, invigorate and lift the mood, and also have general strengthening and antiseptic properties for the body.
Quince blanks are a real delicacy on cold winter evenings for tea, as well as for a merry festive feast.