Being a shabashnik for many years in Soviet times, in conditions of a chronic shortage of joinery products (and even more so in rural areas), I learned to find a way out of the most difficult situations. Especially often there was a lack of window sashes. And I got the hang of making them from scrap materials. This is what I'm going to tell you about ...
No, I do not urge to immediately make complex bindings with sashes, vents, transoms, but I propose to start with the simplest ones, with one or two crotch (picture 1). When you acquire the necessary skills, feel confident, then you can take on bindings with several slabs (picture 2), and then for the most intricate ones. In this case, as the saying goes: "Big ship - big voyage." In the meantime, let's start small ...
1. Left vertical strapping bar.
2. Upper horizontal strapping bar.
3. Bottom horizontal strapping bar.
4. Horizontal slab.
5. Vertical slab.
6. Right vertical strapping bar.
Of course, any new unfamiliar business instills a feeling of insecurity and even scares. However, I advise you to remember the well-known expression from ancient times: "It is not the gods who burn pots." That's right: not gods, but ordinary people - potters. It's the same with the sashes. We start, of course, with lumber. Maybe it will seem surprising to some, but having made several dozen frames, bindings, I did not buy a single blank. He always managed with what was at hand.
In urban settings, finding suitable bars is not difficult at all. And their inexhaustible source is containers in the yards. What is there not! Pallets, shields, frames, slats, and you never know what else is suitable. There are a lot of waste (but not for you!) Materials at construction sites. Naturally, among all the variety, you need to choose only the right ones and of good quality. Do not hesitate at all: search and you will definitely find such.
Now, after general considerations, we proceed directly to the manufacture of window coverings. As an example, I will take one of the simplest models, the so-called "blind binding" or a frame with three glasses. So far, no imposts. An impost is a bar reinforced in a window frame between a sash and a transom. To make it clearer, I will explain: it is to the impost that the transom is attached and the sash adjoins. Imposts are horizontal and vertical (picture 3).
2. Right vertical strapping bar.
3. Left vertical strapping bar.
4. Sash with a window.
5. Horizontal slab under the window.
6. A window.
7. The transom.
9. Sash without a vent.
10. Horizontal impost.
11. Vertical impost.
It is clear that the blind binding is made of six bars of the same cross-section. If they are not the same, then they must be adjusted to the same size. For this purpose, from those bars that are thicker or wider than the rest, it is necessary to remove all unnecessary. This is mainly done with an ax, but you can also cut it down, but this is a long and difficult task. But the surface treated in this way will be much smoother.
If you start to process the bars with an ax without preliminary preparation, then due to knots, uneven structure of wood, you will get a very uneven surface, with pits and bulges. And in order to largely avoid this, make cuts in the blanks (picture 4). The more cuts, the smoother the cutting area will be. Then chop down with an ax or chisel to the desired size. Then carefully align the entire workpiece with a plane.
When all the bars are ready, you can start making the frame - binding. But first, let's define the terms that are used in carpentry (picture 1). Previously, on all the bars, you must select the folds - the recesses into which the glasses are inserted. In vertical and horizontal slabs, this must be done on both sides. I usually make the depth of the folds 10 millimeters, although the depth depends on the thickness of the particular glazing bead, so that it, pressing the glass, is flush with the frame.
It is advisable to choose the bars so that there are no knots on those sides where the folds are selected, since their cutting is very, very difficult. In addition, by sawing a knot, you run the risk of getting into trouble - part of the knot will fall out, and there will be a hole in its place. In every possible way, avoid through knots in the bars.
It is very convenient to choose folds with an electric plane with a device for this purpose or a special plane - zenzubel... If they are not there, it doesn’t matter either. Folds can also be selected manually. To do this, draw risks on the bar (picture 5) and, securing it (best in a vice), start sawing. But there is a subtlety ... The saw, or rather, the file for this work should be with fine teeth and very short. Otherwise, it will bend and the cut will turn out to be uneven. And the very work with such a tool will turn into a continuous hassle.
If there are no fine-toothed saws or the so-called "narrow" saw, then I suggest doing this ... Take a small saw, break it off, as shown in Figure 6 and start working. The final fold looks like this (picture 7). In width, the folds can be with slight deviations from the dimensions indicated by the risks, since after installing the glass they will be closed by a glazing bead. In depth, try to make the folds the same. Otherwise, when assembled, they will be at different levels. For clarity, imagine that you are placing glass on a quadrangular frame, in which, for example, one side is lower and the other is higher than the other two. It is clear that the glass placed on them will lie unevenly, to put it simply, “play”.
You can, of course, try to equalize the depth of the folds, in one case, putting putty or something else, in the other, removing the protruding parts. But why create extra work for yourself ?!
If the folds are made, as expected, we proceed, perhaps, to the most important work: filing spikes and lugs... The name itself spike indicates that this is a ledge. BUT eye - this is the groove where the tenon is inserted.
Before proceeding to sawing them out, I very much advise you to remember the well-known proverb: "Measure seven times, cut once." She comes in handy here. And here's why ... Even a slight bias, any inaccuracy of a spike or eyelet leads to the fact that all your previous work goes down the drain.
... A cleat that is thicker than the eyelet will split the harness bar into which it enters. A spike, made smaller than an eyelet, creates a flimsy connection. The spike will simply "dangle" in the eyelet. Therefore, the manufacture of spikes and eyelets should be very careful. When cutting them out, you must constantly make sure that the cut on both sides does not deviate by a millimeter from the vertical direction.
Before starting to cut, you should pay attention to two circumstances ... First, the shoulders of the thorns are always not the same (picture 8): the front shoulder is smaller than the back one by the width of the fold. If you do not take this into account, then the finished binding will look like this: (picture 9) the non-shaded part is the folds. The part that is shown with a dotted line must be cut off. The same should be done with the ends of the folds of the vertical strapping bars.
In some publications on carpentry, it is advised to make window sashes on two or even three thorns (figure 10). I do one (figure 8). This means that only two cuts have to be made on each bar. The fewer cuts, the less likely they are skewed, and, as a result, the tighter the connection.
Since we will assume that we have two cuts, we mark the end of each strapping bar into three equal parts. Then we cut it out. Here it must be remembered that the thorn is cut out from the outside of the lines, the eyelet from the inside. I use a metal hacksaw for this job. If, again, a saw is used, then it must be sharp, with fine, equally spaced teeth.
When the lugs are sawn down to the end, how to remove the middle part? (See Figure 11). I select a drill of the appropriate diameter and drill. And, of course, I round off the end of the thorn. However, instead of a drill, you can easily use a chisel. And if the slot turns out to be too uneven, clean it with a file with a large notch.
I must repeat again: the details in the nodes, for example, the spikes in the lugs, must be connected very tightly, without the slightest gaps. If, when sawing, the cut still turned out to be ragged, it is necessary to clean it with a chisel. After the quadrangular frame is assembled while still dry without glue, we begin to insert the slabs into it. Usually they are made from bars of the same cross-section as the strapping bars. I put more massive slabs, and this saved the house from intruders (Figure 12).
The thieves, trying to enter the house, acted in a standard way ... In the outer window frame, they unscrewed the glazing beads with a screwdriver and took out the glass. The glass of the inner frame was stripped with a glass cutter, after which it was simply squeezed out. And then a non-standard situation awaited them: a frame with reinforced slabs. Thick massive slabs of the inner frame (inserted for the winter) narrowed the window opening so that it was impossible to crawl through it. The thieves did not dare to break the cover ... Firstly, high from the ground, which means it is inconvenient to do this. Secondly, two frames would have to be destroyed, and the intruders do not need any extra noise. And so they got away, eating incessantly.
Again, on the pages of various publications it is recommended to make a double spike in the sash. I get by with one and think that this is quite enough.
You can make a thorn and, accordingly, an eyelet in two ways: if there is a drill with a diameter of more than 10 millimeters, we drill holes in the strapping bars and make the thorn round (figure 13). And you can make a spike of two types rectangular (figure 14). We make the eyelet in the horizontal slab in half a tree, the rest - through.
Now that all the details of the binding are made, we collect it. We cut off and clean up all protrusions, irregularities, roughness. Be sure to check the tightness of the fit of the parts to each other and their rectangularity (with a square in the corners, a rail or a meter diagonally).
After checking the binding, we mark all the details, disassemble, coat them with any wood glue and reassemble.
I advise you to do it in this sequence (Figure 15)
first bars 3, 4, 5: insert into bar 1,
then insert block 2,
and put a strapping bar on it 6.
After that, in all corners, we drill holes with a diameter of 10-12 millimeters and, having smeared the holes and pins (wooden nails, plugs, call it what you want) with glue, insert them into the holes and hammer them to the end with a hammer. The dowel should fit very tightly into the hole. Sometimes, instead of a dowel, metal corners are used (figure 16). This is how anyone likes ... It is permissible to use both at the same time.
After drying, the beads of glue must be removed, and the binding must be cleaned with sandpaper. As a result of all these manipulations, the frame will look like in Figure 17. Having cleaned the binding, on the lower bar of the strapping and on the horizontal slab we install an ebb (picture 18). The length of the ebb is equal to the width of the binding. Instead of a wooden ebb, I put a strip of galvanized iron.
Stepping back from one edge - its long part, I bend it at an angle of about 45 degrees and tightly nail it or screw it with screws to the bar. Although, of course, a wooden ebb tide looks much more aesthetically pleasing, more harmonious than a metal one, a strip of galvanized steel lasts much longer and is much easier to manufacture. But again - each in this case acts according to his own understanding. Now the binding frame is finally assembled and ready for use..
I hope I have told you how to make a binding window frame without any problems. Having made several such frame bindings with your own hands, you may well want to create much more complex products. And then back to business! And, having started, in no case do not despair, do not retreat and do not give up what you started. Be guided by the immortal aphorism of Horace: "If the matter itself is not given in the hands, we must steadily move forward." Look for a way out of the most seemingly dead-end situations, show persistence, ingenuity, ingenuity, and then, I am sure, everything will work out for you.
Alexander Nosov, jack of all trades
Summer residents usually do not have spacious sun-drenched greenhouses in which they can grow crops before transplanting them into open ground or a greenhouse on their personal plot. However, the lack of space can be compensated by shelves for seedlings.
There is not much free space for pots and trays with soil, so most people prefer to make a shelf for seedlings, better with their own hands.
With their help, you can place seedlings in several tiers in a small area. The convenience of this option is that you will save space and will be able to determine the location of the germinated plants yourself, taking into account the illumination and other factors.
In appearance, a rack for growing plants for planting on the ground is no different from a garage or warehouse set of shelves.
A DIY seedling rack will help:
For seedlings, you can assemble a structure of the following types:
Each design has its own advantages, so it is better to make the choice based on your own preferences and financial capabilities.
On them, like on the steps, grain is poured. The tilt angle of the trays can be changed by changing the processing speed of raw materials due to clogging. The grain enters the receiving container (for example, a bucket) along the guiding mesh groove.
The merits winnowing machines I find mobility (simple and easy, which allows you to carry it to any place where you can turn on the cooler) and productivity (a bucket of grain is cleaned in a matter of minutes).
The dimensions of such a house are determined by the stones taken. Naturally, the decorative craft should not be too large, therefore, to make such a house, you need to take small stones of different diameters.
The ideal building material is sea pebbles, they are smooth to the touch and approximately the same shape, which allows you to form any structure out of it.
To make such a house, you need the stones themselves and silicone glue. The rest you will shape in the process. Just determine in advance the size of the house and the location of the door.
If the process of masonry from pebbles is too complicated, you can use cardboard and make a frame from it at home. After that, you need to stick the pebbles in a certain sequence, placing them as tightly as possible, to form the appearance of the house.
For the roof, you can take wooden slats, tree bark or any other material. In its finished form, such a house will look something like this:
Having decided on the type of future design, you need to decide what the feeder will be made of. For these purposes, you can use a variety of materials. Many of them are in everyone's house, so you can not only create an original bird feeder with your own hands, but also do it with minimal costs.
To make a feeder from a coffee service, you need to glue the cup to the saucer and fix the structure to the handle
The following materials are commonly used to make a poultry dining room:
Each of the listed materials is suitable for creating certain types of structures and has both advantages and disadvantages.
Simple feeders can be made from cardboard cups
Plastic feeders are the most popular option. This material has many advantages.
Advantages of plastic bottle and tray feeders:
An affordable and easy way to build a feeder is to use a plastic bottle
Important! The roof of a plastic feeder in the form of a house should be opaque or at least matte. In case of danger, the birds may not notice the transparent plane from above and hit it.
A good way to create a small, conspicuous bird feeder out of scrap materials is to use old children's toys, such as bricks. They are made of polyethylene, so it is advisable to use superglue for fixing. Such designs have bright and rich colors, so it will be easy for birds to find food. Polyethylene lends itself well to processing. You can use a compass with two needles to cut round holes in the walls. Polyethylene is a slippery material, so it is advisable to equip the feeder with a perch-perch.
Poultry canteen made of plastic bottle and wooden spoon
As a plastic building material, you can use scraps of transparent polycarbonate that may have remained after renovation in the house. Such a feeder can be fixed to the window using suction cups from the bathroom shelves.
Particularly noteworthy are bird feeders from bottles and other unusable containers. The main thing is that the design is well thought out. To ensure visibility of the feed, it is advisable to use a wide tray. The presence of a perch will make feeding the birds more convenient. If you have a large tray and a large container, you do not have to frequently replenish food stocks. As a result, the birds will be less fearful.
Feeder structure made of plate and bottle
To make a do-it-yourself bird feeder from a plastic bottle, it is advisable to use a trough-shaped tray. In this case, spillage of feed will be negligible. If you fold up the hatch cover, which provides access to the feed, the feeder will turn out to be anti-sparrow. In this case, the plane that forms at the top can be used to place vitamin supplements.
The category of plastic products includes structures made from containers of liquid products:
Simple and original bird feeder from a tetrapack juice
Despite the fact that these bags are made of cardboard, their walls are covered with foil on both sides. Therefore, laminated feeders are able to withstand one winter.
Small bags left over from juice or milk are ideal for feeding the following bird species:
Feeders-houses from cardboard milk cartons
In this case, it is imperative to install a roosting stick to make it easier for the birds to get food.
Helpful advice! To attract a small spotted woodpecker to a titmouse, it is enough to fix a wooden circle on the bottom of the valve. This will make it easier for the bird to gain a foothold on the structure.
Feeders made of juice boxes
Large bags can be used to make universal poultry canteens. To do this, you need to cut a large opening so that the food can be seen from afar. If the feeder is suspended, pierce it with a perch. A package design can be placed in a bush. In this case, the roost is not required, its function will be performed by branches.
The advantage of wooden feeders is their durability. Most often, such structures are stationary.
Wooden feeding trough-dining room, made in modern design
As a protective treatment, you can use:
To build a bird feeder made of wood with your own hands, you will definitely need a carpentry tool and skills in handling it. Traditional models look like a house. It is not recommended to make a flat roof on the trough, as in this case the feed will be exposed to weathering.
The bird feeder is made of logs
Standard house-like designs can be improved and specialized for a particular type of bird by minor changes. For example, a gable roof feeder without fencing can be used as a generally available option. If you build a small crate around the perimeter, such a dining room will be to the taste of poultry poultry. It simulates natural feeding conditions quite realistically. A similar model with a solid low fence will provide an anti-sparrow effect and protect food from the wind.
The design, which has a low slope roof, will also provide protection against feed swelling. Such a feeder will be used by sparrows only as a last resort.
Original bird feeders
An alternative option for a suspended structure made of wood will be a do-it-yourself plywood bird feeder. To create it, you will also need wooden blocks with a section size of 3x3 or 3x4 cm. To avoid the use of lumber, you can make bars from plywood strips by gluing. However, for stationary feeders on poles, it is preferable to use solid wood, since plywood in outdoor conditions will exfoliate after several seasons, regardless of the quality of the protective impregnation.
Helpful advice! If you use birch waterproof sheets to build a plywood bird feeder, you can get a reliable and durable structure. This material perfectly tolerates outdoor conditions.
Birdhouse made of cork corks
From the materials at hand, you can make unusual and original designs, in the creation of which you can focus on design or functional features.
An ear of corn can be used as a feeder. To do this, a nail is passed through it. This version of a bird feeder made from scrap materials can be simply hung or made part of a stationary structure. The corn should be firm, preferably oilseed or forage varieties. The finer the grains, the better.
Simple egg tray bird feeder design
It is better to refuse the use of table sugar cobs, as they are harmful to birds. Their grains are high in sugar and starch. The corn feeder is designed for large fruit-eating and granivorous birds, as well as huskers.
You can use ice cream sticks as a building material for creating a wooden bird feeder. During the summer season, they can be accumulated in sufficient quantities. To make such a structure, you will need a rope and PVA glue. An oversized ice cream stick can be placed on either side of the trough. Thanks to this, 4 birds will be able to use the dining room at the same time, for example, chicks or chizhiks.
Original trough-holder for food from a kitchen whisk
An excellent option would be a wicker basket-shaped feeder with a suspended lid. To create it, you will need paper tubes that can be made from old newspapers. The weaving technology is quite complicated and time-consuming, so not everyone dares to take up the construction of such a feeder, but the result exceeds all expectations. To prevent decay of paper straws, they must be treated with a protective compound (glue and stain).
A large metal tin can is also suitable for building a feeder. It is suspended from a rope in a horizontal position. To prevent the feed from spilling onto the ground, a small damper must be installed. For this, the top of the lid, bent in half, is suitable. It is imperative to install a perch.
The poultry canteen is made of a small tin can
Important! Regardless of the type of construction, the trough must be safe. Wooden models must be carefully sanded and all sharp corners must be rounded off. Metal options can be wrapped with twine that sits on the glue.
Aesthetics of non-standard
Experts acknowledge that custom windows are a clear trend. Thus, according to Victoria Menshikh, the chief architect of Zagorodnoye Happiness company, which operates in the low-rise construction market, more and more private clients follow it, choosing floor-to-ceiling translucent structures, round, arched windows or even polygonal ones: “We always try to give a house individuality, add unique features, make it the most ergonomic. Even a typical project can always be modified for its owner, including through the use of extraordinary windows. "
According to representatives of construction and window companies, the main contingent of customers for non-standard windows are private traders who build country houses and cottages according to individual projects. “In our experience, this category of clients strives to create a home with a striking character,” says Kirill Chepurenkov, CEO of the Moscow-based OKNA STK LLC. - In the total volume of orders we have the share of non-standard windows is up to 10%. Moreover, the most in demand are arched windows - this is at least 70% of the total "non-standard" ".
There are several of the most common types of windows of extraordinary shapes.
Arched windows. They have become the "calling card" of classical architectural styles - from Baroque to Art Nouveau. The curved upper part gives them elegance and sophistication, visually raises the ceiling and increases the luminous flux.
Thanks to their rich history, they have many variations:
Usually the upper semicircular part of the window is separated by a horizontal impost and is "blind". The opening sashes occupy only the lower rectangular part of the window.
Triangular and trapezoidal structures are more often associated with modern architectural styles and have a number of advantages:
Windows of this shape, according to experts, are most often used on the second and attic floors of private houses. Windows in the form of an isosceles or right-angled triangle are especially appropriate in houses with a peaked roof.
Round, semicircular, oval windows are most often used to illuminate utility rooms - attics, stairs, corridors. They can be "deaf" (unopened). Such porthole constructions are often decorated with stained glass or its imitation.
At the same time, modern fittings make it possible to make round windows with opening hinged and hinged sashes. This allows them to be used for living quarters as well. The sash can be in the whole window, in half, in the form of a sector, etc. - at the discretion of clients.
Talking about trends, Marina Vinogradova, head of OKNACTK.RU, a company engaged in retail sales of windows based on Veka profile systems in the Moscow region, notes that the fashion for non-standard windows is gradually changing: “Previously, there were more arched windows and one round one was obligatory. Now there are more trapezoidal windows for the 2nd and 3rd floors. Laminated windows for different types of wood (mahogany, golden oak, swamp oak) are in demand, which manufacturers also consider non-standard. "
Modern windows are made from different materials: solid wood, laminated veneer lumber, aluminum or PVC profiles. But if a builder or private owner needs a custom window, he will most likely turn to PVC.
"It is a very technologically advanced material that provides the maximum possibilities in terms of making windows of different shapes and allows you to produce such products with less effort than from wood or aluminum.", - notes Andrey Okulov, head of the technical department of VEKA Rus.
The easiest to make are triangular and polygonal windows, since modern equipment for cutting and welding PVC profiles can be quickly reconfigured for almost any angle of connection.
If you need to make round, semicircular or arched windows, then the task arises to bend the plastic profile into an arch of a certain radius. As Andrey Okulov (VEKA Rus) explains, there are three types of equipment for PVC profile bending.
Glycerin baths. This technology is especially common in Germany. The profile is heated to 110-155 ° C, after which it is manually shaped on a special table using special templates.
However, this technology requires the use of a powerful hood and the participation of highly qualified personnel.
Infrared ovens. It differs from the technology described above only in that the profile is heated using hot air. This technique is the most common in Russia.
However, infrared ovens do not allow heating long sections of the profile. So usually the arch part is made separately and then welded to the straight part. It should also be noted that in both cases, arched and round structures are obtained without steel reinforcement.This must be taken into account when choosing window dimensions, installation schemes, etc.
Automated machines. This is a relatively new method that does not involve heating the profile. The required bend is formed by cold rolling using special rollers.
This is a huge plus in terms of structural strength. But the process itself is quite complicated and requires high professionalism of the operator. Unfortunately, this technology is not widely used in our country, which is associated with the high cost of equipment.
According to experts, in the production of round and arched windows, the quality of the PVC profile and its physical and mechanical properties are of particular importance. “It is best to use a class A profile for bending with an outer wall of at least 3 mm and with a small amount of recycled PVC only in the inner chambers. Such material bends evenly, while maintaining all strength characteristics, - notes Andrey Okulov (VEKA Rus). “Therefore, we believe that all VEKA profile systems are optimal for the manufacture of non-standard windows of any configuration.”
Memo to the architect
According to Andrey Okulov (VEKA Rus), the PVC profile structure imposes several important restrictions.
Rounded and arched windows. The minimum bending radius cannot be less than five profile heights. For example, for a profile with a height of 80 mm, the minimum radius is 400 mm. When you try to bend the profile under a smaller radius, an accordion wave will appear on the front surface.
Triangular and trapezoidal windows. Constructions with an opening sash have certain restrictions on the minimum angle, since the profile for the sash has a certain thickness (48 mm, 58 mm, etc.).
The production process of insulating glass units of the appropriate shape also requires special equipment. However, many window companies give orders for any glass units, including non-standard ones, to large contract manufacturers.
“We have our own workshop for non-standard products and double-glazed windows, where we produce 10 items per shift., - says Mikhail Sharko, general director of the window company OOO StroyPlastKonstruktsiya (Moscow). - For profile bending, we use an infrared oven and equipment from a Novosibirsk manufacturer. Most often, for such tasks we use VEKA Euroline (58 mm) and Softline (70 mm) profile systems, which allow us to produce high-quality and durable windows that are optimal for the Russian climate. "
From the point of view of a client, window operator, builder ...
As we can see, non-standard windows are literally piece items made by hand. So customers should not be surprised that they will come out several times more expensive, and they will have to wait longer.
“In the production of non-standard windows, both the consumption of materials and labor costs of employees increase. Therefore, the cost of production of "non-standard" increases several times, - notes. - Of course, the lead time for such orders is lengthening. Usually it takes from 10 business days. But if an order with "exotic" shapes also includes unusual types of lamination, non-standard components or coatings, then the period can be increased to 3-4 weeks. "
For comparison: a standard white profile window is usually produced by manufacturers and delivered to the customer in just 3-5 days.
Explaining the technology of the opening for windows of non-standard shapes, Natalya Sabirova, head of the architectural department of the construction company Terem-pro LLC, specializing in the construction of individual houses, draws attention to several points:
Memo to the architect
In general, much to the delight of architects and their clients, there are currently no problems in finding contractors for any type of custom windows. Most window companies have appropriate production lines and equipment, or can place “custom” orders with contract manufacturers. And in these times of high competition, they will be happy to help create individual and original looks for residential and commercial buildings.
VEKA Rus press service