Growing potatoes in Dutch is a technique that takes into account every little thing. When planting using this technology, up to 250-300 kg of tubers are harvested from one hundred square meters.
Dutch technology provides potatoes:
In addition to traditional and Dutch cultivation, there are other new methods: Chinese; technology developed by the doctor of agricultural sciences Jacob Mitlider from the USA; the method of Galina Aleksandrovna Kizima, who spent her childhood in a working village in the South Urals.
Professionals recommend updating the potato variety every 4 years, as it can get sick.
The varieties from Holland are immune to disease, they are high-yielding, but they are not not suitable for planting in the north of Russia... It is better to plant domestic zoned varieties there, adapted for home conditions.
It is required to plant early and late potatoes in the country.
Suitable Dutch potatoes:
Potatoes are grown in the fields, using technology, and in summer cottages, doing all the operations by hand.
For planting, even healthy tubers are chosen. diameter 3-5 cm, best varietal.
Potatoes, which are smaller in size, should not be chosen, since the grown bushes will be very weak. Larger potatoes are only planted if the harvest is from their own seeds. Each selected tuber has 5 eyes.
A month before planting, potatoes are germinated. Potatoes are planted when the sprouts at the eyes are 0.5 cm, but this is for mechanized planting.
It is required to choose the right planting time so that the sprouts do not die from return frosts. The tubers are carefully placed in polyethylene bags with handles when the sprouts are 0.5 cm high. This is how the potatoes are conveniently transported to the landing site. For planting by hand, they wait until the sprouts, placed in plastic bags, grow to 2.5-3 cm.
Potatoes will be less sore and less affected by pests if planted in one place every 3 years... It is required to give the soil a rest and not plant anything at all for 1 year, but mow the weeds. If you do not have this opportunity, then plant tubers in the place where beans, peas, oats, rye grew before.
Phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen are scattered on a level place in the fall, and the soil is dug to a depth of 22-27 cm.
If you have a slope, then in the fall, do not dig up the soil and do not put top dressing, since in the spring the flood will wash away all the nutrients.
Mow the tops first, then dig out the bushes after 10 days.
Then the peel will be strong, and the potatoes will be able to lie for a longer amount of time without spoiling.
That is, growing potatoes in the Dutch way is planting tubers at a distance of 30 cm, observing a distance between rows of 70 cm. This is also poured high ridges and taking into account the need for potatoes in fertilizers.
The Dutch plant potatoes in their homeland almost a fourth of all sown areas. On average, they harvest 400-450 quintals per hectare of excellent, selected tubers for food, or 300-350 quintals of excellent seed potatoes. The Dutch export potatoes, especially seed potatoes, to 70 countries around the world. The Netherlands managed to develop an intensive technology for the cultivation of potatoes. Most of the elements of this technology are taken as a basis in other countries of Western Europe, where potato growing is developed.
By dutch technology potatoes grown for a long time in the Baltic countries, using mainly the varieties Sante and Anosta. The same varieties are grown in the Moscow region, but here such varieties as Auzonka, Marfena, Prior, Rezi, Ramono are still popular, most of these potato varieties have won trust in Belarus. Many potato growers in different countries believe that when growing potatoes using Dutch technology, for the potato plant, the best possible conditions for growth are created. Despite the fact that this technology is mostly based only on an industrial basis, i.e. the day of its implementation, mechanisms and machines are needed, from this technology you can take individual elements that can be perfectly used in your summer cottage or in a small farm. Below are some of the special elements of Dutch technology that hobby potato growers often use.
Potatoes must be placed on a flat area, in no case should there be any slopes. In the layers of plowed land, the humus content is not less than 2-2.5%. It is imperative to alternate the planting of potatoes with other crops, so that the potatoes return to the same place no earlier than 3-4 years later. It is best to choose winter rye and other winter cereals as preceding crops, as they contribute to the creation of the most favorable conditions for the development of potatoes later.
In autumn, under autumn plowing, organic fertilizers, semi-rotted manure or mature (old) manure are introduced into the soil, but fresh manure or compost, also per hundred square meters, is applied for another crop (predecessors). Superphosphate (4 - 5 kg / 100 m2), also potassium salt (1.5 - 2.5 kg / 100 m2) or potassium chloride are added to the organic fertilizer.
When early fall plowing is done, on loamy or other heavier soils, cultivation is done, which is supplemented by the introduction of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. With the help of cultivation, strong, germinated weeds are destroyed. During spring plowing, nitrogen fertilizers such as urea (up to 5 kg / 100m2) are applied to the soil.
In the autumn plowing period, the soil is plowed by an average of 22-27 cm, with the upper layer wrapped with a reversible plow (many potato growers advise using a Lemeken plow, since when using it, you can do without moldboard and breakup furrows). It is best cultivated with a light, conventional disc cultivator. In the spring, you do not need to close the moisture. This will help speed up the weak drying of the upper layer of the soil, then it warms up better, which is very important. Before planting potatoes, the soil must be processed with a Dominator cutter or with a Rumpstad cultivator, the depth should be from 12 to 14 cm. The listed units, in conjunction with a tractor of a traction force of 3 tons, carry out three actions at once: the cutters are crushed and loosen the soil, level and add it to the drop.
In small areas, gardeners can also use simple forks, only the distance between the teeth must be from 20 to 30 mm, and the thickness of the teeth should not be thicker than 6 mm, such forks, as a rule, have a depth limiter. Such shallow processing helps to avoid disturbances in the soil capillaries, which are necessary for the growth of potatoes, since the required amount of moisture will flow through them to the mother tuber. In such cases, the potato plant will suffer less from drought. Gives a run in planting terms of about 7 - 10 days milling planting. For Dutch potato planting technology, seed tubers must be of high reproduction, germination and varietal purity must be 100%. The tubers should be aligned, 50 - 60 mm in diameter. When planting potatoes by machine, the tubers are usually germinated until sprouts appear, the length of which ranges from 2 -5 mm, when planting, such sprouts usually do not break off.
In Holland, experienced potato growers do not under any circumstances allow a gap between soil preparation and potato planting. They plant potatoes in the very first days as the optimal time for planting and the ripeness of the soil for planting comes. You can determine the ripeness of the soil as follows: take a handful of soil, squeeze it very tightly in a fist, after approximately from the waist height of a standing person, throw a handful on the ground. If the soil is already ripe, then a handful of impact will crumble, you can plant potatoes. If you plant potatoes early, this will contribute to the maximum formation of the leaf surface of the potato bush, and will also have a good effect on the rapid growth of tubers. When planting potatoes using Dutch technology, at least 75 cm is left between the rows.
On average, 400 to 1000 potato tubers are usually planted per one hundred square meters. Early potato varieties, which have a less developed root system, are planted about 600-700 tubers per one hundred square meters, and the upper parts of cut tubers and small ones - up to 1000. For planting in the fields, the so-called planters of the Dutch firms Structural and Kramer are used. as well as a good planter from the CIS countries "KSM-4", all of these planters are equipped with a simple, but very mechanism, which during planting of potatoes does not allow breaking potato sprouts. Ridges for planting potatoes, as a rule, are usually located from north to south. During planting, the embedding discs of the four-row planter from the top layer, which is rich in nutrients, form ridges that cover the tubers. The ridge should be 8-10 cm in height, 30-35 cm wide at its base. The future potato crop is formed and ripens a little higher than the bottom of the furrow, this further helps the high-performance work of the harvesting equipment. The rest of the soil that remains between the rows is used to add soil to the ridges when hilling.
Inter-row cultivation is usually carried out 14-18 days after the potatoes were planted, by which time most of the weeds have time to germinate, and potato sprouts are approaching the soil surface. The purpose of the treatment is to control weeds, as well as to create the best conditions for the growth and development of potato tubers. As a rule, such processing is carried out with a milling cultivator with a bed former. The Dutch cultivators "Rumpstad" or "Amak" are very often used, from the cultivators produced in the CIS countries they use "KFK-2.8". Most often they are aggregated with the help of tractors with a power traction, which has 1.4 tons. The speed at which the unit operates 3.5 km / h covers a width of 3 m, as well as a planting machine. This cultivator pours good loosened soil on the emerging potatoes in the form of a trapezoidal ridge, the height of which is 23 - 25 cm, and the width at the base of about 75 cm is wider to the top of the ridge 15-17 cm. The beauty of such a planting of potatoes is that, thanks to the rows in in the form of a ridge, excess moisture, which may appear due to irrigation or rain, will drain along the slopes of the ridge and go into a depression, furrows. Once the ridges are made, no other inter-row treatments are done if Dutch technology is followed. But the fight against pests and diseases must be carried out, for example, it is necessary to fight late blight 5-6 times per season, with the help of chemicals. Usually, the first treatment with chemical agents to combat late blight is carried out before the first signs of the disease appear.
Before you start harvesting potatoes, following the Dutch technology, the tops of the potatoes must be removed, in large areas they are removed using emmic agents (desiccation), and in small areas the tops are simply mown.After the tops have been removed (depending on the type of potato), the tubers are left in the ground for 10-12 days, this has a good effect on the health of the tubers, the peel becomes stronger, and when digging up the potatoes, it is not afraid of damage, the potatoes are more preserved.
In order to apply Dutch technology at a summer cottage, for example, you need to make several amendments to it. For example, for manual planting of potatoes, sprouts can exceed 5 mm, and it can be germinated 25-30, in contrast to mechanized planting, when potatoes are germinated for 10-12 days and sprouts longer than 5 mm are not allowed, since they would break off during planting. Loosening of the soil can be done with a shovel and a hoe, the ridges are made using a manual hiller. In those areas where there is a slope, ridges made according to the Dutch technology will gradually collapse, which ultimately will lead to a deterioration in the quality of the crop. What to do in this case? In areas where there is a slope, it is necessary to create a microrelief in the fall. This is done by cutting furrows, the depth of which should be 25-30 cm across the slope, 60-70 cm wide.When furrows are made, ridges are poured between them, the height of which is equal to the depth of the furrows themselves and the width of the upper part is 6-10 cm. , it is necessary to strengthen the wings of winter rapeseed (50 - 60 g of seeds per 100 m2). Before the frosts come, the rape will have time to grow a little and form fruit rows. In the winter, furrows and ridges with rapeseed encephalous plantings, which cross the slope, prevent the wind from blowing off the snow and thus help to ensure that the snow falls on the soil evenly. In the spring, when the snow melts, the soil is not washed away.
After the shoots grow a little, the bushy thicket must be cut off, the resulting mass must be crushed and parts of the two ridges (adjacent) dumped into the furrow where the planted potato tuber lies. As a result, everything turns out in reverse, in place of the ridge a furrow is obtained, and instead of a furrow a ridge. After 20-25 days, after planting, potato shoots will appear, the rows will close after about 40-50 days. Weeds, on the other hand, usually germinate after only 4-6 days after the potatoes have been planted. Confirmation can be found by slightly tearing apart the topsoil. If weeds are present, their white filaments of seedlings can be seen, which will make their way to the surface. Such strands of weeds can be easily destroyed by harrowing. Harrowing plantings, in no case should be before the rain, it is better to do this after. If the weeds have sprouted, and there are shoots, then harrowing alone will not get rid of them. In this case, a shovel, a hoe or any other weapon of labor will be needed to help, since the weeds have already managed to put their roots deep enough into the soil. If, after the soil has been loosened, it has rained, processing can be done not earlier than the moment when the soil is slightly dry.
After heavy rains, the topsoil may float; this crust can be gently loosened with a rake. When potato seedlings are already close to the surface, it is better not to use a rake for loosening, as young plants can be damaged. Harrowing is carried out along the entire perimeter of the ridge: at the very beginning, you need to loosen the top, then you need to position the rake so that the soil moves from the base of the ridge to the top. When potatoes are spud, they loosen between the rows and at the same time the ridge itself, but this is done carefully so as not to disturb the ridge configuration.
I prepare the land for planting potatoes at the end of August, sowing the area with mustard and rye.
When their sprouts rise by 10 cm, I add rotted compost, potassium sulfate (strictly according to the instructions), scatter the ash and dig it up without breaking clods. In this form, the plot goes into the winter. In early April, I begin to germinate seed tubers selected from the most fertile bushes. I wash these potatoes in a solution of raspberry-colored potassium permanganate, dry them, put them in boxes in one layer and put this container in a dark, warm place - under the sink in the kitchen. I check the content regularly. I do not irrigate with water so that roots do not appear: after all, it is still far from planting.
But by the time of work in the garden, white plump sprouts grow on the tubers. Especially there are a lot of them at the tops.
The most important thing is that no light falls on the tubers, otherwise the sprouts will turn green. And they must be white!
Two or three days before planting, I cut off the tops with sprouts from large tubers (more precisely, the opposite is true - I cut off the "bare" lower halves of such potatoes), and leave those that are the size of a chicken egg intact. Then I put the tops on the bottom of the boxes with the slices upwards for weathering (the slices should not touch each other!), And put the whole tubers with white sprouts in another box. And again I put it under the sink.
At the same time, due to careful preliminary pre-winter soil preparation, there are few weeds in the aisles. Therefore, the subsequent hilling of the ridges after planting is reduced to a minimum - no more than 1-2 times a season, and even then only in order to loosen the soil along the ridges. My experience shows that it is better to huddle the potatoes just before flowering, when the flower stalks have formed. Indeed, by this time the surviving weeds are just growing up, and therefore, together with hilling and loosening, you can
remove them quickly and effortlessly. To protect the plantings from the Colorado potato beetle, wireworm and moles, as well as for additional fertilization of the soil, I plant black beans in one line along the entire perimeter of the potato plot, which grow there until harvest. After digging up the potatoes, I cut the stems of these plants, grind them, put them in compost or embed them in the soil under warm beds for cucumbers. I think it will not be superfluous here to tell a story about harvesting potatoes.
This work is now also taking place in a light mode for me. Since the roots with potatoes are mainly located in the tops of the ridges, I only need a little digging so that the tubers are outside and they could be easily collected with minimal effort (photo 4).
A good harvest of any crop is impossible without a regular crop rotation. Therefore, as my long-term experience of gardening has shown, it is necessary to plant green manures on the day of harvesting potatoes (while the soil remains loose) without any plowing. The best option, in my opinion, is rye, or even better, mixed with peas. I just scatter the seeds over the surface of the earth and then level everything with a rake.
Over the past 25 years of cultivating the land, I have already developed my own four-field crop rotation system. I divided the entire plot that I have allocated for a vegetable garden into four plots, where I alternate the cultivation of all the necessary vegetable crops (photo 5).
One of them, for example, is allocated for the same potatoes, the second is for onions and garlic, carrots and beets, the third is for cucumbers, zucchini, peas and beans, and the fourth is for strawberries (I grow tomatoes and peppers separately, in a greenhouse) ... Therefore, the next season, after harvesting potatoes on the plot where the potatoes were, I plant crops from the "second field". Then all other landings are sequentially alternated according to the worked out scheme. This better preserves the fertility of the soil, although before each next planting of potatoes and other vegetables, I regularly, in spring and autumn, add organic matter. After all, the traditions of agriculture and the laws of nature have not yet been canceled.
© Author: Yuri Vasilievich KOROTKOV. Moscow
Provided that the soil is plowed in autumn, the soil is not additionally cultivated in spring. Start by marking the site. For this, stakes are stuck on two opposite sides, at a height of 1 meter. A string is pulled between the stakes, along which potatoes with sprouted eyes are laid out. A distance of 25 cm is maintained between the tubers.The next row for potatoes is broken at a distance of 80 cm.
After that, the soil is disinfected and the potatoes are fertilized with the following composition: two tablespoons of copper sulfate, six grams of manganese powder, twenty grams of boric acid, previously diluted in hot water. All these ingredients are diluted in 10 liters of water and poured with a watering can over the soil and potatoes along the twine. The width of the wet strip should be approximately 15 cm.
Thanks to the copper included in the solution, the resistance to diseases is activated in potatoes. Manganese will contribute to the formation of new tubers and the accumulation of starch in them. Boron will help the tubers fight stress.
Additionally, mineral fertilizers should be sprinkled on the moistened tubers - nitroammofoska, azofoska or Kemira. You can also add wood ash. It will not be superfluous to add rotted manure, forest needles or foliage with mycelium, rotted straw, etc. to everything else.
The final touch will be to sprinkle potatoes and other nutrient mixtures with a layer of earth. For these purposes, you can use a simple hoe or special furrows. The height of the ridge should be at least 10 cm. When the time for hilling potatoes comes, the height of the ridge is increased.
Next, you need to process the potatoes from the Colorado potato beetle, save them from weeds and water. Have a good harvest on your backyard.
Growing potatoes in Dutch:
In addition to drip irrigation and the obligatory treatment of row spacings with herbicides against weed growth, the Dutch technology also provides for the obligatory 5-6-fold treatment with chemical preparations against late blight. Moreover, the first spraying begins long before the manifestation of any signs of the disease for purely preventive purposes. Therefore, all the hopes of Russian farmers for the resistance of Dutch potato varieties to late blight did not come true. Since this resistance was achieved not on the basis of immunity, but as a result of a large number of chemical treatments.
Periodic treatments from the Colorado potato beetle are mandatory.
Throughout its development, potatoes are also sprayed with numerous chemicals against aphids, as the main carrier of viral infections.
In Russia, the method of removing diseased plants from fields is used to combat viral infections.
It was mentioned earlier that the quality of the planting material is very important when growing potatoes using the Dutch method. It is best to use varieties of European, especially Dutch, selection. Let's consider the main types:
Also noted are such early varieties as Jarla, Cleopatra and Prior. The Frisia and Mona Lisa varieties have a fairly high immunity to viruses. Asterix is perfect for long-term storage.
The above varieties are bred mainly in Holland and are the most popular. The yield is about 200 kg / ha. If you want to plant more productive hybrids, do not forget that they are not suitable for sowing, and are used only in the first year of cultivation.
Potatoes are a rather unpretentious crop, but if you correctly treat its cultivation and, most importantly, choose a good variety, then the chances of a high yield, even in your country house, increase significantly.