The quality of the fur also depends on how correctly the dressing of rabbit skins is performed. Rabbit breeders do not always manage to find such specialists who flawlessly make rabbit skins, so the question arises: how to make rabbit skin on your own?
At home, this operation will require certain chemicals, a sharp knife, and salt. Of course, the first time, rarely anyone succeeds in perfecting the skin: the fur will climb in shreds or the skin will not be burnt. Don't be discouraged - by following the guidelines in this article exactly, you will eventually learn how to handle rabbit skins with ease.
Removing muscle fat from dry rabbit skin is much more difficult.
Having removed the skin after slaughtering the rabbit, you need to immediately remove the fat and muscles remaining on it. It is most convenient to scrape off muscle and fat with a knife, pulling the still warm skin over a previously prepared wooden disc. When scraping, the knife blade should be at right angles to the skin, scraping should be from the tail to the head. You can remove muscle and fat with your hands, collecting the layer in a circle. Keep in mind that it is much more difficult to remove muscle fat from dry rabbit skin.
Video about dressing rabbit skins
If you are not going to start dressing right away, canning the hide. Stretch it with the fur inward to dry on a special rule made in the shape of the letter A from a wooden board. The horizontal bar must be movable so that the rule can be narrowed or expanded to the required size. It is recommended to fasten the lower end of the rabbit skin, otherwise it will gather in folds, and the fur in the folds will underpin and come out. Do not leave rabbit skins unfolded, even for a day - they will quickly rot. They should not be stored in the cold either.
Place the rule with a stretched skin in a ventilated room, the temperature in which is not higher than +30. In a damp room, the skin will become moldy, and in the sun or near the stove it will become brittle. Avoid storing rabbit skins for too long to avoid being spoiled by the moth. If you need to accumulate more skins for sewing a fur product, put them in a clean, tightly closed box in a cool room, additionally putting bags with moth repellent there.
Try not to store rabbit skins for too long so that they will not be spoiled by the moth.
The process of dressing rabbit skins includes several specific stages that must be performed in strict sequence.
Mix the solution for soaking from 1 liter of water, 30 g of borax, 2 g of carbolic acid (in crystalline form), 50 g of salt. You can use other antiseptics: sodium bisulfite (2 g), furacilin (1-2 tablets). If the skins were already well salted during conservation, less salt is added to the solution.
The solution is poured into a sufficiently capacious stainless steel container, glass or enamel container. After placing the skins in the solution, place a heavy object on them so that they do not float and are covered with water by at least two centimeters. Stir the skins from time to time during the soaking process for a more even treatment with the solution.
Stir the skins from time to time during the soaking process for a more even treatment with the solution.
The soaking process can last from six hours to four days. Skins that have been canned recently will soak faster, and those that have been poorly cleaned of fat or dried too quickly will soak worse and longer. You can determine the degree of readiness of the skin by the following criteria:
By carefully removing the remaining water from the soaked skins, and wiping them dry, you can remove the inner layers (flesh) and loosen the fibrous tissue of the skin so that the subsequent treatment with chemicals is more effective.
First of all, with a sharp knife, the remnants of muscle and fat are removed from the inner surface of the flesh, then the flesh is trimmed to the same thickness over the entire area of the skin. After that, the blunt part of the knife is used to break the flesh from the tail to the head, as well as from the tail to the floors. Do the work carefully, conscientiously, but do not get carried away too much, otherwise you risk exposing the hair roots on the skin.
After carefully removing the remaining water from the soaked skins, and wiping them dry, you can start removing the inner layers
After fleshing, the rabbit skins must be washed and degreased. Prepare a degreasing solution using 1 liter of water and 4 g of detergent. Having washed the skins by hand, you will notice how the flesh turned white and began to creak on your fingers, like freshly washed hair. Now transfer the rabbit skins to clean water, rinse and transfer to a container of soapy water (about 10 grams of soap per liter of warm water). Soap the coat until it squeaks clean and rinse again. After washing, hang the skins, beat with a stick to shake off the water and walk with a dry rag.
To make the skins strong, they should be treated with a solution containing acid: add 30 g of salt and 15 ml of acetic acid per liter of water. Submerge the skin of the rabbit skins in the solution and stir frequently. Pickling can last from several hours to a couple of days, but it is better to underexpose the skins in the solution than to overexpose.
To determine the readiness of the rabbit skin, you can test for "drying", removing the skin from the solution, bending the skin and squeezing the fold - when opening, a "drying" (white strip) should appear. If it has not disappeared within five seconds, then the skin is ripe. From the finished rabbit skin, hairs in the groin area can be easily plucked and the inner layer is peeled off with your fingers.
It is advisable, after lying for 20 minutes, to place the rabbit skins in a solution of baking soda
After pickling, the rabbit skins need to be squeezed out a little, turned out with fur and put in a pile, and some kind of load should be placed on top. The crawl lasts from 12 hours to a day. It is advisable, after lying for 20 minutes, to place the rabbit skins in a solution of baking soda, since there is still acid on them.
Thanks to tanning, the skin of the rabbit will shrink less, the skin will become more durable and resistant to water, and the fur will acquire additional elasticity. For tanning, do not use oak broth - it makes the skins of rabbits coarse. Bark from willow trees or willow trees is best.
Boil the bark for 30 minutes in a saucepan, pour the solution separately, add 40 g of salt per liter of water to it, and cool. Please note that the willow broth not only dyes the skin of the rabbit cream, but also the fur, so you can not soak the whole skins, but only apply the broth with a brush to the flesh. To impregnate the skins with a tanning agent, fold the skin inside and leave for another day to lie down, and then dry, periodically removing them from the rule and stretching them in different directions. When the skins are semi-dry and velvety to the touch, the flesh will need to be sanded to achieve optimum softness.
Video about dressing rabbit skins at home
After tanning, the skins are fattened to give them greater plasticity, strength and water resistance. Fat is made with a mixture of prepared egg yolk with glycerin in equal proportions.
A fat mixture or solution is applied to the skin and the skins are left to sit for several hours. After that, the rabbit skins are dried again, kneaded, the skin is rubbed with chalk so that it absorbs excess fat, the fur is combed. This completes the dressing of rabbit skins - ready-made skins are recommended to be stored in fabric bags made of cotton or linen, but not in plastic bags!
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Breeding chinchillas for fur looks pretty attractive. Maintenance costs are low, and skins can compete in price with Russian sable fur. But, as in any business, there are difficulties and nuances here. The stages of the formation of our family farm have allowed us to draw some useful conclusions.
Harsh winter conditions practically throughout Russia make the popularity of clothing and products made of fur and leather quite understandable. Many Russians prefer fur clothing due to its high thermal insulation qualities, lightness, and high wear resistance. These properties contribute to the fact that entrepreneurs are especially interested in the processes of dressing and selling skins of a rabbit, sheep, as well as arctic fox, mink, nutria, etc. because of their economic benefits.
If in an individual farm for dressing skins it is enough to have simple devices, then on an industrial scale the most reasonable decision is to buy equipment for dressing skins, which makes it possible to make the process of preparation and processing of skins the most economically feasible.
The technology of processing skins is a complex and rather lengthy process, taking several days and even weeks in time, depending on the size and thickness and other parameters of the product.
During the processing of skins, the following is performed:
All these procedures cannot be performed efficiently without the use of special equipment. The price of equipment for dressing hides depends on the degree of automation and the scale of production.
Do-it-yourself equipment for making skins at home makes it possible to perform most of these operations, mainly using manual labor. So, the most labor-intensive processes of processing and cleaning the flesh are carried out manually using scrapers, and soaking, washing, washing, baking, tanning, dyeing takes place in a special device - a launch.
Large-scale production for the processing of skins provides for a complete set of equipment - each machine for dressing skins is an integral part of a technological line capable of processing up to 300 or more skins per hour. The cost of such a complex can reach 1 million rubles. and more.
Rabbit skin is inexpensive. Rabbit fur is beautiful and practical, but you need to know how to make it. Of course, if there is an opportunity to organize your own dressing of skins and sewing fashionable products from rabbit fur, as well as to have a place for their sale, then this is a profitable business.
The final dressing of rabbit skins, after which they become suitable for the manufacture of fur products, is best carried out in special workshops, since this work is rather complicated, time-consuming and requires certain skills. If this is not possible, you can try making rabbit skins at home. It should be remembered that skins are suitable for dressing in quality not lower than second grade.
To acquire skills, it is recommended to first make a few defective skins.
Before starting dressing, the skin must be soaked to a steam state in water at a temperature of about 35 - 40 C °. If the skin is fresh (just removed from a killed rabbit), it is enough to keep it in water for 3 - 5 hours. When using dry skins, it is better to soak them in two stages: first, as indicated above, and then soak for 10 - 12 hours in fresh water with the addition of 15 - 30 g of sodium chloride per 1 liter of water. When using water at room temperature, the soak of dry skins increases to a day, or even more. In the latter case, the water must be changed several times. If skins are used for dressing, which were wiped over the flesh with salt during their initial processing, salt should not be added to the water. According to some recommendations, it is useful to add a little washing powder (without bleach) to the water - 1.5 g per 1 liter of water.
After this operation, the skin must be sanded, that is, the remaining fat and subcutaneous muscle fibers must be removed from the skin. Frisking can be performed in two ways: by knocking down on a blunt bracket or blunt braid, scraping with a metal spoon or cutting off thickened areas with any sharp object - a knife, a rotating disc with a protruding sharp blade, etc. This operation, especially when the second method is used, must be very be careful not to spoil the skin, not to cut the hair roots on it. With fleshing, only the subcutaneous layer with fat and muscle fibers is removed, and the dermis itself (the skin itself) is not affected. Only in skins with thick flesh can a small part of the dermis be removed. The processing of the flesh is first carried out along the ridge in the direction from the tail to the head, and then from the ridge to the edges.
After fleshing, the skin can be lightly washed in soapy water until a slight squeak appears. To prepare such a solution for 1 liter of water, take about 10 g of laundry soap or 3.5 g of washing powder with the addition of 0.5 g of soda ash. Rinse the washed skins in clean water, shake off excess water, wipe the hairline with a dry rag so that it is as dry as possible.
After that, they proceed to the most important pickling or pickling operation. The purpose of these operations is to change the chemical and physical properties of the flesh, to remove sticky substances from it, to make the flesh stronger, softer and more elastic. The pickling method is the most acceptable, especially for beginners, as it is more modern, reliable and simple compared to pickling. There are two types of pickling - dipping and spreading. Pickling can be done in one or two steps. In the first option, a solution is first prepared, for which 10 - 15 g of concentrated acetic acid and 40 g of sodium chloride per 1 liter of water are taken at a temperature of 30 - 35 C °. The skins are immersed in this solution for 4 - 6 hours with a liquid ratio equal to 7. Liquid ratio (LC) is the amount of processing liquid in liters per 1 kg of skins produced. Instead of concentrated acetic acid, you can take table vinegar, the required amount of which is determined taking into account its strength. When pickling in a solution of room temperature - about 20 C ° - the time spent by the skins in the solution increases to a day or more: the thicker the flesh, the longer the exposure.
When dipping pickling in two steps, first everything is done as described above, and then the skins are kept for 5 - 12 hours in a solution that is prepared from 1 liter of water, 5 ml of sulfuric acid and 50 g of salt, at the same fatty acid and a temperature of about 20 ° C. You can pickle the skins in one sulfuric or hydrochloric acid, taking them, respectively, 5 or 6 ml per 1 liter of water with the addition of 50 or 40 g of sodium chloride.
When spreading pickling, the concentration of the solution should be 2 times higher than with perch. With this method, the solution is applied to the skin with a brush, brush or cotton swab, repeating this operation after a certain period of time 2 - 3 times. To check the end of pickling, with all methods of its implementation, the skin is bent in half, and at the bend, the flesh is squeezed with your fingers. The formation of a clearly expressed and long-term non-passing white stripe indicates sufficient nickel content.
When using the above acids for pickling, their residues on the skins must be neutralized by dipping the skin for half an hour in a soda solution (1.5 g of soda per 1 liter of water).
After the completion of these operations, the skins are folded in a pile and left to "lie down" for ripening. The ripening time of the skins can vary from 12 to 48 hours, depending on the thickness of the flesh.
There are many ways to process skins using the fermentation method. The oldest one is as follows. First, prepare the dough from coarse flour (preferably oatmeal or rye), coat the skin with it, put the skins in a pile, transferring them with parchment paper, wrap them up with some material and leave for 2 - 3 days. To prepare the dough, you need to take 1 kg of flour, 15 - 20 g of bread yeast and 1 tablespoon of table salt. Some add another 2 - 3 tablespoons of gastric juice, which is sold in pharmacies.
You can also ferment the skins by coating them with peroxidized kefir or by keeping them in peroxidized kvass or sour skim milk. Fermentation is sometimes carried out by placing the skins for 2 - 3 days in a thick jelly-like solution of coarse oat flour with bran, yeast and table salt. To prepare such a jelly for 1 liter of hot code, you need to take 200 g of flour, 7 g of yeast and 25 g of salt, mix everything well. In a mash (jelly) cooled down to room temperature, put the skins at the rate of 1 kg of skins at least 4 liters of solution. Periodically, the skins need to be turned over, and the solution must be stirred. The skins are kept in such a solution for 2 - 3 days until white bubbles and a characteristic sour bread smell appear on the surface of the solution. The end time for pickling is determined in the same way as for pickling.
The next important tanning process is the tanning of the skins. The purpose of tanning is to consolidate the new qualities of the skins obtained by pickling or pickling them. At home, you can, for example, successfully tan skins in a decoction of willow bark, wild rosemary, alder or oak. The best results are obtained with nettles.
To prepare a tanning solution, pieces of bark and small twigs are placed in an enamel bowl, sprinkled with table salt, poured with water and boiled for about half an hour. For 1 liter of water, 200 - 250 g of bark and branches and 50 - 60 g of salt are taken. After cooling, the resulting broth is poured into another dish, the skins are immersed in it and kept for about a day with frequent stirring.
For tanning, you can also use a solution of 6 - 7 g of chrome alum and 50 g of table salt per liter of water. The holding time in the solution at a solution temperature of about 35 C ° is about 6 hours, at room temperature - about 12 hours with an LC equal to 7 - 9.
According to some furrier specialists, tanning can be skipped when making rabbit skins, especially after strong pickling. However, to obtain a soft and elastic skin after pickling or pickling, it must be kneaded for a very long time until the skin acquires a white-pink color and becomes soft and elastic. Considering the great complexity of this work, and also the fact that the quality of the skin may deteriorate over time, it is advisable to double them.
At the end of the tanning process, the skins are taken out of the tanning solution, folded in a pile, a flat board or plywood is placed on it, a load of 5 - 7 kg is placed on top and left in this position for 1 - 2 days. At the same time, excess moisture is squeezed out of the skins, and the skin matures.
After lying on the wet skin, a fat emulsion is applied with a brush or cotton swab, which improves the mechanical properties of the skin and protects it from moisture in the future. To prepare the emulsion, boil water, add pieces of laundry soap (60 g per 1 liter of water), melted pork fat (as much as water) and ammonia (10-12 ml per 1 liter of water) to it. According to other recommendations, 200 g of laundry soap, 80 g of pork or lamb fat and 10 ml of ammonia are taken for 1 liter of water, the water temperature is 40 - 45 ° C. The emulsion can be prepared without fat, taking for this in equal amounts of glycerin and egg yolk. After applying the emulsion to the skin, the skins are stacked and left for 3 - 4 hours.
Then it is very important to dry the scalp and skin well (at a temperature not higher than 30 ° C). After drying, the flesh can also be rubbed with chalk or gypsum powder, smoothed out any irregularities with sandpaper and shaken off thoroughly. If necessary, the skin is straightened and additionally kneaded on a blunt bracket or edge of the board or in some other way. The hair is wiped with sawdust of non-resinous tree species, the sawdust is knocked out and the fur is combed. After completing all the operations, the skin tissue should be soft and elastic, and the fur should be clean and shiny.
Dry skins, the flesh of which was previously cleaned of muscle and fat, must be soaked.
To do this, prepare a solution consisting of warm water (about 25 C °) and table salt, at the rate of 30 g per 1 liter of water.
For too long stored raw materials that do not soak in a day, it is necessary to knead and change the solution from time to time, at least once a day, otherwise the skins will rot.
At the end of this process, the skin should resemble fresh in softness. Then it is thoroughly washed in warm water with soft powders without bleach, rinsed and ventilated to moderate humidity.
Then put the skin back in salt water.
After 30 minutes after re-soaking, soda ash is added there, at the rate of 1 g per 1 liter of water. After the soda dissolves, formalin is poured in two steps, with an interval of 30 minutes, in an amount of 2 g per 1 liter of water.
Stirring and maintaining the temperature at 25 ° C for 6 hours, the skins are kept in this solution.
Then, concentrated sulfuric acid is poured, at the rate of 5 ml per 1 liter of solution.
The skins are kept in the resulting solution for another 8 hours, periodically stirring it all.
Then add ammonia, in the amount of 4 ml per 1 liter of water, and stir for another hour.
Then the skins are fattened with the following composition: add 50 g of laundry soap and 0.5 l of spindle oil to 1 liter of boiling water, mix and add 20 g of ammonia.
The skins removed from the solution are treated with the resulting mixture at a temperature of 50 ° C. Then the skins are turned out with their hairs, they are allowed to lie down for a while, so that the mixture dries slightly. If the softness of the flesh does not satisfy, then the process is repeated. The processed skins are dried, kneaded, sanded with a fine emery belt.
To make the fur shine, it is wiped with technical alcohol.
With the raw, freshly removed skin, immediately, while it is warm, fat and muscle are removed from the skin. Then the skin is sprinkled with fine salt, rolled up with the hair outward, and left in this state for two days. Then it is unfolded, the remains of connective tissue and fat are removed. Then the skin is immersed in a solution prepared as follows: for 1 liter of water, take 70 - 80 g of sodium chloride and dissolve in water.
Next, pour into the prepared saline solution from 7 to 15 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid. The skins are in this solution from 8 to 10 hours, then they are removed from the solution and the liquid is allowed to drain. Why the skins are hung for two hours. After the liquid is taken from the skins, the skins are fattened with the following composition: 50 g of fish oil, 25 ml of oleic acid, 10 ml of 25% ammonia, 1 liter of water. This fat is prepared in two vessels. In the first, fish oil is mixed with oleic acid, in the second ammonia with water. After preparing such mixtures, the contents of the first vessel are poured into the second, at a temperature of 25 - 30 C °, mixed.
The resulting grease is lubricated on the leather surface of the skins and left in this state for 4 - 6 hours.
Then the skins are straightened and pulled on the rules, first with the fur inside, then with the fur outside and dried. During the drying process, the skins are removed several times and carefully stretched in different directions, and when they are completely dry, they are crushed by hand until they become elastic.
Before dressing, the skin is immersed in a concentrated salt solution - 30 g / l, preferably 60 g / l.
It is recommended to add a little ammonia. Keep in solution for several hours (maybe a day) until complete softening. If the skin is not very dry, then it is abundantly sprayed with salt water from the side of the skin and left for several hours. Spraying is repeated as the solution dries until the skin is completely softened. The soaked skin is skinned. After fleshing, the skin is tanned using one of the three methods listed below.
Method 1.The skin stretched and nailed to the board is moistened from the side of the flesh with a solution: aluminum alum - 100 g / l, table salt - 50 g / l.
This should be done 3 - 4 days, but 2 times a day. After that, the skin is dried without removing it from the board.
Method 2.The skin from the side of the flesh is rubbed with an infusion of oak or pine bark until it ceases to absorb the infusion (5 - 6 times, at intervals of 1 - 2 hours).
Then the skin is dried in a stretched form. Then it is rubbed with fine table salt, for 2 - 3 days, 2 times a day. Before rubbing, the skin is moistened with water.
Method 3... The skin is smeared with a special "dough". It is prepared from the calculation: wheat flour - 1 part, oat flour - 20 parts, table salt - 5 parts, hot water - 300 parts. This mixture is cooled and 10 to 15 parts of kvass is added. The dough is now ready.
They grease the fleshy side of the skin, fold the skin in half with the fur up and leave for 1 - 2 days in a warm place.
Then the skin is unrolled and dried near a heated oven or battery. After drying, the "dough" is removed, the skin is sprayed from the flesh side with salt water and soaked with an infusion of oak or willow bark.
After tanning, the skin is impregnated with any kind of fat: bacon, fish oil. The fat is heated and smeared on the skin from the flesh side, crumpled in your hands, greased again and rubbed on a stretched rope until the skin becomes soft.
After this procedure, it is moistened with water, rolled into a tube, wrapped in a rag and left to lie for 10-12 hours.
It remains to dry the skin in a stretched form and, if necessary, paint it with special dyes for fur.
1) Preparation, when the skins need to be soaked, washed, fleshed and degreased.
2) Directly dressing, when the skins are pickled, they are fermented, tanned and fattened.
3) The final stage is considered finishing, when the skins are dried, and also take care of the skin surface of the material and the nap.
The technology for making skins can vary, but beginners often use the simple old method of the northern peoples. The material is dried using a fresh dry method. Milk is taken, rabbit skins are sprayed with it, the material must be rubbed with your hands, as is done when removing dirt from trousers. Films are removed at the same time.
Dried fur removed from a slaughtered rabbit should be dressed in several stages.
Initially, the skin is soaked in a special solution and fleshed.
The recipe is simple: add salt, furacilin, detergent with soda ash to warm water at the rate of 2 tbsp. l. salt, 1 tsp. powder, two antiseptic tablets per 1 liter of liquid. The amount of solution should be 9 times the weight of the skin by weight.
Soaking takes from 5 hours to 3 days, the solution is changed every 10-12 hours. Readiness for further processing can be determined by how soft the flesh has become. The soaked fur is dried and skinned. After completing the procedure, proceed to the next stage.
The degreasing process is carried out as follows:
Rinse the fur in warm water, thoroughly rinsing the outer and inner layers, after rinsing, squeeze lightly.
The essence of the procedure is to soak the product in a mixture of salt and acetic acid.
By time, the pickling stage takes 4-14 hours. The readiness check is carried out as follows: the skin is folded with the fur in half, then again in half, squeezed the fold, unfold.
If in a few seconds the “cross” on the fold has not disappeared, it's time to move on to further actions.
To lay the product, take it out, squeeze it out, turn the skin inside out, put it under a press, and hold it for 20 hours.
To neutralize, mix soda ash with water, immerse for half an hour to remove the strong vinegar aroma.
The operation is necessary for the fur to become plastic, elastic, strong.
Willow bark is suitable for tanning, willow bark will color the fur in a beige shade.
The broth for tanning must be prepared as follows:
The products are placed in the cooled broth with the fur outside, left for a day and a half, stirred every three hours. At the end of the tanning process, the skins are taken out, placed under a press for a day, dried on a rule for 4-5 hours.
The procedure is necessary for the skin to acquire softness and water resistance.
For the operation, animal fat from a pig, rabbit, beef is suitable. A mixture of fat, laundry soap, ammonia, water is prepared at the rate of 250 g of fat, 100 g of soap chips, 1 tsp. ammonia per 0.5 liters of water. With a ready-made warm mixture, you need to lubricate the skin with a brush, heat the cooled mixture again.
Carry out the processing on a drying device, taking care not to touch the fur. The fat is completely absorbed into the skin within 6-9 hours, then cut the skin on the tummy, and finally dry it.
The last operation is kneading the fur and leather to make it soft.
Remove the product from the rule, knead it by hand, process the flesh with a piece of fine sandpaper to remove bumps and irregularities. Comb the fur.
The word picklevanie English origin (pickle - pickle, pickle). The meaning of this word explains the essence of the process. It consists in exposing the skin to acid and salt (their aqueous solutions).
Degreased skins are dipped in an acid-salt solution. The easiest and most affordable option is to use 70% acetic acid (vinegar essence). It is possible with sulfuric acid, but it is difficult for an ordinary person to acquire it. Proportions of pickle solution:
Always wear protective gloves when handling acid. This procedure is best done in some isolated room, as vinegar has a specific smell. All components of the solution are well mixed. The total amount of water is taken depending on the number of skins. The proportions are the same:
Degreased and washed rabbit skins are dipped in a solution. They must be completely covered with the pickle mixture. Just do not put a press on top for this. It can interfere with the mixing of the skins. As a result, they will not be able to soak evenly with the pickling solution. Stir the skins at least once an hour.
The pickling operation lasts on average from 5 to 12 hours. The readiness of the skins is checked by "drying" (white strip). To do this, the skin is folded with an edge four times, pressed on the fold, opened and looked. The cross-shaped “drying” should remain visible for three to five seconds.
If you are new to this difficult business, heed the advice of experienced farmers, it will help you to successfully cope with the work:
Do not be afraid to start learning new things, if for the first time you are faced with breeding rabbits, processing a product with their subsequent use - study the appropriate material. At home, you can handle everything yourself.