On a fine summer morning, you go out into the garden and see an amazing picture: like scattered beads, bright berries ripen on the bushes! This is how currant bushes decorated with multi-colored fruits look elegant. Against the background of dark greenery, multi-colored berries-beads shimmer in the sun, from delicate white and pink to dense dark blue and purple. And currant beckons to itself - collect and eat! Throughout Russia, from the Central region to the Urals and Siberia, gardeners grow this grateful culture. Many varieties with fruits of different tastes, colors and sizes, with their own characteristics. But for the successful cultivation of currants and obtaining generous yields, it is advisable to know the characteristics of each variety.
Black and red currants are the classic varieties of this horticultural crop. On the basis of black currant, breeders bred a unique green-fruited variety. And the red currant gave birth to its colored sisters - white and pink. Depending on the origin and biological characteristics, the following groups of currant varieties are distinguished:
The list of red currant varieties that were grown in industrial gardens and in private plots for a long time consisted of obsolete, low-yielding, small-fruited and susceptible to various diseases. The need to improve the assortment and radically improve the quality characteristics of currants laid the foundation for the creation of new promising varieties. As a result of selection in the early 2000s, new modern varieties of red currant were obtained - Alpha, Zero, Ilyinka. Along with the already well-known, well-proven varieties Uralskaya krasavitsa, Natalie, Gollandskaya krasnaya, Nenaglyadnaya, Jonker van Tets, Rondom, Versailleskaya krasnaya, Vishnevaya Viksne, the novelties have been successfully mastered by gardeners. These varieties are especially popular in amateur gardening.
Given the great popularity of red currants among gardeners, breeders are creating more and more varieties of this culture. Red (white) currant berries contain:
20-50 mg / 100 g of ascorbic acid (vitamin C),
0.3-0.5% of P-active compounds,
A peculiar feature of red currants is a rather high accumulation of coumarins (1.7–4.4 mg / 100 g - more than that of black currants). New large-fruited varieties are of particular interest. So, quite recently, for state variety testing, we transferred varieties Alpha, Zero and Ilyinka, which are distinguished by large berries, pleasant taste, and high productivity.
The parent varieties are Cascade and Chulkovskaya. The beginning of fruiting is average. The bush is medium-sized, compact, with an average density of shoots. The fruits are deep red, large, of the same size, weighing from 0.9 to 1.5 g. The berries are distinguished by an exquisite sweet-sour, dessert taste, there is a pronounced aroma. The yield of the variety is high - from 2 to 4 kg of fruits are obtained from the bush. Tasting score - 4.7 points. The Alpha currant is characterized by self-fertility and stable fruiting. Among the advantages are high winter hardiness and resistance to powdery mildew.
Alpha currant has a high yield
Parent variety - Jonker van Tets with free pollination. Fruit ripening period is medium late. The bush is medium-sized, compact, with a dense crown. Fruits are scarlet or dark red, large, of the same size, weighing 0.8–1.6 g. The taste of berries is excellent, sweet with a slight sourness, dessert. The yield is high, stable, 3.5 kg of fruits from one bush. Tasting score - 5.0 points. The Ilyinka variety is distinguished by its large-fruited and high winter hardiness. Plants are self-fertile and resistant to powdery mildew. Occasionally they are affected by sawflies and anthracnose.
The wonderful taste of the fruit allows the Ilyinka variety to have the highest tasting rating.
Like the Alpha variety, the parent varieties are Kaskad and Chulkovskaya. The beginning of fruiting is medium early. The bush is tall, compact, with an average density of shoots. Fruits are dark red, almost cherry in color, large, of the same size, weighing from 1.0 to 1.6 g. Berries have an amazing sweet taste. The yield of the variety is high - from 2.0 to 2.5 kg of fruits are obtained from the bush. Tasting score - 4.8 points. The advantages of Zero currants are self-fertility, high winter hardiness and resistance of bushes to septoria and powdery mildew.
The combination of beauty and an unusually sweet taste of berries makes the Zero currant a very popular variety.
Due to their good taste and large-fruited varieties, red currant varieties Zero, Alpha and Ilyinka are mainly consumed fresh, although these are versatile varieties and can be successfully used for processing.
Despite the fact that black currant is traditionally more often grown in Russian gardens, red has a number of undoubted advantages over it: high stable yield, resistance to most diseases and pests, as well as a longer productive period. The last property of red currants is due to the fact that the fruit shoots (ringlets and bouquet twigs), on which the peduncles are located, grow evenly along the length of the branches. This allows the bush to regularly bear fruit on the same shoots up to 7-8 years. Due to the medium thickening of the bushes, red currants ripen 2-3 weeks earlier than black currants.
Red currants do not like hot weather, the optimal air temperature for its normal growth and development is + 20-22 ºC. However, due to the deep-lying and branched root system, this culture has high indicators of drought resistance. Therefore, most varieties of red currants on some days of summer withstand heat up to + 30-40 ºC. If the dry period is prolonged, the bushes may shed some of the leaves to reduce moisture loss. The same applies to the resistance of currant bushes to winter cold. Possessing, depending on the region of cultivation, varying degrees of winter and frost resistance, all varieties of red currants endure winter frosts and spring frosts without tangible losses. Young shoots that freeze during especially harsh winters quickly recover in spring and give normal yields in the future.
According to the information from the Catalog of varieties of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Breeding of Fruit Crops (VNIISPK), white currant is a variety of red and is close to it in biological characteristics. Its varieties have characteristics similar to those of red currants, but differ in the color of the fruit.
Different types of white currants share their common varietal properties:
Advantages and disadvantages of different varieties of white currant:
Along with the white currant, pink is part of the colored family and is a type of red currant. The culture of pink currant is not widely known and is still little grown in private farms. The fruits of most of its varieties do not crumble when they reach full maturity and remain on the bushes almost all autumn. Therefore, they are collected in a mechanized way and processed into canned products. Although, due to the exquisite sweet or sweet-sour taste, pink currant berries are more delicious to eat fresh.
Compared to black or red, pink currant varieties are few in number. The most famous are:
The main qualities of varieties of pink currant, similar to its red variety:
But with similar quality indicators, pink currant compares favorably with others for its unique taste - it has very sweet, tender, juicy berries.
This property of the fruit determines the peculiarities of growing pink varieties:
Blackcurrant varieties are mainly derived from its European and Siberian subspecies. In the process of breeding some varieties, wild forms of this plant were also used. Basically, currants are a highly adaptive crop - the same variety can be grown in different geographic areas. However, the results will vary. The peculiarities of black currant are surface bedding and weak branching of the root system. Therefore, most varieties of this culture have rather low indicators of drought resistance compared to red and white currants. Mostly black currants are self-fertile. However, in order to maintain sustainable fruiting (especially in adult plants), it is recommended to grow several different varieties for cross-pollination and with different ripening periods in the same area.
Wild black currant - the original inhabitant of Russian forests - was domesticated by our ancestors 10 centuries ago. And thanks to the persistent breeding work of several generations of scientists over the past 100 years, a new generation of varieties has been created, among which there are real unique ones. Only to find such mediocre ones in the sea is very difficult.
Modern blackcurrant varieties should have a whole range of positive biological qualities:
Currently, breeders have developed many varieties of crops that meet these requirements to the highest degree. These include Selechenskaya-2, Yadrenaya, Hercules, Valovaya, Barrikadnaya, Charodey, Barmaley, Ladushka, Gratsia, Oasis and a number of others.
Of particular note is the Kipian currant - the first and so far the only variety in the Russian selection, which combines immunity to powdery mildew and kidney mites with high resistance to rust; and leaf spots, septoria and anthracnose are minimally affected. The berries of this currant are tasty, sweet and sour, rather large - weighing 1.3–2.1 g. Ripen at the same time, which greatly facilitates the collection of fruits. The yield is also record-breaking: up to 10–12 kg of berries from one bush.
Kidney currant mite is one of the most dangerous crop pests. It is a microscopic parasite (up to 0.3 mm) that lives on currant bushes, hibernating and multiplying inside the buds. In the spring, during the period of swelling and budding on the bushes, ticks infect them with egg-laying, from which larvae and adults subsequently emerge.
The buds of the currant, inside which the larvae of the pest are located, are swollen and look like barrels
The disease develops very quickly, and if urgent measures are not taken to destroy the ticks, the currant bush will gradually die. Blackcurrant varieties are most susceptible to kidney mite infestation. Red and white varieties are affected by it much less often.The fight against this pest is long and laborious, but the result is not always positive. Therefore, through selection, currant varieties were bred that have immunity or rather high resistance to this pest:
For old, traditional varieties of currants, small berries were characteristic, the weight of which barely reached 0.2–0.3 g. This created certain inconveniences in the collection and processing of fruits. Since the end of the twentieth century, as a result of selection, varieties with large and very large berries have been bred. For their combination of fruit size with excellent taste and high yield, they are increasingly popular with gardeners.
But first, you should recall some of the principles of selecting varieties for your garden. The number of plants on the site for each crop, of course, is planned by the gardener himself, depending on the desire to grow this crop, the taste preferences of each family member, etc. Planting should not be single-cultivar, however good the cultivar chosen.
Drought resistance is a very important defining quality for currant varieties. It characterizes the reaction of bushes to the adverse effects of high ambient temperatures simultaneously with a long-term decrease in air and soil moisture. Plants with high tolerance to heat and drought have the ability to adapt to changing conditions and to grow and yield normally during the dry hot season.
Varieties with high levels of drought and heat tolerance include:
Due to its innate qualities inherited from wild species and acquired from cultivated cultivated subspecies, black currant is characterized by a high potential for ecological plasticity and adaptability to unfavorable (and sometimes extreme) environmental factors. Depending on weather conditions, the same black currant variety can manifest itself in different ways in different regions of Russia. Breeders are developing new varieties that are resistant to diseases and pests, as well as adapt to changing growing conditions. For each climatic zone of our country, the best varieties of black currant are zoned, of which the most promising are distinguished. In recent years, Russian breeders have achieved very serious success in creating modern varieties of black currant, fruitful and large-fruited, with high resistance to various external factors, which made it possible to radically update the zoned assortment of this crop.
The climatic conditions of central Russia and the Moscow region are characterized by unstable winters, with severe frosts and sudden winter thaws, and warm, but often rainy summers. These conditions predetermine the cultivation of such varieties of currants that fully meet the requirements of crop breeding for this region:
The best varieties for growing in central Russia and the Moscow region are:
New varieties: Selechenskaya-2, Kipiana, Grazia, Oasis, Temptation and Creole are resistant (without signs of damage even in rainy summers) to powdery mildew. And in varying degrees to the main pest in the Moscow region - the kidney mite.
Despite the fact that the climate in Belarus is temperate continental, climatic conditions differ in individual regions. If in the north and north-east of the republic frosts in winter reach from -8º to -10 ºС, then in the south-western and southern regions the winter is much warmer - below -4 ºThe thermometer is not lowered. The Belarusian winter is characterized by frequent thaws, turning into wet snow. Summer here is usually not hot, with frequent rains and air temperatures throughout the territory on average from +17º up to +25 ºFROM.
Taking into account the peculiarities of the environment, black currant varieties are most suitable for cultivation in Belarus, they tolerate high humidity of the air and soil, are immune to fungal diseases and viruses, with good winter hardiness.
These requirements are met by Golubichka, Zagadka, Nara, Bagira, Lazy, as well as zoned varieties: Katyusha, Klussonovskaya, Kupalinka, Pamyat Vavilova, Ceres, Belorusskaya sweet, Titania. In addition to these qualities, the black currant of these varieties has a high yield, large juicy berries with an excellent taste, which do not crumble when ripe.
All varieties are characterized by self-fertility and versatility of use - for fresh consumption and for processing. Due to the non-shedding of fruits, mechanized harvesting is widely used in the industrial cultivation of these varieties of currants.
Advantages and disadvantages of currant varieties for Belarus:
Black currant is the most popular crop in the gardens of Siberia. It has been successfully cultivated for a long time in the Altai Territory, which is the southern outskirts of Western Siberia. Many people know and love currant varieties:
In connection with the intensive development of new northern territories for the inhabitants of Western and Eastern Siberia, it has become urgent to grow new varieties of black currant, more frost and winter hardy, fast-growing and high-yielding, which are minimally susceptible to fungal, viral diseases and pests or are resistant to them. immunity.
Siberia has long been considered the center of origin of many types of currants and was famous for its large-fruited, high-yielding wild forms of the Siberian subspecies of black currant with dessert-flavored berries. This served as the basis for the deployment of currant selection work here.
Considering the extreme conditions of Siberia, when the difference between winter and summer air temperatures can reach 90–95 ºC, in winter, frosts are frequent up to -50 ºС, and summer heat - up to +40 ºC, to move the currants further north, in more severe climatic conditions, appropriate varieties were needed.
Currently, the main tasks of black currant breeding in Gorno-Altaysk is the creation of black currant varieties that are resistant to unfavorable environmental factors and major diseases and pests, early-growing, self-fertile, with a berry weight of 1.2-1.4 g, a high biologically active substances, with a potential yield of 8-10 t / ha, suitable for mechanized harvesting.
The best modern varieties for growing in Siberia are:
A feature of the black currant grown in Siberia is its versatility, i.e. the possibility of eating fresh berries and using them for processing. In addition, most varieties can be harvested mechanically.
The Urals have long been considered an area of risky agriculture, in particular for horticulture. The most dangerous and critical for currants is the deterioration of weather conditions during the flowering period - a sharp cold snap, return frosts in spring can damage bushes that are just starting to bloom. Blooming flowers are most vulnerable in such conditions. In buds and ovaries, resistance to low temperatures is slightly higher. The degree of damage depends on the intensity of the frost, its duration and the conditions of exit from it (wind, rain, sun).
Our Ural zone is distinguished by its peculiar climatic conditions: the accumulation of heat and moisture, often extreme conditions arising in any period of the year, especially in winter and spring. Therefore, only a few of the large number of introduced varieties can realize their full potential. As a rule, in our conditions, varieties are not selected, first of all, in terms of marketability. Most importantly, varieties from other zones are more vulnerable during critical weather periods. They suffer more from sudden changes in temperature in winter, less resistant to frost during the flowering period. And pests with diseases more often and to a greater extent overcome these varieties.
Given these features of the climate of the Urals, when choosing varieties of currants for planting and growing, one should give preference to later varieties. In addition, it is advisable to have several varieties of black currant with different flowering periods in the garden or on your personal plot. But also when choosing a variety, you should pay attention to its winter hardiness and frost resistance, because Ural winters are quite severe (with frosts down to minus 35-40 ºFROM). The presence of such qualities as good heat tolerance and drought resistance in the varietal characteristics of currants is desirable, given the possibility of summer heat with temperatures up to +35 ºFROM.
In order to prevent the mass death of flowers, it is necessary to plant black currants on the site with different flowering periods. The longer the flowering period, the greater the chances of getting a crop from the site, since in case of frost, only a part of the flowers that have blossomed by this time can suffer in different varieties. In addition, under optimal conditions, the cross-pollination of varieties increases not only the yield, but also the commercial qualities of berries (the weight of the berries increases, the taste improves).
The best black currant varieties for the conditions of the Urals:
All these varieties have high and very high winter hardiness, are fast-growing, perfectly tolerate recurrent frosts and sudden temperature changes. For the most part, they are resistant to disease and pest damage. In addition to these quality characteristics, certain varieties of currants have particularly high rates:
Recently, the common favorite of gardeners, black currant, has been joined by its variety - green-fruited. Connoisseurs immediately appreciated its merits. Its fruits, leaves and twigs have the same currant smell as the black one, however, the aroma is softer, pleasant, unsharp. Green currants are especially appreciated by people who, for various reasons, are not suitable for black berries.
This plant is unpretentious, has a high winter hardiness, quickly enters fruiting. Neither disease nor pests affect this currant. Her berries are green with a light yellow tint, have a great sweet taste, they can be eaten both fresh and frozen. The most popular green currant varieties by amateur gardeners:
The main indicators of green varieties:
A brush of green currant resembles a necklace - the berries hang like green transparent beads on a string
Green berries are completely inconspicuous among the leaves. It seems to an uninitiated person that they are not yet ripe, therefore uninvited guests will not touch your harvest. I hope gardeners will appreciate the new product and it will become familiar in our gardens.
Many varieties of currants of different tastes, colors, sizes of berries have already been grown by gardeners.More varieties are now being tested to meet the most stringent selection requirements. Black currants, red, yellow, green, pink, white - she just asks to the garden. A novice gardener has a question: what kind of currant to choose from a multi-colored sparkling rainbow of flowers - the largest or the sweetest? Or the one that yields an incredible harvest every year? It's up to you, dear gardeners. The choice of varieties is huge, and the choice is yours!
My name is Valeria, and I am an electrical engineer by profession. But I really enjoy writing articles on various topics of interest to me: nature, pets, travel, cooking. Over time, it turned into a hobby.
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White currants are much less widespread than black and red ones. However, it is favorably distinguished by a number of useful properties, thanks to which it has firmly established itself on the land plots of many summer residents and gardeners. White currant berries contain a lot of potassium and iron, and a high content of pectin substances helps to cleanse the blood.
White currants are not very popular compared to their “comrades” (red and black). Nevertheless, gardeners appreciate it not only for its excellent taste, but also for its luxurious appearance, thanks to which any garden turns into a source of pride and a source of aesthetic pleasure. Almost all varieties of white currant are resistant to all kinds of unfavorable conditions and diseases, but some can be distinguished especially. Today we will focus on the best varieties of white currant for the Moscow region and the Urals.
White currants are known to be incredibly healthy berries that do not require much maintenance. But if you want to grow a healthy and fruitful berry crop on your garden plot, you need to know some of the intricacies of choosing the right variety.
If we are talking about the Moscow region, then the climate there is temperate continental, with moderately cold winters and relatively warm, often rainy summers. In the north, northwest of the region, soddy-podzolic or partially loamy soils prevail, rather heavy, with excess moisture. Growing berries on such soil will require a considerable amount of organic fertilizers and frequent soil liming measures.
All varieties of white currant are very productive
In the east of the region, the soils are completely different: they are represented by peat, the groundwater is very close. The soil itself is not very fertile and will require careful maintenance while growing currants.
In the south of the Moscow region, the soil is much better, moreover, it is much warmer there. Most of the soils are sod-podzolic.
Advice. When choosing a variety suitable for growing in the Moscow region, be sure to take into account the peculiarities of the climate and soil in a particular area.
It should be noted that in this region, in principle, almost any varieties of white currants are able to survive, but it is better to give preference to those that can withstand extreme heat and excessive moisture in the soil.
Here, everything is somewhat more complicated, because the Ural region differs significantly in climatic conditions from the Moscow region. In general, the climate of the Urals is considered polar. Accordingly, when choosing a suitable variety of currants, it is necessary to proceed, first of all, from the winter hardiness of the culture, its resistance to diseases and the growth rate. Late varieties or those with a too long collection period will not work.
Advice. Speaking of winter hardiness, this concept should not be confused with frost resistance, which only implies the ability of a plant to tolerate a large minus. But winter hardiness is already a complex concept and implies that the plant will not only be able to maintain its tops when exposed to cold, but also "survive" after significant icing of the root system.
By the way, speaking about the yield of the variety: white currant, regardless of the variety, has impressive yield indicators. Therefore, when choosing a suitable variety, you should not be guided by this very criterion. As practice shows, the amount of white berry harvest depends to a greater extent on the quality of crop care in each specific case.
Here is a selection of white currant varieties that are best suited for growing in the Moscow region:
But for the Ural region, it is worth looking at completely different, but no less high-quality varieties:
So our article has come to an end. You learned about the intricacies of choosing a variety of white currants, as well as the best varieties for growing in the Moscow region and the Urals. Good luck!
Medium early currant from Siberian breeders.
Description. Medium-sized bushes of weak spreading. Average brush length - 4-5 cm. Small fruits - 0.5 g. Color - yellowish-white. Sakharov - up to 10.5%. Vitamin C - 43 mg One plant produces about 1 kg of berries.
Pros: very tasty berries and high winter hardiness.
Minuses: low yield.
All early currant varieties have some common features. Whichever plant variety is chosen for cultivation, the gardener will have to face certain disadvantages and advantages. The advantages of early currants are as follows:
However, early currants also have disadvantages:
An experienced gardener chooses several varieties of currants with different ripening periods in order to get berries both for fresh consumption and for conservation.
Today, many varieties of black currant are known. They are distinguished not so much by the taste of the berry as by the ripening time, resistance to certain weather factors, the ability to adapt, and so on. Thanks to this variety, you can choose varieties that can bear fruit in any conditions.
The variety was obtained in the All-Russian Research Institute of A.I. Lupin by crossing a hybrid of line 32-77 and Sort Seanets Golubki. Gulliver was registered in 2000 and is recommended for cultivation in the Central, North-West and Volga-Vyatka regions. This is a self-fertile, early ripening variety of early ripening - the berries ripen by mid-June.
Gulliver got its name from the size of the bush. It is tall - above 2 m, a plant with a spreading wide crown, takes up a lot of space on the site. The leaves are large, dark green, readily used in conservation due to the high content of tannins. The plant blooms in mid-May with large red-purple flowers.
Gulliver is distinguished by excellent resistance to drought and cold, immune to anthracnose, powdery mildew, rust, kidney mites and other pests. The disadvantage of the variety is its tallness: the bushes should be pruned often so that they do not turn into trees.
The variety was obtained in the South Ural NIIPik, by crossing a linear hybrid and a Seedling of a Golubka. Self-fertile, early ripening plant, blooms in mid-May, and the harvest can be harvested from the 1st of July. The berries ripen in large quantities, which makes Sibylla a very promising industrial variety.
The bushes are small - 1.5 m in height, compact, medium leafy. Leaves are shiny, "currant", do not fall off for a long time. Flowers and then berries are collected in clusters 4–7 cm long.
Sibylla berries gain from 3 to 6 g. The peel is of medium thickness, the pulp is dense, so that the berries are perfectly transported and stored. The taste is sweet and sour, the berries preserve the aroma for a long time.
Sibylla tolerates frosts down to -30 C. At the same time, currants are resistant to drought and heat, insensitive to powdery mildew, fungal diseases, but susceptible to septoria and anthracnose.
The variety was created in 1999 and is cultivated in the West Siberian and Ural regions. Withstands frosts down to -32. C, it is very unpretentious in care: it does not require watering or feeding.
The variety got its name not for the size of the berry, but for the size of the bush. The pygmy is very compact, it does not grow above 1.5 m. The thickening is average. The leaves are large, light green. It blooms with small inconspicuous flowers.
From 1 bush, you can collect 5.7 kg. Given the small size of the plant, the indicator is simply a record.
Pygmy is resistant to droughts, its yield practically does not depend on changes in weather. Insensitive to anthracnose and powdery mildew, but susceptible to septoria.