Seedling method of growing vegetables


Many vegetable growers and gardeners in the Northwest region get good vegetable yields thanks to the seedling method of growing

More than half of all vegetable crops can be grown through seedlings. These are cabbage, rutabagas, tomatoes, celery, sweet onions and leeks, asparagus. Seedlings are even more widespread in greenhouse-greenhouse culture: sweet peppers, late varieties and hybrids of tomatoes, cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkins, watermelons, melons are obtained mainly due to the fact that their seeds are sown much earlier than the time when the snow melts and warms up the soil.

The main limiting agroclimatic factor in our climate is temperature. The average annual temperature varies by region from + 2.6 ° C to + 3.5 ° C. The frost-free period ranges from 110 to 140 days, the period with temperatures above + 10 ° C lasts from 105 to 125 days with the sum of temperatures 1400-1800, the period with temperatures above 15 ° C is 35-55 days, spring frosts are observed until May 15-25, the arrival of autumn frost occurs on August 10-20. That is why the seedling method allows you to grow vegetables without risk and get a guaranteed yield.

With the help of seedlings, you can reuse the area in the open ground and under glass. The seedling method allows you to do without breakthrough seedlings.

The seedling method requires the construction of greenhouses, greenhouses, nurseries. And for this you need to have a stock of covering materials: glass, film, spunbond. All this can be purchased by visiting the list of country shops on our website.

The essence of the seedling method

Solar insolation allows plants to be grown in the region from March to September, and temperature conditions push the sowing dates of many vegetables (peppers, tomatoes, pumpkin seeds) to early June. An enormous amount of solar energy is thus left unused. In addition, during the first 1.5-2 months, plants develop very slowly and use the area provided to them only by 0.5-1%. Both points to the need for the seedling method.

The ratio between the cultivated area in open ground and the usable area of ​​nurseries (greenhouses, greenhouses) depends on the number of seedlings planted per 1 m², and on the number of seedlings suitable for planting obtained per unit area.

In most cases, the following number of seedlings is planted on 1 m² of the garden:

  • early cabbage and cauliflower - from 4 to 8 pieces;
  • medium cabbage and broccoli - 3 to 4;
  • late head cabbage, red cabbage and Brussels sprouts - from 2 to 3;
  • tomatoes - from 2 to 6;
  • table beets - from 30 to 60;
  • celery - from 30 to 40;
  • leeks and sweet onions - from 30 to 40;
  • zucchini - from 1 to 1.5;
  • cucumbers - from 2 to 4;
  • pumpkins - from 0.5 to 1.

Seedling output from one frame (1 m²) is:

  • cabbage - 400 pieces,
  • tomatoes - 500 pieces,
  • peppers - 400 pieces,
  • onions - 1000 pieces,
  • celery - 1000 pieces,
  • table beets - 1000 pieces,
  • cucumbers - 100 pieces,
  • zucchini, pumpkins - 100 pieces.

Knowing the number of seedlings required per 1 m² and its output from one frame or 1 m² of usable greenhouse area, it is possible to calculate the area of ​​the nursery. And the limited area on which the seedlings are grown can be easily protected from frost with matting, rugs, plastic wrap, spandbond. By the time of planting in the field, the seedlings reach significant development ("race").

This race can be measured formally by the time elapsed from sowing in the nursery to planting in the field, i.e. one, two months. In addition, the race can be determined by the phases of development: the number of leaves, the appearance of the first or second cluster of flowers, the beginning of fruit set, etc. The more favorable the conditions for growing seedlings, the longer the race. For example, tomato seedlings grown at a temperature of 10 ... 12 ° C are two times less than tomato seedlings grown at a temperature of 20 ... 25 ° C. The same difference is observed to a certain extent for different areas and volumes of food.

In this way, with the help of seedlings, we increase the growing season of plants by 30-40 days or more, which allows you to get a harvest of vegetables earlier... For example, starting to grow seedlings before the snow melts and planting them in the field already with the onset of warm days (after the snow melts), you can get a cabbage harvest 1-1.5 months earlier than when sowing seeds directly into the ground.

In the early stages of development, many plants suffer from insects. When sowing seeds directly into the ground, seedlings of rutabagas, cabbage are sometimes completely destroyed by an earthen flea. When grown in a nursery, these plants are easier to protect from pests. These are the positive aspects of the seedling method.

At the same time, each plant gets sick during transplantation. No matter how carefully we remove the seedlings from the nursery, damage to the root system is inevitable. The more the root system is damaged, the greater the discrepancy between the evaporating surface of the leaves and the root system supplying aqueous solutions, the drier the weather during planting, the more and longer the plants get sick during transplantation.

It should be noted that in the nursery, the plants are located closely, one next to the other, because of this, their evaporation is significantly reduced. And in the field, they get 100-400 times larger area and, as a result, evaporate much more water. The difference in air and thermal conditions increases even more if the seedlings are grown not in a soil nursery, but in film and glass greenhouses.

In order to somewhat prepare the seedlings for a change in the light and thermal regime, it is necessary to remove the frames from the greenhouses 5-10 days before planting during the day, and when the weather is warm - and at night.

Despite this preparation, when plants are planted in the field, they still stop in development for 3-4 days, and in some cases for 10 days or more. As a result, the race in development, which is due to the use of the seedling method, will be significantly reduced.

How to prevent these unfavorable moments and eliminate the stop of seedling growth during planting? For this, care must be taken that the seedlings have a compact and strong root system and that this root system is not disturbed during transplantation.

The agrotechnology of growing seedlings is of great importance for preventing the unfavorable consequences of transplantation.

Seedling age

The younger the seedlings, the better they take root, however, when replanting very young seedlings, we greatly reduce the run, which is why we lose some of the advantages of the seedling method of culture.

Here are some of the characteristics of the various vegetable plants grown by seedlings.

For cabbage plants, when determining the age of seedlings, one has to reckon with two circumstances: young seedlings with 3-4 leaves take root better during transplantation, but at the same time they are more affected by the earthen flea. On the other hand, cabbage seedlings with 6-7 leaves when transplanted without a coma are sick for a long time due to a violation of the correspondence between the leaf and underground systems.

Seedlings of pumpkin plants do not tolerate transplanting without coma. Even potted pumpkin seedlings cannot be grown longer than 30 days. Pumpkin plants develop a large leaf surface for a short time, and a sharp change in growth conditions when planting seedlings from a greenhouse into open ground causes a long delay in growth and development.

In the practice of flower cultures, multiple transplants are widespread (up to 5-6 times). This technique (picking) is used in vegetable crops, where 2-3 transplants are used. Moreover, the first is carried out already in the phase of the cotyledons.

The question of the expediency of a pick is decided differently in each individual case. For example, when growing seedlings of cauliflower, the seeds of which are expensive, picking is often used. When growing seedlings of early white cabbage, seeds are usually sown in rows 6 cm from a row from a row and a pick is not used. Excessively dense seedlings in a row are thinned out, leaving them at a distance of 4 cm from each other.

They act differently when growing tomato seedlings. In our region, tomato seedlings are planted at the age of 45-50 days. At this age, the minimum feeding area for seedlings is 7x7 cm.Seedlings 55-60 days old already require a feeding area of ​​10x10 and 12x12 cm.To save expensive greenhouse area, they often resort to dense sowing in seed boxes or in a greenhouse where seedlings grow 2-3 weeks, then it dives into new greenhouses. When picking, the plants are placed so that the feeding area is 8x8, 10x10 or 12x12 cm.It must be remembered that the larger the feeding area of ​​the seedlings, the greater the yield of ripe peppers and tomatoes, the earlier they ripen.

Methods for preserving the root system of seedlings during transplantation

To maintain a run in time, seedlings must be grown so that the root system is not severely disturbed during transplantation. For this purpose, it is grown in plastic and peat pots, in nutritional cubes, cups and containers after dairy products.

The most comfortable conditions for development and growth are created in nutrient cubes, where peat is an integral part. An admixture of peat promotes enhanced root development and leads to the formation of a so-called root ball. Seedlings grown in such a mixture are taken out along with a clod of earth, thanks to which it can more easily transfer the transplant to a permanent place.

Strengthened development of the root system can be achieved by cutting the roots. The first pruning is done when the second real leaf appears, the second - 4-8 days before planting the seedlings in the ground. For pruning, they take an ordinary knife 15-20 cm long, with which they prune the ground in the middle between the plants in two mutually perpendicular directions. In the places of pruning, numerous tiny branches are formed, which hold the clod well and through which the plants extract nutrients from the soil.

When removing seedlings without a coma, the smallest branches of the roots break off, and the remaining ones die in the air after a few minutes. Therefore, immediately after removing from the ground, the roots of the seedlings are dipped in liquid clay (sour cream density). The roots treated in this way will not die even after 15 minutes of exposure to the sun. Sprinkling the roots after immersing them in liquid clay from above with dry earth, we get a kind of lump.

Seedlings planted with such a lump take root well. If you water the wells before planting, and after its completion, cover it with earth, then subsequent watering will not be required.

It must be remembered that a young plant organism requires 2-3 more elements of mineral nutrition per unit weight than an adult plant. The requirements of a young plant organism to phosphorus are especially great. Young 15-day-old tomato seedlings consume 7-8 times more phosphoric acid per unit weight than an adult flowering plant.

Since most of our gardeners use ready-made peat soils as soil for stuffing pots and boxes, they need to remember that they contain few microelements, so they need to be additionally introduced in the form of dressings during the period of growing seedlings of vegetable crops. For 10 liters of water, 0.2 g of boric acid, 0.15 g of copper sulfate, 0.1 g of manganese sulfate and 0.15 g of zinc sulfate are used. The first feeding is carried out when the seedlings form 1-2 true leaves.

Re-feed after 10-12 days. This enhances the growth of the root system and leaf apparatus, the seedlings become more resistant to low temperatures when they are planted in the ground, the early maturity increases, and the yield of vegetables increases by 20-25%.

Thermal conditions for growing seedlings

Thermal conditions greatly affect the quality of seedlings. Pots and cubes installed in a greenhouse or greenhouse (before sowing or picking seedlings) must be well warmed up.

To germinate seeds and accelerate the emergence of seedlings, the temperature in the greenhouse or greenhouse should be at least 20 ... 25 ° C. But as soon as yellow-green shoots appear, the temperature must be lowered: for cabbage - up to 5 ... 8 ° С, for peppers, eggplants, tomatoes - up to 8 ... 10 ° С, for cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkins - up to 12 ... 15 ° С. This temperature should be maintained around the clock for 3-4 days. This is done in order to prevent stretching of the hypocotal knee. If the temperature after the emergence of shoots is high (especially at night), then the hypocotal knee may stretch so much that the seedlings will fall to the ground.

After the reduced temperature has been maintained for 3-4 days, the following temperature regime is set:

CultureTemperature regime (in degrees)
in the afternoon in sunny weatherin the afternoon in cloudy weatherat night
Cabbage15-1712-156-8
Tomatoes, peppers, eggplants18-2215-188-10
Cucumbers, pumpkins, zucchini22-2518-2015-17

The greater the luminous intensity, the higher the air temperature can be. On the contrary, with weakening of the intensity of light, the temperature should be reduced. It is especially necessary to monitor the temperature at night. At high temperatures at night, the plant breathes vigorously and pampered. Such seedlings, after planting in the ground, do not withstand even light frosts, they suffer with sharp drops in temperature.

With the onset of warm weather, frames are removed from the greenhouses: in greenhouses with cabbage seedlings, when the outside air temperature rises to 10 ° C, and with tomato seedlings - up to 12 ° C; frames from pumpkin seedlings are removed at an air temperature of at least 15 ° C. 3-4 days before planting cabbage seedlings in the field, frames are removed not only for the day, but also at night. However, from greenhouses occupied with tomato and pumpkin seedlings, frames are removed at night only if frosts are not expected.

Compliance with all these basic requirements when growing allows you to get well-nourished, healthy seedlings with a compact, well-developed root system, which is fully preserved when transplanted into open ground, which is the key to a high yield of vegetables.

Nikolay Lapikov,
Doctor of Agricultural Sciences


4. In what containers is it better to grow seedlings?

To reduce the growing area at the initial stage, you can use a seedling cassette with 2x2 or 3x3 cm cells.

You can choose a suitable container on our market. This is an illustrated catalog that contains the offers of various online stores. See a selection of seedling containers.

All crops, even cucumber, transplant well. in large pots, if the root system is in a clod of earth and is not damaged during transplantation.

To reduce the growing area, use seedling trays with cells

Seedlings of tomato, pepper, cucumber, zucchini are best grown in large pots - about 1 liter in volume. Celery, lettuce, as well as Chinese cabbage can be planted in small pots or cassettes measuring 3x3 or 5x5 cm.What kind of containers are there, what are their advantages and disadvantages, read the article Paper honeycombs, peat tablets and 13 more options for seedling containers.


February - it's time to plant seedlings of peppers, tomatoes and other vegetables

February is the month from which the summer cottage usually begins. True, at first only on the windowsills of summer residents - in wooden boxes, cups and other containers with earth. But this is not important, the main thing is to do such a fascinating thing - to get all the harvested seeds, once again sort them out, first select only the most necessary ones that they wanted to plant this year, and then still find a place for other varieties. What you need to plant in February, we will tell you.

✅ Planting peppers for seedlings

Pepper is a very thermophilic culture, which is considered one of the most beneficial for the human body. It contains a huge amount of vitamin C and multivitamin A. Sweet pepper perfectly complements many meat dishes on our table, so summer residents grow it in their gardens.

An exclusively seedling method of growing is suitable for pepper, since the time from germination to the appearance of the first fruits is quite long - 120-150 days. Peppers are transplanted into open ground at the age of 60-80 days, when the first buds appear on the bush. The approximate planting time is based on the ambient temperature.

Having started the first shoots, the plant grows well at temperatures from 12 to 15 degrees during the day, and from 6 to 10 at night. Therefore, the approximate planting time is the first decade of June, when the risk of frost is minimal. During the period of seedling ripening in greenhouses, it needs periodic solar hardening, since plants that do not see the sun will immediately burn out.

✅ Planting tomatoes for seedlings

February and March are the months when we actively start to deal with tomatoes. We choose the best tomato seeds, stock up on soil and seedling pots. Let's see what kind of work real gardeners do, and most importantly how and when to plant tomatoes for seedlings.

February is a good time to acquire soil and prepare boxes for seedlings of peppers, tomatoes and eggplants. The entire future harvest is laid in the seedling period. By the way, it will be said that plant transplantation is a forced measure that summer residents are forced to resort to for earlier plant development and acceleration of fruit ripening.
When to plant tomatoes for seedlings in 2016

Tall tomatoes, as well as peppers and eggplant are sown for seedlings at the end of February from 20th to 10th March.

Tomatoes, which are planned to be transplanted into the greenhouse in April, are planted for seedlings in February on planting days. These are February 13, 14, 15 and 18, 2016.

Early and mid-season tomato varieties are sown for seedlings on March 13th and 16th, on favorable planting days. It is possible to plant tomatoes during the Growing Moon period, which in 2016 lasts from March 10 to 22.

There are several favorable days in April when you can plant tomatoes for seedlings, if you have not already done so. In this case, choose seedlings of superdeterminate low-growing varieties and hybrids for open ground, ultra-early varieties or cherry tomatoes. The best days for planting a tomato are in April 8, 9 and 14.

When to plant seeds of large-fruited tomatoes and tomatoes

Large, highly vigorous tomato varieties, such as Russian Size, Pink Giant, Bull Heart, are usually late-ripening, so they need to be planted in the third decade of February.

✅ Planting eggplants for seedlings

Eggplant is a very healthy vegetable that belongs to the nightshade family. Differs in a rather long period of growth. Of all the nightshades, eggplants are the most demanding for heat and light. The technical ripeness of the fruit reaches 85-100 days from the day of plant sprouting. In this regard, it is best to plant eggplant seedlings in the following period: end of February - beginning of March.

✅ Planting cucumbers for seedlings

Cucumbers are vegetables that are 95% water. They are very useful for the human body, regular consumption of food is an excellent prevention of many diseases associated with the stomach. Cucumbers are distinguished by their early ripening, and it does not make much sense to plant them in seedlings, unless you expect to get the earliest harvest from them. For seedlings, cucumbers are planted around the beginning and end of April.

It is right to choose when to plant seedlings, it is best to rely on external factors: on the climate of your region, opportunities, and others.

✅ Planting cabbage for seedlings

This is usually done in mid-late March. However, depending on the region, as well as the planned time of planting in the garden, the time of planting seeds may differ.

By the time of planting in the garden, seedlings of early varieties of cabbage should already have 6-7 leaves, later varieties - 4-5 leaves and be about 15-20 centimeters high. If the seedlings are overgrown, then they will hurt when transplanting, and if they are undergrown, then the yield will be low and late. The optimal age for seedlings, from emergence to planting in the ground, is 35-45 days, for early cabbage - 50-55 days.

Therefore, before sowing cabbage seeds, it is necessary, first of all, to calculate the time of planting cabbage for seedlings. So, for example, if you are going to plant seedlings in the garden at the end of May, then sowing seedlings should be done approximately on March 25th. In order for your seedlings to withstand frost and at the same time give a good harvest in the fall, you need to take into account the rules for sowing and growing cabbage seedlings.

Have a nice harvest!


To the most rational for me method of growing potatoes, which I have been using for more than one year, I came on my own, through a lot of trial and error. And only then from special literature I learned that it is called Dutch.

But be that as it may, and now it takes me much less time and effort for the second bread, and the harvests have become much larger. At first, I planted potatoes in the traditional way, just like all the neighbors around, i.e. work began in the spring, when for planting I dug up the entire area of ​​the plot in solid wood to a depth of 30-35 cm.

Doing it with a shovel is a lot of work. To facilitate the task, I began to plow with a motor-cultivator. It became more fun, although seven sweats still left me, because this unit itself has a lot of weight - try turning it! Especially considering the depth to which the land had to be worked. Okay, I coped with this task. Then, according to the markings, with the help of a rope stretched between the pegs, he made holes with a shovel (all the same, one could not do without it!) Holes, threw a tuber into each and immediately covered everything with earth. After the sprouts appeared, he began to spud them in rows. And during the summer I had to do this work 3-4 times. It seems to be a simple procedure compared to plowing, but it still took enough time and effort. And, finally, autumn is already on the doorstep, the tops are beginning to dry, and it's time to start digging potatoes.

But everything changed when I bought a light and small electric cultivator with a capacity of only 1 kW. It would seem that his strength is not enough for serious work, why is he needed? But in fact, it was this moment that made me radically revise the whole procedure for processing a potato plot. In late autumn, I begin to prepare the soil for steam: I wait for the first snow to sprinkle it, and it, by that time already well saturated with moisture, but not yet seized by the frost, becomes like butter.

During this period, it can easily be dug up with a shovel (it is a pleasure to work in the cold) to the depth of the bayonet, and not breaking the layers, but turning them over. And this is very important, because all the roots of the weeds are on top and completely freeze in winter, along with the top layer of the earth.

In the spring, thanks to this pre-winter digging with a shovel, the lumps of soil begin to dry out much faster compared to the land plowed to great depths in the fall by the cultivator. Why? Yes, because in the second case, the soil is compacted during the winter, and very few air channels remain in it. And therefore, for dried up lumps of soil, you can immediately use the same electric cultivator, with which I plow the top layer to a depth of only 15-20 cm. Thanks to the high-speed rotor with four milling cutters, dry land literally turns into crumbly "sand" in minutes (photo 1) ...


Lesson on the topic "Growing vegetables"

lesson on the topic "Growing vegetables in a greenhouse" - excursion

View document content "Lesson on the topic" Growing vegetables ""

CLASS 7, teacher Order A.Yu., date _______________

Lesson topic: Growing vegetable plants in a greenhouse (excursion).

Purpose: study how vegetable plants are grown in a greenhouse, conduct a virtual tour, to acquaint students with the conditions of growing plants in closed ground; develop the concept of carbon nutrition of plants; instill a love of work and focus on agricultural professions.

Lesson type: research lesson

І. Organizing time:

1.Verification of the students present. 2.Checking the readiness of students for the lesson.

II. Updating the basic knowledge and life experience of students:

1. Target setting of the lesson.

2.Checking the previously studied material:

-Have you ever worked on your garden plot?

-What types of work did you perform?

- Why does a person need a vegetable garden?

3.Analysis and addition of students' answers, summing up:

- analysis of class work - analysis of typical mistakes

- activity - evaluating responses

ІІІ... Motivation for educational and work activities:

Today we will give you a guided lesson. You will learn how you can grow vegetable crops using a seedling and non-seedling method, what are the schemes for sowing and planting crops.

Communication of the topic and objectives of the lesson.

IV. Presentation of new material:

Today we will consider two types of growing vegetables, these are seedling and non-seedling methods.

Seedling - these are young plants grown from seeds, with cotyledons and the first true developed leaves (cabbage has 3 leaves, cucumber has 3-5 leaves, tomato has 5-7 leaves).

Seedling method cultivation allows you to get the harvest at an earlier date. This is very important, since summer is short in central Russia. We grow tomato, pepper, eggplant, cucumber, cabbage using seedlings. Seedlings are grown in advance, in protected ground (in greenhouses, hotbeds, shelters), and then planted in a permanent place in open ground.

Seedling growing methods.
Seedlings are grown in two ways: potless and in pots.
With the potless method, the seeds are sown in seedling boxes of 475/285/126 or 570/380/266 mm in size, filled with soil mixture. The soil mixture should be of light texture so that when the seedlings are removed during planting in a permanent place, there is a clod of earth on the roots.
The boxes should not be filled with soil mixture to the very top, so that water does not drain from them during watering. The soil mixture in the boxes is slightly compacted with a small plate, after which grooves are made with the edge of the same plate to a depth of 1 cm every 5-6 cm from each other, where vegetable seeds are sown. Close them up with earth by hand or using a board.
In a potless way, seedlings of vegetable crops are grown, which tolerate transplantation well. These are cabbage of medium and late varieties, tomato, rutabagas, beets, onions and leeks, celery.
Plants that cannot tolerate damage to the root system and require a large area of ​​nutrition are grown in pots. With the pot method of growing seedlings, the survival rate of plants after planting in a permanent place will be much higher, since the root system is completely preserved during transplantation.

The advantage of the potting method of growing seedlings is also that the plants are better supplied with nutrients. This leads to an increase in yields and makes it possible to get vegetables 2-3 weeks earlier compared to the potless method of growing plants. There are many types of seedling pots. You can grow seedlings in paper pots. For their manufacture, strips of wrapping paper 15-18 cm wide and about 30 cm long are used, which are used to wrap bottles with a capacity of 500 or 750 ml so that the free edge of the resulting cylinder can be folded from all sides. In this case, a container in the form of a glass is formed, into which the soil mixture is poured.
Prefabricated peat hollow thin-walled pots are single rounded and tetrahedral in cross-section and tetrahedral in the form of blocks. These pots are sold in the shops "Flowers", "Nature", household. They are lightweight and comfortable.
Peat cubes can be made from a nutrient mixture of the following composition (parts by volume): low peat - 6, humus - 2, medium loamy sod land - 1, mullein - 1 or low peat - 5, sawdust - 1, mullein - 1. For neutralization acidity add 20 g of lime or chalk and mineral fertilizers. The compiled soil mixture is poured into a trough or a dense box, water is added to it and mixed with a shovel until a pasty consistency is obtained. This mixture can be placed in seedling boxes, where it will harden after 2-3 hours. Then, using a knife, the mass is cut along a ruler in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The result is cubes of the appropriate size. In the center of the cubes, holes are made with a finger or a peg, in which the plants are placed.

Seedling soil.
There are no trifles in growing seedlings. This process begins with the preparation of the potting mix. Various potting mixes are sold in country and hardware stores. But as independent experts from the Institute of Fundamental Problems of Biology of the Russian Academy of Sciences have established, the true value and nutritional value of such "miracle soils" are highly questionable. Therefore, you should not believe the advertising, it is safer to prepare the soil for growing seedlings with your own hands.
The composition of the soil mixture depends on the culture. For most of them (tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, cucumbers, watermelons,) the following composition is suitable: soil - 30-50%, peat or humus - 30-50%, sand - 25-30%. For cabbage, the proportion of sand can be increased to 40%. Tomatoes are less demanding on the quality of the mixture - the proportion of soil for them can reach 70%. Excellent results are obtained by growing all crops in peat, but it is necessary to add ash or phosphorus and potash fertilizers.
Here is what AF Eliseev, associate professor of the Department of Vegetable Growing at the TSKHA writes about the preparation of the substrate: “It may include peat, field soil, humus, mullein and some other components. In the northern regions, high-moor and low-lying peat are taken in a ratio of 50:50. in southern regions, where there is no peat, field soil and humus are used in a ratio of 75:25. On average, 1 kg of soil is taken, depending on the culture, 1-2 g of ammonium nitrate, 1-4 g of superphosphate, 0.5-1.5 potassium The optimum acidity is from 6.5 to 6.7. To maintain it, chalk, lime, dolomite flour are added to the soil in a dose of 5-8 g per 1 kg of soil. "
As you can see, the main component of soil mixture for seedlings is land (garden, forest, field). It must be prepared in the fall and must be disinfected before use. In many literary sources on summer cottages, a recommendation is given to bake it in the oven. However, with this procedure, not only infectious principles die, but also useful microflora, and the earth becomes "dead". You can store the seedling soil in the garage or on the balcony, i.e. in the cold. During the winter, add it 2-3 times to warm for 7-10 days. During this time, both weeds and pests "wake up", which then perish in the cold.
Before sowing, it is very important to disinfect the seedling containers. They (even new ones) must be disinfected in a solution of bleach (200 g per 10 l of water) or copper sulfate (100 g per 10 l of water). Seedling containers should have drainage holes so that the water does not stagnate and the roots do not rot.

Hardening of seedlings.
The conditions of protected and open ground are dramatically different. If you plant a pampered seedling that is not adapted to the conditions of open ground, it loses its leaves and does not take root well. The run in the development of seedlings is reduced. To prevent this from happening, the seedlings must be well hardened. For this purpose, 10-12 days before planting it in the open ground, watering is limited, and 7 days before they are completely stopped. Planting, as a rule, is done when the weather is not yet warm enough, and without hardening the seedlings may die. In a city apartment, they begin to temper it two to three weeks before disembarkation. First, the plants are put on the balcony at night, and a week before planting, they are left there constantly, but provided that there is no frost at this time.
When growing seedlings in greenhouses, the frames are slightly opened not only from the north, but also from the south to illuminate the seedlings with direct sunlight. A week before planting seedlings in open ground, the frames are removed.It should be remembered that when the temperature drops below zero, the seedlings may suffer, therefore it is necessary to monitor the state of the weather and in the event of an expected frost, the greenhouses should be covered with frames. When growing seedlings in film greenhouses, the vents and doors are opened not only during the daytime, but also left open at night.
Properly grown and well-seasoned seedlings should have a non-elongated stem with short internodes and a fibrous root system. A well-developed leaf blade and bluish color of the leaves also indicate good hardening of the seedlings. Hardened seedlings accumulate a large amount of sugars, and a thick epidermis forms on the surface of the leaves and stems.
Well seasoned cabbage seedlings tolerate frosts down to -3. -5 * C, and in some cases - up to 7 * C. When growing seedlings of cucumber, tomato, pepper, eggplant, pumpkin, zucchini, squash, watermelon, melon, beans, corn, the temperature must not drop below + 6 * C, as this can cause the death of plants.
Before planting seedlings in open ground, the plants are watered abundantly the day before. To increase the cold resistance of plants, potassium chloride (20-30 g per 10 l of water) is added to the irrigation water.
When sampling from a greenhouse or a greenhouse of potless seedlings, the roots are dipped into a mash made of clay with a mullein. A layer of clay formed on the roots protects them from drying out.

Seedless way - growing vegetables by sowing seeds in the open field. Vegetable seeds are sown in wide row and row methods.

strawberries, corn is good to grow when square-nesting methodsowing seeds.

Growing annual green vegetables.

Annual green crops include dill, fennel, coriander, basil, watercress, spinach, anise, and a few other plants. The seeds of these plants are planted in open ground (on a plot). The best predecessors for these plants are tomatoes, cucumbers, root vegetables, clean steam.

Preceding cultures (predecessors) - crops that were cultivated on this site in the previous year.

Pure steam - a piece of land on which no agricultural plants have been grown for a year (or several years). It is usually said that such a field was "fallow" (rested).

The seeds of annual green crops are small, so they are planted shallow, 1-4 cm. The area where green crops are sown must be completely free of weeds and fertilized, since these plants are demanding on soil fertility.

V. Physical education. Exercise for the eyes.

During the presentation of the material, the corresponding slides are shown on a laptop.

Vi. Consolidation of new knowledge and skills of students:

To consolidate the new material, let's repeat the new keywords:

seedlings, seedling and non-seedling planting methods, wide-row and row planting methods, annual green crops, previous crops, clean fallow, open ground, mulching.

What crops are grown in seedlings?

What is a seedless growing method?

What are the annual green crops you know?

What cold hardy green crops do you know? Why are they called cold-resistant?

At what temperature can the seeds of cold-resistant plants germinate?

What is the planting depth for green crops?

What agrotechnical measures need to be taken on the site after sowing seeds?

Analysis of student activities.

Grading in the magazine and their motivation.

Lesson disadvantages, reasons.

VIII. Homework: Read helpful tips on agricultural technology


February. It's time to plant seedlings of peppers, tomatoes and other vegetables!

✅ Planting peppers for seedlings

Pepper is a very thermophilic culture, which is considered one of the most beneficial for the human body. It contains a huge amount of vitamin C and multivitamin A. Sweet pepper perfectly complements many meat dishes on our table, so summer residents grow it in their gardens.

An exclusively seedling method of growing is suitable for pepper, since the time from germination to the appearance of the first fruits is quite long - 120-150 days. Peppers are transplanted into open ground at the age of 60-80 days, when the first buds appear on the bush. The approximate planting time is based on the ambient temperature.

Having started the first shoots, the plant grows well at temperatures from 12 to 15 degrees during the day, and from 6 to 10 at night. Therefore, the approximate planting time is the first decade of June, when the risk of frost is minimal. During the period of seedling ripening in greenhouses, it needs periodic solar hardening, since plants that do not see the sun will immediately burn out.

✅ Planting tomatoes for seedlings

February and March are the months when we actively start to deal with tomatoes. We choose the best tomato seeds, stock up on soil and seedling pots. Let's see what kind of work real gardeners do, and most importantly how and when to plant tomatoes for seedlings.

February is a good time to acquire soil and prepare boxes for seedlings of peppers, tomatoes and eggplants. The entire future harvest is laid in the seedling period. By the way, it will be said that plant transplantation is a forced measure that summer residents are forced to resort to for earlier plant development and acceleration of fruit ripening.
When to plant tomatoes for seedlings in 2016

Tall tomatoes, as well as peppers and eggplant are sown for seedlings at the end of February from 20th to 10th March.

Tomatoes, which are planned to be transplanted into the greenhouse in April, are planted for seedlings in February on planting days. These are February 13, 14, 15 and 18, 2016.

Early and mid-season tomato varieties are sown for seedlings on March 13th and 16th, on favorable planting days. It is possible to plant tomatoes during the Growing Moon period, which in 2016 lasts from March 10 to 22.

There are several favorable days in April when you can plant tomatoes for seedlings, if you have not already done so. In this case, choose seedlings of superdeterminate low-growing varieties and hybrids for open ground, ultra-early varieties or cherry tomatoes. The best days for planting a tomato are in April 8, 9 and 14.

When to plant seeds of large-fruited tomatoes and tomatoes.

Large, highly vigorous tomato varieties, such as Russian Size, Pink Giant, Bull Heart, are usually late-ripening, so they need to be planted in the third decade of February.

✅ Planting eggplants for seedlings

Eggplant is a very healthy vegetable that belongs to the nightshade family. Differs in a rather long period of growth. Of all the nightshades, eggplants are the most demanding for heat and light. The technical ripeness of the fruit reaches 85-100 days from the day of plant sprouting. In this regard, it is best to plant eggplant seedlings in the following period: late February - early March.

✅ Planting cucumbers for seedlings

Cucumbers are vegetables that are 95% water. They are very useful for the human body, regular consumption of food is an excellent prevention of many diseases associated with the stomach. Cucumbers are distinguished by their early ripening, and it does not make much sense to plant them in seedlings, unless you expect to get the earliest harvest from them. For seedlings, cucumbers are planted around the beginning and end of April.

It is right to choose when to plant seedlings, it is best to rely on external factors: on the climate of your region, opportunities, and others.

✅ Planting cabbage for seedlings

This is usually done in mid-late March. However, depending on the region, as well as the planned time of planting in the garden, the time of planting seeds may differ.

By the time of planting in the garden, seedlings of early varieties of cabbage should already have 6-7 leaves, later varieties - 4-5 leaves and be about 15-20 centimeters high. If the seedlings are overgrown, then they will hurt when transplanting, and if they are undergrown, then the yield will be low and late. The optimal age for seedlings, from emergence to planting in the ground, is 35-45 days, for early cabbage - 50-55 days.

Therefore, before sowing cabbage seeds, it is necessary, first of all, to calculate the time of planting cabbage for seedlings. So, for example, if you are going to plant seedlings in the garden at the end of May, then sowing seedlings should be done approximately on March 25th. In order for your seedlings to withstand frost and at the same time give a good harvest in the fall, you need to take into account the rules for sowing and growing cabbage seedlings.


Today, in order to achieve a high-quality and good harvest, many vegetable crops are grown through seedlings. It is prepared in advance for several months or weeks before disembarking to a permanent place where it will grow in the future.

This article provides tips on how best to prepare and plant seedlings of the most popular vegetable crops that are grown by almost all gardeners today - these are peppers, tomatoes, cabbage, cucumbers, zucchini and eggplants.

Modern gardeners grow seedlings in a variety of ways. Special pots, egg trays and even paper cups are used for this. The time of planting seeds depends entirely on the types and individual characteristics of the growth of vegetables. The main thing to consider is the approximate timing of planting cuttings in open ground in a permanent place.

They begin to grow seedlings, often from April, early May. Moreover, in May, it can be grown directly in the open field under shelters made of special film, of course, if the year is warm. A few weeks before transplanting plants from warmed places, they are often hardened, that is, they are taken out into the open space of the street, each time increasing the duration of stay in cooler conditions.

By the way, so as not to get confused about what you have planted, I suggest purchasing T-shaped garden tags that will help you figure out what you have planted. You can order them here.

Planting pepper for seedlings

Pepper is a very thermophilic culture, which is considered one of the most beneficial for the human body. It contains a huge amount of vitamin C and multivitamin A. Sweet pepper perfectly complements many meat dishes on our table, so summer residents willingly grow it in their gardens.

  • An exclusively seedling method of growing is suitable for pepper, since the time from germination to the appearance of the first fruits is quite long - 120-150 days.
  • Peppers are transplanted into open ground at the age of 60-80 days, when the first buds appear on the bush.
  • The approximate planting time is based on the ambient temperature.

Having started the first shoots, the plant grows well at temperatures from 12 to 15 degrees during the day, and from 6 to 10 at night.

  • Approximate planting time is the first decade of June, when the risk of frost is minimal.
  • During the period of seedling ripening in greenhouses, it needs periodic solar hardening, since plants that do not see the sun will immediately burn out.

Seedlings of tomatoes

Tomatoes are a round red vegetable with a sweet or sweet and sour flavor. Of all vegetable crops, tomatoes are the least demanding in growing conditions. But they are quite demanding on the temperature regime.

  • The first shoots are shown in the ground already 3-7 days after sowing.
  • The optimal temperature for the normal development of tomatoes is 20-25 degrees.

If the temperature rises above 30, then their growth slows down significantly or stops altogether.

  • Planting tomatoes for seedlings should approximately 60-70 days before transplanting to a permanent location.
  • Late varieties are planted in 45-50 days.
  • Sowing time is March 10 - April 1.
  • As a rule, the transplanting of young plants begins after the spring frosts have ended.

For the central regions of the country - this is May 1-15, more northern regions - June 10-20. If the seedlings were pre-hardened, then the transplant can be done 15-20 days earlier than the generally accepted terms.

Seedlings of cucumbers

Cucumbers are the most capricious vegetable in terms of transplanting.

  • Before planting the seeds of a plant, they must be germinated.
  • In the twentieth of March - early April, you can start preparing seedlings.

  • Before sowing, the seeds are soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate (2 g per 250 g of water).
  • Then they are transferred to a damp cloth in which the temperature is maintained at 20-25 degrees.
  • When they have the first seedlings, they begin to plant plants in pots, 6-10 cm wide.

The maximum age of a young plant before transplanting is 25-30 days. Transplanting to the greenhouse begins in mid-May, and to open ground in mid-June.

Seedlings of zucchini and eggplant

These crops, like cucumbers, are very capricious in cultivation.

  • The temperature of their normal development is 20-25 degrees.
  • The first shoots of plants appear 10-15 days after sowing.

If the temperature drops, then seedlings may appear much later. Early ripening zucchini varieties bear fruit only 100 days after planting, which is why they are grown through seedlings.

Plants are transplanted into the ground, usually 60-65 days after sowing the seeds. The plant does not tolerate frost, therefore, it is better to plant eggplant seedlings in mid-March, and transfer to the ground at the end of May.

Sowing dates for cabbage

Cabbage seeds are sown at a variety of times, it all depends on the type of culture. But this usually happens 60-65 days before transplanting into open ground. Older cabbage seedlings can be started from mid-March, medium and late ones from mid-April.

The first harvest in early varieties occurs in 90-110 days, in middle ones - 130-150 days, while later varieties bear fruit in 150-170 days after planting.

This plant is cold-resistant and light-loving, and has special requirements for soil fertility. Seedlings develop normally at a temperature of 6 to 10 degrees until the first shoots appear, then the temperature needs to be increased to 14-18 degrees.

The timing of planting seedlings is different for each plant. Therefore, before starting to grow it, study the peculiarities of the growth of the crop in order to get a rich and healthy harvest on time.

For ease of growing seedlings, I suggest purchasing coconut peat tablets that will greatly simplify your sowing chores. Also, there is no need for picking and replanting. You can order them here.


Mesh (92)

In this section, you can select and buy various types of nets for a wide range of applications. Vegetable nets and polypropylene bags - for packing, storing and transporting various agricultural products, practical and easy to use, moisture-proof, frost-resistant, economical, environmentally friendly in use for food. Nets for protecting bunches of grapes - allow you to keep the ripening harvest of grapes on the vine for a longer time, reliably protect the grapes from insect pests, wasps and birds, while the berries do not die, are not damaged by hail. Cucumber nets (trellis) - used to support climbing plants for the formation of plants during their growth, for growing vegetables vertically in the open field, to achieve savings through more efficient use of acreage - you can harvest twice as much from one square meter the former. Shading nets - will help protect vegetable and fruit crops on land plots from the scorching sun, retain moisture in the soil, plants can be watered less often than usual, serve as protection for plantings, covering them from hail, rain, wind, pests and other external factors.


Watch the video: 5 Fast Growing Veggies You Can Harvest in Under 1 Month


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