Fertilizer for early plants superphosphate: composition and method of application

Phosphorus is an indispensable element for the life and development of plants. It participates in photosynthesis, energy and metabolic processes, provides nutrition for plant cells, strengthens young plants, and prevents the development of diseases. Initially, the soil contains very little phosphorus (1%), so only phosphorus fertilizers can compensate for this deficiency. The most popular and versatile phosphate fertilizer is superphosphate. This is a preparation based on nitrogen-phosphorus compounds with a complex of minerals and trace elements that accelerate the process of plant development. The action of superphosphate is aimed at the growth and strengthening of the most important organs: the root system, young shoots, flowers and the ovary. Fertilizing the soil with superphosphate helps to grow healthy crops, and get a high yield from them in the future.

Fertilizer composition

The main component of superphosphate is phosphorus. Its content varies from 26 to 50%, depending on the type of fertilizer. The second component of superphosphate is nitrogen, its concentration is 6-17%. The fertilizer also contains some trace elements usually found in phosphorites: magnesium, calcium, potassium, sulfur. Fertilizer is a complex mixture that has two main types:

  1. Superphosphate is simple. It is obtained in the process of processing phosphorites with sulfuric acid. It is a powder containing up to 26% phosphorus, 6-8% nitrogen, 10% sulfur and 40% calcium sulfate (insoluble gypsum). Gypsum does not bring any benefit to crops, but due to its presence, the top dressing does not cake. From simple powder superphosphate, granular is produced - loose fertilizer in the form of granules with a diameter of up to 4 mm. It dissipates better and is considered more beneficial for plants, as it contains less gypsum (30%).
  1. Double superphosphate. To obtain it, phosphorite is treated with phosphoric acid, due to which the dressing contains more phosphorus (up to 50%) in an easily digestible form and practically does not contain gypsum. The fertilizer also contains more nitrogen (17%) and 6% sulfur. Double superphosphate is produced only in granular form.

On sale you can find several types of fertilizers with additional components: ammonized superphosphate (contains 1.6% ammonia, used to neutralize soil acidity), and superphosphate with humates (humic acid salts, used to increase soil fertility).

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What is it needed for

Phosphorus is extremely necessary for horticultural and horticultural crops during the transition from the phase of active vegetation to the phase of ovary and fruiting. Superphosphate has a well-balanced composition of nutrients in an accessible form, therefore feeding with a mixture has the most beneficial effect on crops:

  • promotes the development and growth of the root system, which increases the chances of seedlings to take root and take root in the soil - young seedlings must be fed upon planting;
  • accelerates flowering and formation of the ovary - with a lack of phosphorus in plants, a lot of barren flowers are noted, and the resulting ovary disappears;
  • after the introduction of superphosphate, the fruiting of crops increases, and the palatability of the fruit improves;

  • the resistance of plants to diseases increases, superphosphate introduced in autumn improves the adaptation of crops to cold weather;
  • after the introduction of phosphorus fertilization, metabolic processes are accelerated and oxidative processes slowed down.

For young plants, phosphorus fertilization is of particular importance - phosphorus contributes to the development of an underground root part, which is very important for seedlings grown in artificial conditions and greenhouse crops. Autumn top dressing of the soil with superphosphate will help grow high-quality root crops. With a phosphorus deficiency, potatoes and beets become stained, and black blotches form inside. The blue of the leaves of garden crops or home seedlings also indicates insufficient soil fertilization with phosphorus.

How to add superphosphate

Superphosphate is a universal complex mixture that can be used as a fertilizer for the soil, as well as for feeding fruit trees and garden seedlings. Fertilizer can be applied to any soil, however, it should be borne in mind that on acidic soil this top dressing is weak. Experienced gardeners fertilize acidic soil with superphosphate only after adding ash or lime - these materials help to equalize the pH of the soil, and thereby increase the effectiveness of superphosphate.

Simple superphosphate is fed by directly introducing it into the holes or rows intended for planting seedlings. The granular preparation can be used to prepare a solution for foliar dressing (spraying). Phosphorus fertilization has some features:

  • dry superphosphate fertilize the soil in the fall, since it takes time and a large amount of moisture to dissolve;
  • it is better to distribute the granular preparation using a grain seeder, which will provide a more uniform fertilization;
  • the main top dressing of the soil with superphosphate is carried out before planting and sowing garden plants (usually when digging);
  • bulbous and tuberous crops: potatoes, carrots, beets, radishes, turnips are fed with superphosphate when directly introduced into the holes when sowing, or planting seedlings;

Fertilization rates are as follows:

  • when digging the soil in spring and autumn, phosphorus is introduced at the rate of 40-50 g / sq. m - fertile soil is fertilized at the rate of 20-30 g / sq. m;
  • for feeding planted plants at the rate of 10-20 g of dry product / sq. m;
  • for planting seedlings at 3 g / well;
  • horticultural crops are fed at the rate of 40-50 g / sq. m, the depleted soil is fertilized in the amount of 70 g / sq. m
  • for adult fruit crops (apple, pear), it is recommended to apply fertilizer in an amount of 300-1000 g / 1 tree, depending on the age of the plants - a solution can be prepared from a dry product, which is introduced into the periosteal circle;
  • cherries, plums, cherries are fed with superphosphate at the rate of 200-500 g / 1 tree;
  • fruit bushes are fertilized at the rate of 100-200 g / bush;
  • for matured seedlings of cucumbers and tomatoes, a solution is used with which crops are watered at the rate of 20 g / one bush;
  • feeding of tomatoes is carried out several times per season - they consume 95% of phosphorus during the period of fruit formation, therefore, the bushes are fertilized during the planting of seedlings, then during flowering and ripening of fruits. It should be noted that at the initial stage of growth, nightshade crops do not require intensive phosphorus feeding - for normal development, they are fed for the first time at the rate of 10-15 g / one bush;
  • a standard solution for spraying with superphosphate is prepared at the rate of 20 g of double or 40 g of a simple product / bucket of water;
  • watering solution can be more concentrated;

  • soil for potatoes is fertilized at the rate of 2-3 tbsp. spoons / hole - feeding potatoes with a large amount of phosphorus is necessary for the formation of large and high-quality root crops;
  • the soil intended for sowing grain and leguminous crops is fed with phosphorus in the amount of 7-15 centners / 1 ha;
  • oilseeds require not only phosphorus, but also the microelements present in the preparation - the soil for sunflower sowing is fertilized in an amount of 10-20 c / 1 ha.

Cooking the hood

Phosphorus is not a readily soluble substance. Experienced gardeners feed the soil with superphosphate from autumn, so that until spring it dissolves and becomes active under the influence of moisture. But how, then, to carry out spring and summer fertilizing of plants with phosphorus? - this question made gardeners and gardeners look for ways to quickly assimilate superphosphate.

Any fertilizing, including phosphorus, is absorbed by the plants from the soil with the help of root hairs, so it is obvious that for them the only available form of fertilization is a liquid solution. If superphosphate is dissolved in water before being introduced into the soil, you get a concentrated extract with a high content of easily assimilable phosphorus. You can prepare the solution as follows:

  1. Alternatively, the fertilizer can be poured with boiling water and insisted for a day in a warm place (diffusion occurs faster in warmth).
  2. 100 g of double superphosphate is poured with a liter of hot water, mixed thoroughly, and then boiled for half an hour until the granules are completely dissolved. It is important that only a granular preparation is used to prepare the extract, since the powder contains a lot of gypsum, which precipitates, and thereby complicates the dissolution of superphosphate.
  3. Then the resulting solution is filtered (the appearance of high-quality feeding should resemble fat milk), and after dilution with water, garden and horticultural crops are fertilized with this suspension.

Phosphorus extract is fed taking into account that 100 ml of fertilizer contains 20 g of pure phosphorus, and this amount, diluted in 10 liters of water, is sufficient to treat 1 sq. M. soil. The most effective working solution is obtained if liquid fertilizing is diluted in a ratio of 2 tbsp. spoons / 3 liters of water. A large bucket of water will require at least 150 g of the hood. An extract of superphosphate is used to fertilize the soil, and also carry out foliar dressing. The solution is quickly absorbed and has a long aftereffect, therefore it can be considered an ideal option for both garden trees and vegetable seedlings.

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Superphosphate - benefits and uses

Superphosphate is considered a not very complex fertilizer, the main substance of which is phosphorus. Usually this top dressing is applied in spring, but superphosphate is often used both as autumn fertilizer and fertilizer in the middle of the season. In addition to phosphorus, this fertilizer contains nitrogen in a small dose. Considering this, when applying fertilizer to the soil in the autumn, you need to be careful and try to apply it at this time either in small doses, or fertilize the soil with it intended for planting spring crops.

Superphosphate - benefits and uses. © Grow Weed Easy


Useful properties for tomatoes

Phosphorus is one of the main nutrients of plant organisms, it is vital at all stages of development. Tomatoes are a crop especially sensitive to its lack. Superphosphate Application:

  • gives the plant energy
  • allows normal metabolic processes, photosynthesis
  • contributes to the formation and strengthening of the root system of tomatoes
  • slows down the aging of plants
  • speeds up the formation of flower brushes
  • with additional doses of superphosphate, tomatoes are transferred from the vegetative to the generative stage of development during fattening
  • improves the taste, aroma, color of fruits, promotes the accumulation of sugars and vitamins
  • makes plants more robust.

Tomatoes are especially sensitive to phosphorus deficiency in the early stages of development, during root formation.

The value of a chemical element for representatives of flora

The existence of any living plant is threatened without the presence of phosphorus. This element provides energy exchange at the cellular level, as a result of which the transition from phase to phase occurs several times faster. This means that the crop grows faster and immediately begins to bear fruit.

Receiving phosphorus in sufficient volumes, the root system more actively assimilates a number of other macro- and microelements, which it cannot do without.

Did you know that this element contributes to the balancing of nitrogen, which leads to a significant decrease in the content of nitrates in the manufactured products, and therefore, to obtain quality food for humans and animals?

Types of superphosphate

Several types of superphosphate are available to agricultural professionals and amateurs today. These differences depend on the method of obtaining fertilizer, production technology and indications for use. The most commonly used types are:

  • simple superphosphate (otherwise - monophosphate)
  • granular superphosphate
  • superphosphate double
  • ammoniated superphosphate.


Monophosphate is produced as a gray powder. The substrate practically does not cake if the moisture content of no more than 50% is observed in the storage location. Simple superphosphate contains 10% - 20% phosphorus, about 8% nitrogen, no more than 10% sulfur, a significant amount of calcium sulfate, which is in the substrate in the form of gypsum. Has a pronounced acid smell.

Monophosphate is less effective than double and granular superphosphate. However, its inexpensive cost makes it in demand in large farms and industrial agriculture. It is used for the enrichment of composts and plant dressings, as it dissolves better in water than double and granular types.

Granular superphosphate

Granular (Ca (H2PO4) 2-H2O + H3PO4 + 2 CaS04) is made from monophosphate. The feedstock is moistened, pressed, then rolled under industrial conditions. The amount of phosphorus can reach 50%, calcium sulfate - 30%.

The granular form is more convenient to use and store. Has a more prolonged action, as the granules dissolve more slowly in water and soil. The effect of feeding can last for several months. The granular species is especially appreciated for growing cruciferous, legumes, bulbous, cereals.

Double superphosphate

The advantage of double superphosphate (formula - Ca (H2PO4) 2H2O) is the minimum amount of impurities, which makes its use more profitable in economic terms. Differs in a high content of easily assimilable phosphorus and water-soluble calcium.

Differs in high nitrogen content - up to 20%, contains no more than 6% sulfur.

Double superphosphate application rates - table

Ammonized superphosphate

Ammonized species (formula - (NH4H2PO4 + Ca (H2PO4) 2 x H2O + CaSO4 + H3PO4)) is used for growing cruciferous and oilseeds, which require an increased sulfur content. As part of this species, the amount of sulfur can reach 12%, calcium sulfate - up to 55%.

There are other types of superphosphate, for example, containing boron, magnesia, molybdenum. These species are used in the cultivation of certain crops to feed plants with additional microelements.

How to apply phosphorus-potassium fertilizers in the fall

Features of the

The Garden Retail Service company, which produces Fasco fertilizers, is one of the largest suppliers of fertilizers and other products for the garden, vegetable garden, and indoor floriculture. The brand was registered in 1993, initially specialized in the production of fertile soils, fertilizer mixtures and mineral dressings. Over the years of its existence, the company has expanded its assortment to almost 200 product names, having managed to become one of the leaders in its industry. There are a number of distinctive characteristics of Fasco fertilizers.

  1. Development of compositions based on research institutes. All proportions and components are carefully selected and verified.
  2. Testing before launching into production. Each new series or product enters the market only after it has been tested by experienced agronomists, nursery and greenhouse owners.
  3. Thoroughly checked for hazardous or harmful components.
  4. Wide range of products.In the presence of green manure, granular, liquid, powdery compositions.
  5. Exact division into categories. You don't need to look for a suitable option for a long time - everything has already been thought out by the manufacturer.

Fertilizers "Fasco" take into account the needs of the owners of potted plants, and the wishes of agronomists.

They are conveniently dosed, economical in consumption, inexpensive and sold through a dealer network throughout the country.

How to make a superphosphate extract?

Phosphorus is characterized by poor solubility in liquids, and the preparation of a solution allows the substance to be used with greater efficiency. To prepare extracts from superphosphate, there is a relatively simple method that can be used at home.

For dissolution in water, it is necessary that the liquid is heated to a high temperature. To achieve the desired effect, it is enough to fill the granules with boiled water. After this procedure, the substance acquires a form that is easier to assimilate and retains the most important beneficial trace elements.

Cooking takes place in several stages:

  • A container is preliminarily prepared, superphosphate is poured into it.
  • Dry granules are poured with boiling water.
  • The container is installed in a warm place for a day.
  • It is recommended to stir the solution periodically so that the phosphorus is thoroughly mixed.

Readiness is evidenced by the receipt of a liquid similar to fatty cow's milk. The standard dose used is 20 tbsp. l. for 3 liters of water. In the future, to prepare a working solution, mix 150 ml of the concentrated substance, 20 mg of fertilizer with nitrogen, 500 ml of ash and 10 l of water. The addition of nitrogen preparations to the fertilizer is a mandatory component of successful application, since otherwise phosphorus will be poorly absorbed.

When dissolving superphosphate compounds, one should not expect that the substance will completely turn into a liquid. It is enough to transfer most of the granules to a liquid state, and a small sediment is a normal state.

A mixture of phosphorus and nitrogen should be used in the spring as a top dressing under the rhizome, since plants during this period are in the phase of active growth and experience an acute deficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus. Phosphorus compounds are prone to gradual assimilation by plants, its effect lasts up to 2 months, and sometimes several years. Even when phosphate is processed into an easy-to-digest form, it is still not fully absorbed. Superphosphate extract is an excellent fertilizer for various garden and garden plants with a prolonged effect.

There is an additional method of transferring superphosphate to a liquid state - to use special biobacteria. To carry out the procedure, you will need to compost the chemical with Fitosporin or Humate. After the end of the action, you can get a convenient mixture that can be diluted even in warm water. The substance should be kept for 1 day.

The most successful people in vegetable growing are people who love nature, have a special vision of the most insignificant changes in plant life, are able to evenly distribute physical activity, and patiently do their work.

All these qualities are possessed by Oleg Ivanovich Pomidorkin - an active person, a graduate, a true expert in his field. But the work of a vegetable grower, like any other work in agriculture, requires, in addition to knowledge of the specifics of growing and caring for plants, physical efforts.

It is necessary to be able to loosen the soil, weed plantings, add soil, work with fertilizers, prepare vegetable seeds for sowing. Then sow them with vegetable seeders or manually, lime the soil.

At present, Oleg Ivanovich applies the knowledge accumulated over 43 years of practical activity on his site, which he has been successfully engaged in for more than 10 years.

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