April is a kind of mixed fishing month. And then don't yawn: catch and catch.
In the third decade of April, active ice melting begins in the reservoirs of the Leningrad Region, and summer fishing becomes the sovereign mistress.
On a warm April morning, I got out at a halt on the Karelian Isthmus, and headed to the lake, where, according to rumors, whitefish is very good at catching. This was not the first time I visited this lake and got used to the fact that it is always crowded. But not today. There were only two anglers on the ice in sight.
One was lying on the ice about a hundred meters from me. The other was far enough away and therefore looked like a black spot. I went to the nearest fisherman and said hello. Lying on a wooden pallet between two holes, into which the tackle was lowered, he, without taking his eyes off one of them, nodded and suddenly made a sharp cut. The small sludge in the hole stirred, and a half-kilogram whitefish flew out of it as a bullet. While I was dumbfounded looking at the fish, the angler pulled out another whitefish from another hole.
I quickly drilled a hole about twenty meters away from the successful fisherman, planted bloodworms on the hook, lowered the tackle into the water and froze in anticipation of the longed-for bite. Simultaneously with these manipulations, I watched a successful fisherman out of the corner of my eye. He was still lucky - in a fairly short period of time he caught two more whitefish and a perch. I have not a single bite!
In search of somewhere lost fishing happiness, I drilled a few more holes: some - closer to the shore, others - into the depths of the lake. However, after an hour of useless waiting, I realized that I was clearly doing something wrong. But what?
The lucky fisherman himself helped. Approaching me, he asked: "How are you?" And when I spread my arms to the sides: they say, it's empty, he, critically examining my branded tackle, concluded: - With such a fishing rod you won't get a whitefish or a perch, unless you can catch a seedy brush. In response to my bewildered look, he explained that there was no need to chase the whitefish. That this fish is in motion all the time, and therefore it will find a fisherman itself. According to him, the main thing is patience and the correct setting of the tackle.
“It's two meters deep here,” he continued. - As you can see, I am lying on a piece of wood, looking into the water and waiting for a flock of whitefish to come. And as soon as they appear, I start playing with a spoon.
Seeing my obvious distrust, my new acquaintance, as it seemed to me, even mentally swore, but immediately offered to follow him with a gesture. When we arrived at the place where he was so successful in catching whitefish, he showed me his tackle. I must admit that outwardly his fishing rod, compared to my light, graceful tackle, looked rather heavy, I would even say, primitive. At the end of a thick fishing line (0.8-1.0 mm), a narrow, long, weighty spoon was fixed. Above it, at a distance of about one meter, a leash about half a meter long with an artificial front sight was tied to the fishing line.
- When twitching the spoon at a fast pace, - the successful fisherman returned me to reality, - the fly on the leash dances seductively, thereby provoking the fish to bite. Hence, as you can see, the result.
And he started getting ready to go home. Of course, if I had not seen him dragging whitefish out of the hole, I could have doubted the effectiveness of his tackle. However, in this case, it turned out that you had to believe your eyes.
After he left, I, with my elegant fishing rod, stuck on the lake for about an hour, but apart from small okushki and brushes I caught nothing. It turned out that whitefish were attracted not by a beautiful fishing rod with a jig, but by something else, which I did not have, but the recently departed fisherman had.
Long-term planning on the theme "Spring garden and vegetable garden" (middle group)
Subject: "Spring garden and vegetable garden"Timing: 3 week, April
purpose: Encourage children to become familiar with the characteristics spring condition of fruit trees. To form the ability to establish the simplest connections. Develop the ability to distinguish between plants by leaves, flowers. Enrich your vocabulary. To cultivate respect and interest in plants.
Final Event: photo exhibition “The labor of people in the garden and garden in spring».
NEW AREAS Activities and cultural practices according to educational areas.
Tasks. Joint activity of an adult and children aimed at the formation of primary value orientation and socialization. Educational activities
in regime moments Organization of subject-spatial developmental Wednesday to support children's initiative (corners of independent activity) Supporting the child's personality Interaction with parents / social partners
SPEECH DEVELOPMENT Communicative
-Develop communication skills.
-To learn to create a picture and talk about its content, develop creative thinking. -A summary of the lesson based on the book by V.V. Gerbov "Development of speech in kindergarten" pp. 65-66.
-Work with the matrix picture and handouts. -Discussion of the topic of the week. Model 3 questions.
-Riddles about vegetables and fruits.
-Communication game "Quarreled - made up".
-photos vegetable garden and orchard.
-Pictures with vegetables and fruits.
-Cart library of finger games.
-Maxim - tell us from the picture about the work of people in the garden (vegetable garden)... Helping parents in solving a didactic problem - the selection of information for compiling a story about flowering trees.
Perception of fiction and folklore
-To learn to understand and evaluate the characters of the characters to convey the voice and character intonation characters.
-Continue the development of speech culture, acquaintance with small folklore genres.
- To form an emotional perception of the content of the work.
-Reading a poem by S. Cherny "Who?".
-Remarking nursery rhymes "Three Rooks Have Arrived".
-Readers, tongue twisters, peace talk, nursery rhymes, proverbs.
-Communication game "Radio".
- Illustrations for works.
-Book with small forms of folklore (with chants, nursery rhymes, counting rhymes)... -Artyom - tell me which of the characters you liked. -Help parents in understanding the meaning of the works, in the pronunciation of difficult words.
Cognitive development Cognitive research
- To clarify and expand children's ideas about the life of insects in the spring, their characteristic features, adaptability to living conditions.
-To learn to answer questions with a full answer, maintain a dialogue.
- To consolidate knowledge about the names of insects, their features.
-Cultivate an interest in insect life.
-Cultivate curiosity and a desire to protect insects.
- Occupation: "Insects in the spring".
-Conversations: "Blooming trees", "We plant garden».
-Experience on the street "Sun bunnies", "Colored sand", "Mysterious Pictures", "We'll see everything, we'll know everything"... -Poem "Yablonka" I. Tokmakova.
-The riddle of plants, insects.
-Comparison of paintings "Garden in early spring" and "Blooming garden".
-Di "What tree is the flower from?", "Hide the insect", "Guess - we will guess".
-Pictures depicting insects.
- Illustrations and photos from spring plants, insects.
-Paintings of the garden - blooming and not.
-cards for didactic games. Ksyusha - playing loto "Garden, garden»... Help of parents in solving a didactic problem - describing the appearance of insects.
-Exercise in counting and counting objects by ear, by touch (within 5).
-Learn to correlate the shape of objects with geometric shapes: ball, cube.
-to develop the ability to compare objects by color, shape, size. -A summary of classes based on the book by I.A.Pomoraeva "Classes on the formation of elementary mathematical representations" in middle group p. 50-51.
- Synopsis of classes based on the book by N. Ye. Veraksa “Complex classes according to the program "From birth to school", middle group, pp. 247-248. -I / control "Letter from the wizard", "Continue the row", "Paint over the cone".
-Di "Find a figure", "Color the shapes with 3 corners".
A letter, a pipe, objects in the form of a ball and a cube, number cards, cards with the image of geometric shapes.
- balls, cubes. Varya, Dima Ch. - help in finding the difference between a cone and a triangle, a cube from a square. Help of parents in solving a didactic problem - an ordinal score from 1 to 5.
-Teach children to cut squares into pieces, cut corners from geometric shapes, experiment by transforming square shapes.
-Learn to use scissors.
-Develop the ability to planar modeling.
"Square transformation" plane modeling.
-stencils, mosaics, sticks.
- paper squares of different sizes and colors.
Ulyana, Olivia - help in choosing the subject of the composition, in working with scissors. Advice to parents - to train children in plane modeling.
ARTISTIC - AESTHETIC Fine
-To teach to draw a person in long clothes - a sundress, a blouse and a scarf.
-Fix different painting techniques with paints.
-To consolidate the ability to sculpt utensils.
-Treat the techniques of sculpting.
-Develop a desire to complement your drawings.
-Develop creativity, imagination.
-To educate the ability to bring the work started to the end.
-Continue to develop teamwork skills.
- Synopsis of classes based on the book by T. S. Komarova "Visual activity in kindergarten", middle group, p. 75,77
- riddles about the season - spring, a poem.
-toy dishes. - album sheets, paints, pencils
brushes, napkins, glasses of water, brushes.
Pasha - help in drawing the details of the costume.
-To learn to distinguish the mood of the music, to contribute to the creation of conditions for the child's creative self-expression.
- to learn to compare works with similar names, to hear the figurativeness of music, to convey the character of music in movements, to feel the character of music.
-Improve the ear for music in playing activities.
By plan musical director. -performance of musical rhythmic movements.
- repetition of song and musical repertoire.
-Hearing and analyzing musical works.
-P. Tchaikovsky "Waltz of the Flowers", A. Filippenko "About frogs and a mosquito".
Anya, Dima F. - help in analyzing muses. works. Helping parents in the selection of children's musical fairy tales for children to watch.
-Exercise children in walking in pairs, in maintaining a stable balance while walking on a reduced support area.
-Repeat standing long jump.
-Cultivate the desire to play sports.
- Notes of classes based on the book by L. I. Penzulaeva "Physical culture in kindergarten" middle group p. 84-86
"Catch it in time", "Throw-Catch", "Catch a couple", "Fishermen and Fish".
-Finger gymnastics card library
Ksyusha, Danya K. - help in long jump. Individual consultation for parents "Outdoor games at home in wet weather".
- Introduce children to healthy lifestyles, teach them how to perform a finger game.
-Focus on your skills and physical capabilities of your body.
- to consolidate knowledge of what you need to do to be healthy.
-To cultivate the desire to be healthy.
-Repeat the name of the fingers.
-Air and water treatments.
- Walks in the open air.
-Eye gymnastics "On the sea".
-Massage of the auricles "Nebolika".
- Game - relaxation «Spring brook».
- Washing with cool water.
- Walking on the massage mat.
Pasha - help in doing gymnastics for the eyes.Individual consultations for parents: "The first vegetables in the diet of a childnka: danger and benefit ".
-To learn to negotiate with a partner who will play what, who will be who in the game, obey the rules of the game.
-Develop imagination, fantasy, cognitive interests.
-To learn to classify objects by color, shape, material, compare, contrast.
-Continue the formation of mental operations.
"Let's find a frog", "Silence", "The chicken went out for a walk", "Geese".
"I will pick a raspberry", "Fruits", "Fruit palm".
"What an insect", "Where that ripens", "Find your place",
"The forest is a home for animals".
-plot pictures, masks, musical accompaniment, illustrations for did. games.
Artem - help in choosing a role for a fairy tale.
Helping parents to develop auditory attention.
Self-service and basic household labor
- Review the rules of conduct in different situations.
-Involve children in practical activities for the cultivation of cultivated plants, develop interest in experimental and research work.
-To develop the skills of self-service and the use of personal hygiene items.
-To learn to show independence in everyday and play behavior.-Collective labor activity: garbage collection at the site.
-Cleaning feeders and filling them with bird food.
Di:"Where what can you do".
-Conversation: "What if do not weed the garden?».
-Duty in the dining room, in a corner of nature, in the classroom
-Individual hygiene items.
- Clothes for duty, cutlery, napkins.
Danya K. - help with dressing for a walk.
Advice to parents - to involve children in planting vegetables on vegetable garden.
Video and photo report “We planted a vegetable garden” (middle group) Pyatygina Svetlana Vesna. nature wakes up, the sun shines so brightly! The changes are still subtle, but I already want bright colors so much.
Photo report “Our miracle garden. A vegetable garden by the window ”(middle group) Spring has come and with its arrival everyone begins to prepare for planting in the garden, buy seeds, plant seedlings, in general, work is in full swing. Garden.
Lapbook on "Houseplants". GCD for plasticinography in the middle group "Spring bouquet" (middle group) GCD for plasticinography in the middle group "Spring bouquet" (NGO "Artistic and aesthetic development") Program content: - To teach.
Long-term planning "Heroes-heroes". Middle group Topic: "Heroes-heroes" Terms: February, 2 weeks Purpose: To expand the knowledge of children about the service of border guards, firefighters, pilots, sailors, geologists.
Long-term planning of the OOD for the 2018–2019 academic year (middle group) PERSPECTIVE PLANNING of the OOD Acquaintance with the outside world Medium group September Tell us about your favorite subjects. Strengthen the ability of children.
Long-term planning on the theme of the week "Spring in Mozdok". Middle Group Monday Morning • Conversation: "How I spent my weekend." • Observation of the weather. • Morning exercises. • Examination of illustrations.
Long-term planning in ecology (middle group) Date No. Topic Form of conduct Content Teaching aids Note 3.09.18 1 "Aibolit comes to the children" Raise children's interest.
Project in the preschool educational institution "Garden on the windowsill" (middle group) Type of project: cognitive, research, creative. Project participants: children of the middle group, educators, parents. Purpose: Expand.
Spring matinee "March 8" (middle group) Purpose: • Creation of a festive atmosphere. Tasks: • Development of creative independence, expressiveness of speech. • Development of the ability to be creative.
Spring matinee (middle group) Matinee March 8 Artist and paints. Host: We greet you friends Today in our hall, We are happy that on this day All mothers are near.
How to prepare the notorious "spring cocktail"?
“Who is talking about what, and the chicken is about millet” - again about the “spring cocktail.
Let's come back to it again, as the saying goes, "Repetition is the mother of learning."
For the preparation of the almighty cocktail 2 grains of the drug Healthy garden, 2 grains of the drug Ekoberin shake in 100 g of water until completely dissolved, add water to one liter, add 2 drops Zircon and 4 drops Uniflor-growth (or Uniflor-bud), mix thoroughly and spray over the leaves.
If there were a lot of pests last summer, then add 6 drops to the solution Fitoverma, and if frosts occur at the time of flowering gardens, then add gibberelin on the tip of a knife (it is contained in preparations Bud, Ovary and GiperSib).
Healthy gardenbeing a unique regulator of biochemical processes in the cell sap, it normalizes the ratio between proteins and carbohydrates, so that pests do not touch such a plant. In the same way, they do not touch healthy plants, in the cell sap of which proteins, rather than carbohydrates, predominate.
In nature, everything is expedient, there is always a balance between pests and their food, she has, as they say, both the wolves are fed and the sheep are safe. Why did she even create these same pests? And then, to finish off weak plants and prevent them from leaving behind weakened offspring, because ultimately this can lead to the degeneration of a whole species of plants on Earth. Nature does not tolerate wasted work, and therefore seeks to preserve all created species of flora and fauna. Therefore, in nature, only the strong survive, the weak has no place on Earth. Pests were created to prevent the weak from leaving behind offspring. Therefore, pests feed mainly on carbohydrates, since in weakened plants, protein synthesis is slow, which means that the ratio between proteins and carbohydrates that exists in a healthy plant is disturbed.
In this way, Healthy garden practically protects plants from pests.
What does Ecoberin? It helps plants adapt faster to external temperature changes. A sharp change in temperature, a large difference between day and night temperatures, frost, drought, prolonged cold snap and so on cause a stressful state in plants, which inhibits protein synthesis, and therefore leads to a weakening of the plant. And of course the pests are right there.
If there are not enough macro- and microelements in the plant, then the protein is formed in insufficient quantities, which again causes an attack of pests, therefore, urgent foliar feeding of plants is required in the earliest spring period. Generally speaking, any complex fertilizer is suitable for this, but it works most efficiently. Uniflor-growth. This unique fertilizer is literally a first aid for plants, firstly, because it is quickly absorbed by the green leaf and, secondly, it is also quickly absorbed. Uniflor-growth contains all the macro- and microelements necessary for the plant in a chelated form, that is, in the most accessible form, which allows the plant to quickly produce proteins.
If in the previous season some plant was sick or was subjected to a massive attack of pests, then you can add 2 more drops to this cocktail Zircon and 5-6 drops Fitoverma in the same liter of water.
Zircon promotes self-defense of plants against diseases, and Fitoverm works against pests. All drugs are compatible, and most importantly, and Zircon, and Healthy garden enhance the effect of all drugs against pests. All recommended preparations are of natural biological origin, and therefore practically harmless.
Is it possible to replace these drugs with something? Instead Healthy garden will have to apply Fitoverm in a higher concentration (according to the instructions for each type of pest) and additionally Zircon (4 drops for the same liter).
Instead Ekoberina can be used Epin-ext-ra or Novosil (2-3 drops are enough), instead of Uniflora use Citovit (4 drops), Narcissus (half a cap for one liter) or any complete mineral fertilizer. But in order not to cause leaf burns, it should be taken 10 times less than you usually take for root feeding.
Instead Fitoverma you can use the drug against pests Iskra-bio (exactly bio, and not any others with a name Spark, because all of them except Sparks-bio, are strong chemical poisons).
Further Healthy garden plants can simply be watered around the crown perimeter (weak - every 2 weeks, strong - once a month). Moreover, you can immediately prepare a solution for the whole summer at the rate of 2 grains per liter for a whole barrel (that is, 200 grains per 100 liters of water), in which you infuse weeds or green grass, and stir well. Solution Healthy garden will not lose its wonderful properties the whole summer. But the rest of the preparations should be used by spraying the leaves. Zircon should be used in case of mass illness of some of the diseases, for example, powdery mildew or botrytis. Epin-extra useful in all kinds of weather troubles, Fitoverm or Spark-bio apply in case of a massive pest attack. But at the same time, the concentration should be doubled and even tripled against that used in the cocktail.
With poor plant growth and development, it is useful to use Ferovit and Siliplant. Ferovit Is the organic iron needed by the plant for the formation of chlorophyll in the leaves (the same happens when using Healthy garden). BUT Siliplan - this is organic silicon (it also contains the drug Energen), necessary for the strength of plant tissues, especially the walls of conducting vessels. In addition, the composition Siliplant includes 8 more basic microelements in a chelated form.
But you should know that you cannot combine more than three biological products in one solution at the same time. For example, into a solution Ferovita, Zircon and Epin-extra can no longer be added Fitoverm. In addition, they cannot be used in alkaline environments. For example, you cannot add them to a solution of ash, sodium or calcium nitrate.
A modern effective complex can also be used. Narcissus (consisting of chitosan obtained from crab shells, succinic and glutamic acids, and also containing the necessary trace elements in a chelated form).
First of all, do not forget that fruit trees and berry bushes also have quite good decorative qualities, and if properly placed in the garden, they may well create a very cozy place. Do not just plant too many of them, so as not to clutter up your small area.
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With the onset of spring, a hot harvest begins for gardeners.
So that the shrubs will please with growth and good yield. During this period, it is worth thinking about carrying out a number of activities to care for them.
1. It is necessary to evaluate the appearance of the bush as soon as the snow melts. The remaining drifts should be scattered so that rodents do not start in the roots. Branches should be checked to make sure they don't crack under the weight of winter snow.
If the bush was damaged during wintering, then the wounds should be treated with a solution of copper sulfate and garden varnish and wrapped in burlap, having previously cleaned the top layer of the bark.
General cleaning of the shrub in early spring is necessary to prevent possible infection of the plant by microorganisms and insects. Remove last year's leaves from shrubs and burn them, as they are good for pest breeding.
The soil near the plant should be dug up and sprinkled with ash, thus the larvae and spores of the fungi are destroyed, the air exchange of the root system is normalized.
2. Pruning should be completed before the sap starts to move through the plant. In the process of pruning, the crown of the bush is formed, old and infected shoots are removed.
It is important to remember that annual shoots will give greater yields. They are easily recognized by their small thickness and a distance of about 15 cm between the kidneys.
3. Treatment of pests is carried out in early spring. The first step is to spray for preventive purposes, it is important to be in time before the kidneys swell. For the effectiveness of the event, fungicides and insecticides are used for treatment.
4. Top dressing in the spring is the key to a good harvest in the fall. Shrubs need soil fertilization with mineral fertilizers - once a year and organic - once every 2-3 years.
The selected mineral fertilizer should be rich in nitrogen to stimulate the growth of the plant as a whole, as well as the formation of a dense green crown.
5. Garter - raspberries and currants especially need it. When tying the branches, not only the appearance of the shrub is formed, but also the process of picking berries during the ripening period is facilitated.
When creating additional support for the branches, possible rotting of berries, leaves and shoots from contact with the soil is prevented.
Proper care of shrubs begins in early spring. If you stick to these important activities, you will surely get a healthy and prolific plant.
Main spring inspection
A cursory survey of the families, carried out immediately after the first flyby, did not fully assess the families. Therefore, as soon as the weather settles, and the air temperature rises to 15-16 ° in the shade, on a quiet, windless day, they conduct a thorough audit of families, which is called the main spring inspection. The term of the main spring inspection falls in the middle or second decade of April, and in colder regions it is carried out only in the first decade of May. The objectives of the inspection are as follows:
2) assessment of brood and quality of queens,
3) checking the status of stocks,
4) checking the sanitary condition of stocks,
5) adjusting the size of the socket,
It is advisable that the examination takes place when there is at least a small bribe, since in the absence of honey collection, theft can be easily provoked. Thief bees interfere not only with work, but can also attack weak or queenless colonies, they are carriers of dangerous diseases.
First of all, the weak families in need of help are examined. Since there may be sick people among them, after examining each hive, you need to thoroughly wash your hands with hot water and soap and wipe them with denatured alcohol, and ignite the chisel, poker and other tools for cleaning garbage in the flame of an alcohol lamp. It's better than treating the whole apiary afterwards and counting the losses. Frames of suspicious sanitary hives should be left behind the mats in the hives so that they do not accidentally end up in other families in a hurry of inspection and do not get crowded among normal "healthy" combs. The honeycomb is sorted after the end of the inspection.
In relation to healthy and strong families, such precautions are, of course, unnecessary.
Considering the laboriousness of spring inspection, its organization has its own characteristics in a small apiary and in a large farm. In order to properly organize the subsequent work, the inspection should be completed within 1 to 3 days. It is dangerous to delay it, as the weather can change dramatically and for a long time, and you will have to finish it in 10-12 days, when the situation in the apiary changes. On a large farm these days, you need to move families to clean hives, thoroughly clean the walls and bottom, etc.
ASSESSMENT OF FAMILY POWER. The strength of families is estimated by the number of honeycomb frames fully occupied by bees. Families are considered very strong if they occupy 6 - 8 frames in the Dadanov hives (8-11 in Wielkopolskie). Medium-sized families occupy 4 - 5 frames in Dadanovsky or 6 - 7 frames in Wielkopolskie hives. Families occupying less than 4 frames in Dadanovsky (less than 6 in Wielkopolska) are called weak. In multi-body hives, strong and very strong colonies occupy both tiers, and in the upper one there should be mainly a printed brood, and in the lower one - 2 - 3 frames with larvae and eggs.
The division of families into strong, medium and weak makes it very easy to further care for them. Weak families need to be united with the weak and strong to create full-fledged families. Strong and very strong families will need to expand their nests in a timely manner and monitor whether a swarm mood is manifested. In strong families, wax production begins earlier.
The brood is evaluated not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. In strong colonies, brood occupies 4 - 5 Dadanov frames, half of which are larvae and eggs. In Wielkopolskie hives, brood takes 6 - 7 frames. If there are no eggs and the youngest larvae, attention should be paid to the behavior of the bees, as this may indicate a queenless colony. Queenless bees are restless and annoyed, swarm, and other bees often steal from them. To be sure that the family has lost the uterus, you should listen to the hive in the evening. The queenless colony makes a pitiful and uneven noise, and individual voices of bees are heard. If reproduction has slowed down only due to lack of food, weakness of the colony or humidity and cold, and there are cleaned cells on the central honeycomb, ready for sowing, the bees behave more calmly. When supplies are replenished, the nest is shrunk and properly insulated, the queen will begin to lay eggs.
The quality of the uterus is evidenced, among other things, by the appearance of the seeding. A good uterus lays eggs in all cells in a row, without gaps, sowing forms a circle or an ellipse. On the middle frames, you can see the end rings of printed brood, open brood and eggs, replacing each other. The outermost combs of the nest should contain mainly eggs and larvae - this is evidence of the desirable increase in the rate of egg laying during this period.
If the brood is scattered over the combs, there are broods of different ages in adjacent cells, then the queen is of poor quality. The queen is also considered bad if it lays many unfertilized eggs in bee cells, from which drones then emerge. According to some researchers, workers eat such larvae, the vacated cells either remain empty, or the uterus sows them again.
Drone queens produce drone brood, from which small, weak drones emerge. Sometimes drone brood is found among ordinary bee cells. Such brood is produced by old or insufficiently inseminated queens.
If there is only drone brood in the hive, scattered irregularly in different parts of the honeycomb and on several hundreds, it means that there is a drone queen in the family.
As a rule, the beekeeper, carefully examining the nest, finds a queen on one of the combs. This should be used and evaluated by its appearance: croup : whether the uterus is full, whether the abdomen is rounded, whether the wings are damaged (age), whether the mark is appropriate, etc. You should look for the uterus in a colony where there are few printed brood, larvae or eggs. This is not difficult, since there are few such families.
Defective or weak queens should be replaced with spare ones as soon as possible. If these families are weak, they are combined with families with a normal uterus. When uniting, attention should be paid to ensure that families are healthy. Never unite healthy and sick families!
ASSESSMENT OF STOCK STATUS. During the main spring inspection, stocks are assessed "by eye", taking into account honey within the frames in the nest and, if available, behind the dividing board. There should be enough honey to have enough stocks until the first big honey harvest. The need for a colony in May is very high, since it is at this time that the bees raise the most brood. On average, the number of uterus at the beginning of the month is 1000 eggs per day, and at the end - 1900 eggs. Assuming that about 1950 cells are sown per day, we get that 44950 larvae need to be fed to each family within a month. This will require about 19 kg of honey and 30 sq. dm bee bread. A few more kilograms of honey will be used by the bees to ensure their own work in the hive and outside it, heating (cooling) the hive, detaching the combs, etc.
But in May, many melliferous plants are already blooming, therefore, a significant part of the need will be covered by the worker bees themselves, and the larger, the stronger the family. During this period, the beekeeper leaves only a forage reserve for families in case of prolonged bad weather or a temporary lack of honey plants. During inspection in mid-April, the stock of one family should be 7 - 8 kg, in late April - early May - 4 - 6 kg. If the hive is less than 4 kg, the queen may slow down seeding. This is tantamount to an increase in the swarm mood in families and a weakening of the working potential on the eve of the main honey collection. Any stock shortages must be replenished immediately.
The addition of pollen in hives in May is quite significant. Only weak families (few pickers) feel the lack of fervor at this time. And the April demand for pollen should be covered by the stocks of the previous season (in combs). This does not apply only to the exceptionally rich spring pollen bearing plants, warm areas, where a rich flow begins in April.
ASSESSMENT OF THE SANITARY CONDITION OF FAMILIES. Spring inspection - the first in the season, associated with a complete analysis of nests and revision of all combs. This creates very good conditions for a careful assessment of the condition of bees and brood. The most common diseases of bees are nosematosis, varroatosis (mite), foulbrood.
Signs of nosematosis: a sharp weakening of the bees after the first flight, the bees walk lazily over the combs, sit on the roof of the hive, the outer walls, and the beekeeper's clothes. Exhausted worker bees crawling on the grass in front of the hive, returning from the field. Sometimes the absence of brood is noted in the nest, although the uterus is alive, the diseased uterus may die immediately after the flight, then only the older brood is present in the nest. Traces of diarrhea are visible in the hive.
The family suffering from ticks is shrinking. Bees affected by ticks cannot take off and fall at the entrance board. Their wings are characteristically bulging, if you pull the wings a little, they immediately fall off.
A foulbrood can be suspected when there is a dead open brood in the nest, lying unnaturally in the cells. The brood can also die in healthy colonies that are severely weakened by something. In this case, the brood dies in the lower part of the combs, where the bees cannot maintain the appropriate temperature. Samples of dead brood or corpses of adult bees must be sent for analysis to the veterinary laboratory, where a diagnosis will be made.
ADJUSTMENT OF SOCKET SIZE. During the inspection, for the second time in the season, the size of the nest is checked and, if necessary, 1-2 frames are removed. In strong families that have endured the winter well, the nest should not be reduced. But in sick and weakened families, where wintering was less successful, and many flying bees died in the spring, the nests will turn out to be too spacious.
During this period, it is better to "squeeze" the bees a little than to add 1 extra honeycomb to the nest. It is known from Zhdanov's research that in May, at an average monthly temperature of 13 ° C, bees in a well-arranged nest use about 2.7 kg of honey to heat it. If there are too many combs in the nest, much more honey is required for heating (sometimes even 2 times more), and in proportion to this, the bees will get more tired. For families that are already in dire straits, the ego is especially important.
In general, at this time only frames occupied by brood and one extreme (“protective”) with stocks of honey and bee bread are left in the nest. In weak families, at least 1 of the cover frames can be taken out of the separating grid. In very strong colonies, 1-2 additional frames can be left for the brood. They are placed on either side of the actual nest, because if they break the brood ball with them, it will be difficult for the bees to maintain the appropriate temperature and care for the larvae.
No matter how the size of the nest correlates with the strength of the family, the nest is again carefully insulated from the sides and top. Pillows and insulation mats remain in the nests until space is needed to further expand the nests.
CLEANING OF FRAMES AND BEDROOMS. In small and medium-sized apiaries, during the main spring inspection, the frames and the hives themselves are cleaned. In large apiaries, this can be done if the weather is good for several days. The less stable the weather, the faster you need to inspect the hives, limiting yourself only to the necessary minimum of work.
Before disassembling the nest, the upper strips of the frames are cleaned with a steel brush and swept away the cleaning. In order for all frames to become clean, a few hand movements are enough. Further work depends on the type of hive.
In hive-loungers and combined hives, the entire nest, along with insulation materials, is temporarily moved to the opposite wall to make it easier to clean the walls, frame edges and the bottom of the nesting part of the hive. Then the cleaned frames are moved in turn to their original place, carefully insulated the nest and, finally, the hive outside the nest is removed. As a scraper for cleaning dirt, use the bent side of an apiary chisel, previously sharpened.
Bees are swept away from dirty frames and taken out; less dirty frames can be cleaned right in the hive. For the convenience of cleaning the frames outside the hive, a special portable box is used, or, for example, a cutting board placed on an apiary table. Garbage must be carefully collected and immediately burned, since diseases and pests nest in it; in addition, garbage scattered around the hives can provoke theft.
In Wielkopolskie risers, the volume of hives does not allow organizing work in this way. We have to take out 4 - 5 frames, as well as side mats. The rest of the frames are pushed to the opposite wall (as in a lounger), and then the vacated part of the nest is cleaned.
The frames remaining in the hive are cleaned in turn and moved to their original place. After that, the rest of the hive is cleaned, the debris is collected, and finally the removed frames are cleaned and replaced.
Both in the riser and in the lounger, you should try to cool the nest as little as possible. To do this, the part of the nest that has not yet been disassembled or has already been laid is covered with mats or locks, and on top with a pillow or feather bed. Only in extremely calm and warm weather, as well as during the abundant honey flow, the beekeeper can be less careful.
It is much easier to remove collapsible hives (Wielkopolska with a removable bottom or multi-hull). Cleaning in this case does not interfere with the life of the bees. In this case, disinfection can also be performed. The hive is pushed back a little and to the side. In its place, a new bottom and a clean body are installed. Then the mats and frames are transferred to a clean hive, they are set in the desired order. After everything has been transferred, the empty case is removed and the bees remaining on the walls are swept away on a substituted tray. Also sweep the bottom. In a bee-free hive, clean the walls and bottom with a scraper, after which you can scorch the hive with the flame of a gasoline lamp or wipe it with formalin water or a tampon dipped in acetic acid. If there are several spare hives, wall and bottom cleaning and disinfection can be carried out in a workshop with an assistant. Work directly at the open hive will take three times less time.
In multi-body hives, which at this time consist of two bodies, the frames from the upper body are first cleaned and rearranged. Then the second clean case is installed on the already filled one and the cleaned frames are transferred from the lower case. If the cleaning of the nests is carried out earlier than the need arises to rearrange the bodies, the upper body is first put back, on which the lower body is installed together with the bottom. Thus, the cleaned frames are rearranged into the clean bodies so that their order does not change.
In large apiaries, it is always more convenient to relocate bees than to clean the hives in their presence. This applies to all types of hives. The easier it is to disassemble the hive, the easier it is to work with it. Cleaning in a hive with bees lasts 30 - 40 minutes. At the same time, transferring the nest to a new hive takes no more than 10-15 minutes. The only thing required of the beekeeper is to have several spare hives. Any normally equipped apiary should have spare hives.