Outwardly, these plants are echinacea and rudbeckia (Astrovye family), which are home to the prairies and forests of the southeastern states of the United States, as twins are very similar. The center of their inflorescences looks like a slightly elongated thorny bump.
And it is no coincidence that the first Europeans, having arrived in the New World, gave them one name - coneflower (translated as "cone flower"). Later, in the middle of the 18th century, botanists named both plants "rudbeckia" after the Swedish naturalist Rudbeck. And only four decades later, having finally figured it out, they isolated echinacea in a separate genus Echinaceae (Greek Echinus - "hedgehog"), linking the name with the same cones with hard spiny bracts.
Echinacea is still much more popular than its "sister" - rudbeckia. It is not for nothing that Echinacea is considered the “plant of the last decade” in the world. This rhizome perennial is a plant with an erect green, shortly pubescent stem up to 1.2-1.4 m high, with basal leaves and beautiful large flowers (up to 15 cm in diameter).
Echinacea purpurea is most common in floriculture. It grows normally in the central regions of the European part of Russia, but on a shorter peduncle. There are echinacea varieties with carmine red, pink and white flowers. So far, other types of echinations are rarely found among domestic amateurs - holly (E. angustofolia) and pale (E. pallida). Until its new varieties have gained wide popularity among gardeners.
The inflorescence of Echinacea is a basket (up to 10 cm in diameter) with a convex hollow receptacle: the median flowers are tubular, bisexual, bronze or brown-red in color, the reed flowers are reddish-purple.
As an ornamental plant, echinacea is very good in flower beds and lawns. Its long flowering (1.5-2 months) is combined with a remarkable ability to persist for a long time after cutting. This perennial can also serve as a good honey plant (in the central regions of European Russia, 1 hectare of its plantings ensures the honey harvest of 100-150 bee colonies for two months) and a good feed additive to the diet of cattle and pigs (increases their resistance to infectious diseases).
Echinacea is propagated by seeds and by dividing the bush. Seeds germinate easily (without stratification) and do not need special pre-planting treatment; they are sown before winter or early spring to a depth of 1-3 cm. When sowing seeds in open ground in April, take into account the fact that for the plant on the site you need to choose a sunny place with fertile, moderately moist, well-cultivated soil. Mass flowering of echinacea occurs only in the second year, and subsequently the plant blooms profusely and annually (it develops poorly only in the shade and on sandy soils). When propagating through seedlings, plants are planted at the beginning of May, keeping a distance between them of 40-50 cm.There is an opinion that propagation by seeds gives a large number of forms that do not correspond to the original sample in terms of decorative properties and, apparently, in the content and spectrum of physiologically active substances.
Echinacea can also be propagated vegetatively - by dividing the rhizomes into parts that have renewal buds. It is better to buy the plots in early spring (before the leaves are fully blooming). The multiplication factor is small, but it is believed that in this case the varietal characteristics of the original plant are preserved. Echinacea can grow in one place for more than 10 years (it is advisable to thin out the bush every three years) and is characterized by high winter hardiness (hibernates without shelter).
Experts have proven that it is possible to significantly increase productivity - the yield of the biological mass of plants and active substances - by foliar feeding with a solution of urea (2%), MnSO4 (0.05%) or ZnSO4 (0.1%). They are considered optimal for processing in the rosette phase - with urea, in the budding phase - with manganese and zinc. This foliar application increases the dry matter yield. For example, treatment of plants with a urea solution increases the total collection of biologically active substances by 3-3.5 times, with a solution of manganese and zinc - 4 and 2.9-3.3 times, respectively.
The popularity of echinacea is also explained by its high medicinal properties. Due to the ability to strengthen the body's defenses, some experts now put it among the most amazing representatives of the plant world (even next to ginseng). And it is no coincidence that the North American Indians of the Great Plains have used echinacea for many centuries as the most important medicinal raw material for various diseases - from the common cold to a snakebite. By preparing various echinacea remedies, they treated headaches, rheumatism, arthritis, smallpox, mumps, measles, cramps, stomach cramps, eye inflammation, wounds and abscesses.
In the 70s of the XIX century, white settlers got acquainted with the medicinal properties of the plant, actively using it to treat "minor colds". Once in Europe, echinacea found a worthy place in the pharmacopoeia of many countries: before the advent of antibiotics, it was considered almost the most effective remedy for combating viral and bacterial infections. But since the middle of the twentieth century, interest in the plant has fallen: antibiotics created by scientists coped well with pathogens of many diseases of humans and animals. Only a few decades later came some awakening from illusions: it turned out that viruses are able to defend themselves, change their structure, and the antibiotics themselves, as it turned out, unfortunately, often harm the natural defense systems of a person, reducing his immunity.
To date, biologically active substances (polysaccharides, polyacetylenes, unsaturated derivatives of amides, derivatives of caffeic acid, etc.), which constitute the medicinal power of the plant, have been isolated and studied in echinacea. They stimulate the immune system and increase resistance to infections, being present in varying concentrations in all parts of the plant. On the basis of this plant, the pharmacopoeia of various countries has already developed more than 50 drugs. Echinacea is used for the prevention and treatment of cancer, prostatitis, adenoma, calming the nervous system; it is recommended to use it in areas of ecological disaster. Here are some recipes:
1. Infusing roots (1:10) on 70% alcohol for 30-40 days. Drink 20-30 drops in half a glass of water 30 minutes before meals.
2. Decoction... Pour 1 tablespoon of chopped roots with 300 ml of water, boil in a water bath for 30 minutes, filter. Take 1-2 tbsp. l. 3-4 times daily before meals. In addition, the broth can be used externally for the preparation of lotions for the affected skin areas with psoriasis, trophic ulcers, eczema, burns, bedsores, etc. Fresh juice and canned with ten percent alcohol have valuable qualities.
Unlike echinacea, rudbeckia, as it turned out, is a fairly familiar plant to Russian residents. I remember well how many golden balls, along with dahlias, were on the estates near Moscow in the 60s.
But this is nothing more than dissected rudbeckia (R. laciniata). They were planted under windows, along paths, near hedges, in flower beds. I remember the whole thickets of these tall (up to 2 m) magnificent swinging flowers (baskets with a diameter of 6-10 cm), double or semi-double, bright yellow or orange-golden color.
These perennials (up to 6-8 years old in one place) with straight, thin, branched stems at the top (the upper leaves are three-lobed, the lower ones are round, five-lobed) are undemanding to growing conditions. Therefore, caring for them is easy: they grow on any soil, not avoiding both sunny and shaded places. Their agricultural technology is the same as that of echinacea.
It should only be borne in mind that a significant part of the seedlings of both rudbeckia and echinacea can be affected by fusarium rot. Diseases are fought by treating the seeds with TMTD (this activity also contributes to the intensive growth of the root and aerial parts of the plant; they winter better).
There was a serious interest in rudbeckia in pre-war Germany, where many of its varieties were created, and from where they then quickly spread throughout Europe.
In America, the fashion for her arose much later: only in 1999 in Canada she was awarded the first prize in the category "Perennial of the Year". Experts count about 40 species of rudbeckia, including one-two- and perennial species.
In recent years, research has begun on the medicinal properties of rudbeckia. There are already encouraging results: a medical preparation has been obtained that can support the immunity of an AIDS patient. In Slovakia, doctors have found that R. speciosa is able to act more effectively than Echinacea purpurea. Ukrainian scientists pay great attention to the study of this plant: golden balls are widespread there, so this type of rudbeckia does not need to be introduced into culture.
Those gardeners who want to grow these two plants will be convinced at the end of summer: few perennials can match the majesty and catchy large flowers with the popular "American". In September-October, when the streak of rains begins, the flower beds are sunny in summer from yellow-headed rudbeckies. Against the background of the withering summer, these "sisters" look advantageous in compact groups on lawns, in mixed flower beds, along paths and fences.
candidate of biological sciences,
All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Pushkin
In order to grow a flowering plant in your greenhouse, it is important to observe the subtleties of cultivation. Everyone wants to plant beautiful flowers. In the above selection, the editors tried to present a selection of articles in order to prevent death when breeding an exotic plant. The growing conditions for many types of plants are the same. A rare plant requires a careful approach. It seems correct to determine for yourself which species the desired plant belongs to.
There are many types of flower beds, but the most often used in the style of landscape design are the following: flower beds, ridges, borders, mixborders, tapeworms, rockeries, rockeries or rock gardens, rocky gardens, reservoirs, flower beds in containers, flowerpots, etc.
A flower bed is one of the most popular techniques for flower decoration of plots. Flower beds are of the correct geometric shape: round, square, elliptical and in the form of other shapes. You should not get carried away with intricate drawings when creating this type of flower garden.
Usually, flower beds are arranged in sunny places, near the entrance to the house, next to the terraces, opposite the windows, that is, where they are most accessible for viewing. The composition of flower beds also includes a lawn, paving with tiles or other materials, and various fences. The flower beds should rise 10-15 cm above the soil level. It is desirable to raise the level of the soil to the center - this makes it possible to better see the plants.
When arranging flower beds, first of all, plants are chosen that bloom for as long as possible and retain their aesthetic appearance. There are two types of flower beds. The first of them - a carpet bed, is created from low-growing flower plants, which form a kind of "head" above the surface of the earth. The second type of flower bed is a flower bed, created from large-flowering bright plants with a long flowering period.For planting in flower beds, they are used as annuals (petunia, lobelia, begonia.), As well as perennials (forget-me-not, hosta, peony, poppy).
Rabatki are elongated flower beds with a width of 40 cm to 3 m. They are arranged along the paths, around the house, verandas, gazebos. The edges of the ridges should be parallel to the lines of the walls of the house, garden structures, or follow the curves of the paths. The width of the ridges depends on the size of the plants planted on them. For example, for dahlias, zinnias and other large crops, the width of the bed should be at least 2 m. On narrow beds, the decorative value of large plants is lost. Large-flowered dahlias are planted on the ridges in single-sorted groups or single specimens in one row, choosing orange ones for varieties with purple inflorescences, bluish-blue to yellow ones, and white ones to red ones.
Rabatki can be one-sided and two-sided. One-sided are arranged along fences, buildings and sites. On them, tall plants are located in the background, and in front - lower specimens in one or more rows. Near houses and gazebos, the ridges are arranged in such a way that water flowing from the roofs does not fall on them. Both one-sided and two-sided ridges are made along the paths, depending on how they are viewed. On a double-sided rabatka, undersized species are planted on both edges, if they are not obscured by the central strip.
Borders are narrow, 30-50 cm wide, strips of plants. Plants with a height of 20 to 40 cm are used as curbs, for example: lobelia, ageratums, alissums. A bright red low bush nasturtium is a border plant for purple petunias, but it itself can occupy the center of a rabatka, in which case various varieties of alyssum can be a border for it. When planting a curb, it should be remembered that different areas are as decorative as possible from early spring to late autumn. Ornamental deciduous plants will help maintain a good appearance in the absence of flowering. Don't forget that foliage is just as important as flowers in the overall structure of the garden.
Group - planting a small number of plants of the same species or variety, where both herbaceous plants and shrubs can be used.
Most plants look much more advantageous in group plantings in small specimens, rather than singly, planting in groups of 3-5. A common, often repeated mistake is planting due to the limited space of single plants (it is better to plant fewer species, but not one plant at a time!).
Groups are wall-mounted and free-growing. Wall-mounted are used to decorate outbuildings, as well as the trunks of large plants. Free-growing groups are created on the lawn in a free composition. It includes at least 3-5 crops. The group may include plants of other species, but in such a way that a harmonious composition is created. Take into account the likely final height of the plants, but remember that they may grow more vigorous in one garden than in another.
Solitary, or solitary, plantings are one of the forms of plantings consisting of one plant on the lawn. A prerequisite in this case is a high decorative effect of the plant (for example, castor oil plant, hydrangea, tree peony, rose, etc.).
Mixborders are mixed flower beds, planted in the form of a border, 1.5-4 m wide, located along the main paths.
Compared to the flowering of popular annuals, the flowering of most perennials is short-lived, therefore, so-called complex flower beds-mixborders are often made in their flower beds, where various perennials are planted. Plants are selected in such a way that the timing of their flowering begins in the spring and lasts until the very frost. They also need to blend in with each other, giving the impression of natural combinations and at the same time grabbing attention.
In mixborders, plants are arranged in rows and groups. Tall ones (delphinium, black cohosh, buzulnik, Novobelgiskaya aster) are planted in the background, while others are arranged in decreasing height to the footpaths. The species are selected in the mixborder in such a way that as many plants as possible bloom in it during the entire growing season.
These crops, while blooming in color, should form harmonious groups as possible, for example: purple-pink buds of berry flowers next to dazzling white inflorescences of terry arabis and bright yellow flowers of perennial adonis, orange lilies next to a constantly blooming delphinium, groups of single-sorted perennial phlox orange and brick red next to bluish purple and white.
In the design of the mixborder, it is also advisable to use ornamental shrubs. It can be used for framing and decorating paths, walls of houses, highlighting individual areas of the site. A great addition to the mixborder will be evergreen trees and shrubs, as well as trees with an unusual crown shape.
Rockeries are popular in modern gardens - compositions of floral and decorative herbaceous and woody plants with stones and other inert material. The types of rockeries are varied: landscape and regular slides, rock gardens, rock gardens, retaining walls, mini rockeries, representing one or more stones with plants planted nearby.
Rockeries remain decorative for many years. The basis of the assortment of plants is made up of perennial herbaceous ground cover plants, mostly undersized, of an original shape, with beautiful foliage, abundantly flowering.
Rapidly growing ground cover plants are placed closer to the edges of the slide. Higher forms are placed near large stones, next to retaining walls. Along with herbaceous plants, several low-growing shrubs should be provided.
Planting begins with higher forms and ends with ground cover. Plants are arranged like stones, avoiding symmetry. At first, until perennials grow and fill empty spaces, they can be supplemented with miniature annuals. For this, varieties of graceful lobelia erinus, low-growing thin-leaved marigolds, graceful gypsophila, gatsania, dimorphoteka, iberis, large-flowered purslane, cineraria sea, etc. are suitable.
Types and varieties of plants are combined in height, texture, color of leaves and color of flowers. Take into account the rate of seasonal development, flowering time and growth rate. Remember that about half of the area of the slide should be occupied by stones, the rest by plants.
The tree trunk circle can be turned into a colorful flower bed. At the same time, the flowers will serve as a reliable mulch, keeping the roots moist.
The basis for the flower bed is prepared in advance. First, you need to destroy the weeds under the tree. Then mark the gaps and gaps between the plexuses of the roots - these are the places where you will plant ornamental plants. At a distance of 0.5 m from the tree trunk, where there are depressions, pegs with a height of 30 cm are placed, after which they begin to create a fertile layer for planting. Additional garden soil and rotted compost are poured around the entire tree trunk in a layer of 5 to 10 cm.It will improve the structure of the soil near the tree and supply nutrients not only to the ornamental flowering plants that you are going to plant, but also to the roots of the tree.
You can create very beautiful compositions from orange, white, blue, lilac crocuses, blue muscari, white galanthus, bright blue forest, various types of primroses, crested hen, anemone, daffodils, tulips, poultry. Such a near-stem flowerbed looks very impressive. After the small-bulbous flowers have faded, you can sow annuals or plant perennial ornamental crops.
Of course, there are trees under which the creation of flower beds requires additional effort. These are weeping birch and Norway maple, the surface root system of which intercepts nutrients and needs a large amount of moisture. It is difficult to arrange flower beds under a linden tree - its crown gives a lot of shading. Only hardy ground cover plants will do. Plants planted under the crowns should not be competitors to the tree - this is the main rule.
Flower beds and flower beds are perhaps the most popular decorative items for decorating a garden.
Scheme of a regular flower bed: 1 - Grennadine carnation, 2 - Alpine forget-me-nots, 3 - lawn grass, 4 - red levkoi bouquet (daisies), 5 - Haguean zinnia, 6 - Veris primrose (curb plantations).
Regardless of how large your garden area is, there is always a place for flower beds or flower beds on it. Flower beds are very different, they differ in size, shape and selection of colors for planting. Below we will consider the main types of flower beds.
The main difference of this species from other flower beds is the presence of a strict geometric pattern, which is made up of different flowers. It is necessary that the plants planted in such a flower bed bloom at the same time. It is also important how the lighting of such flower beds is arranged. Usually they are placed so that no shadow falls on the flowers, either partially or completely. Therefore, most often a regular flower bed can be seen in city gardens, squares and parks. On a personal plot, it will look appropriate if you have enough free space, because it is one of the largest in size.
On a regular flower bed, different types of plants are used: both annual and perennial flowers are planted. Caring for it is quite laborious due to the fact that all plants have their own characteristics for watering and feeding. Be prepared for cash costs too. However, the result will undoubtedly please you. For a true gardener and flower lover, a real pleasure will be the time spent creating this type of flower bed.
Irregular flower bed scheme: 1 - phloxes in the background as the tallest, 2 - meadow pelargonium, 3 - balsam or pansies.
This type of flower bed is preferred by landscape designers more than others, since an irregular flower bed is easier to care for than a regular one, and pleases with its appearance throughout the warm season. For her, you do not need to select the types of flowers according to the flowering time, on the contrary, you should plant the plants so that they bloom at different times of the season. The result is a "wavy" effect: some flowers wither, followed by others. It is not necessary to achieve a clear pattern of flowers when planting such a flower garden, the designers are trying to show the naturalness of the flower cover, planting the plants according to the color scheme. Such a flower bed also does not have a certain geometric shape.
Be sure to follow the illumination of the site, these types of flower beds do not like shade. You can use tall and low-growing plants, while tall flowers should be planted in the center of the flower arrangement if the view opens from all sides, or in the distance if the flower bed is located on the side of the site.
A variety of flowers are used to create such a flower garden. A group of perennial plants (roses, peonies, phloxes) is usually used, and various types of annual flowers (asters, nasturtiums, snapdragons, balsams) are planted with them. The choice of colors can be the widest, it all depends on your preference. You can not be afraid to experiment with colors, any flower arrangement will be appropriate for an irregular flower bed.
This flower garden is called so because of the design features: it is something like a container with flowers. Usually, a raised flower bed is of the correct geometric shape (square, circle, polyhedron), its height ranges from 20 cm to 1 m.The walls of the flower tank are usually made of planks, concrete, brick, artificial stone, small logs. On lawns, such a flower bed is usually not located, it will look best on a hard surface (paving stones, asphalt, gravel), most often such flower beds are used for greening cities, they are located at the entrance to the building, along the sidewalk, in parks and squares. On a personal plot, a raised flower bed can be placed in front of the entrance to the house.
Perennial plant species are rarely planted in such flower beds; annual flowers are most often used. It should be noted that such a flower bed needs to be watered more often than others: excess water does not stagnate in it (which is not bad), the soil dries out quickly.
A raised flower bed is a wonderful decor element in your summer cottage. If desired, you can build a multi-level cascade from such flower beds, planting flowers in the form of compositions, you can turn your garden into a work of landscape art.
The scheme of a carpet flower bed: 1 - spicate liatris, 2 - ruselovsky zopnik, 3 - purpurea echinacea, 4 - beautiful small petals, 5 - ptarmica yarrow, 6 - hybrid catnip, 7 - fragrant rue, 8 - oak sage, 9 - Carpathian bell, 10 - Renard's geranium, 11 - Byzantine purse.
You can try to create such a flower bed in your personal plot. It is very difficult, but the result will exceed all your expectations. Guests will be in full admiration, the flower bed will become a true pearl of the garden. It should be borne in mind that the carpet bed must be processed at least once a week, remove dried plants, cut off the overgrown ones so that the pattern is not disturbed, maintain a clear border between different flowers. Sometimes plants to create such a flower garden are dug into the ground directly in pots. In this case, the soil dries out quickly and you need to water it on time.
When buying new flowers, we plant them in flower beds, often without thinking about how they will be combined in color, height, whether the place suits them in terms of environmental conditions. And when creating a new flower garden, we do not think whether it will be decorative all season and whether it fits into the general concept of the garden. As a result, instead of the joy of contemplating a beautiful flower garden, we get a feeling of disappointment. In fact, careful planning of future flower beds will help to avoid so many mistakes.
site planning. The site has already been conditionally divided into zones, paths have been laid, trees and shrubs have been planned or are already planted. The purpose of flower beds is to decorate our garden, to give it its own unique look. Their main location is on a plot in recreation areas, near the terrace and the entrance to the house, along the paths. Regardless of the style in which we plan flower beds, the main thing is that they are in harmony with the general ideas of the site, they were planned taking into account the ecological conditions and helped to connect the planned zones, existing buildings, and large plantings of trees and bushes into a single ensemble. There are many different types of flower beds. Some of them can be attributed to regular planning, some to free.
Flowerbeds are flower beds of various geometric shapes (round, oval, triangular, four- or polygonal), most often of a symmetrical configuration. To decorate the club, several types of one- or perennial herbaceous and semi-herbaceous plants are used. It happens that decorative vases or sculptures are used for decoration. Along the borders, flower beds are framed with a lawn or improvised material: tiles, bricks, curbs, etc. The beds are made either flat, flush with the lawn or path, or slightly raised.
Work - an elongated flower garden located along the path, on one or both sides. With the help of a rabatka, you can outline the border of a site, select the edge of the lawn, etc.The width of the bed is from 0.4 to 1.5 m, the length can be any depending on the shape and size of the site, the surface is flat or with a slight elevation in the center (on very wide beds). If the bed is one-sided (they are looking at it from one side), the plants are arranged in several rows: from high, wings, in the background, to low ones, closer to the viewer. If the bed is double-sided (for example, the paths run on both sides of the flower garden), then the tallest plants are placed in the center, and the edges are planted low. The drawing of the bed can be very different. In the design can be used as annual and perennial plants, less often biennial.
Parterre is an open space of regular shape, possibly in the form of a lawn. Includes a composition of individual elements: flower beds, rabatok, borders. The parterre was used to decorate the palace parks and gardens. On garden plots, parterre is rarely used. The parterre occupies a large area, the configuration and drawing of the parterre can be in the form of arabesque or patterns. The parterre is perceived best of all, from some kind of elevation, for example, from a balcony. Small architectural forms that complement the ensemble are often used for decoration: pools, fountains, decorative walls, steps. It is possible to use sculptures and flowerpots. In very large parterres, paths are provided that divide the complex into separate zones, allow you to come closer and admire the flower garden.
Border - a flower garden in the form of narrow strips of undersized plants bordering flower beds, lawns, paths. The width of the curbs is possible from 10 to 40 cm. As curbs, compact plant species are used that do not outgrow, do not cover other flowers and do not decay, grow evenly, with dense bushes. Usually only two or three types of plants are used. The purpose of the border is to emphasize the completeness of the flower arrangement, to shade harmoniously, to highlight the main plantings without suppressing them with its brightness.
Solitaire is a single planting of a decorative plant throughout the season, placed on an open area of the lawn. Large plants of an interesting shape, with beautiful leaves, characterized by abundant flowering, are suitable for such a design. These can be flowering shrubs or large herbaceous plants.
Group - plantings of several flowering plants, have free outlines, and create an imitation of naturalness. In groups, from one to a maximum of five plant species are used. With their help, they decorate the entrance to the house, gazebos, spaces in front of the pond. You can arrange a transition from the garden to the lawn near the house or divide the different areas of the site. Separate groups of plants, located in random order on the lawn, look beautiful. The main feature of this design is naturalness, therefore, in this case, you do not need to adhere to the clarity of lines and shapes.
Mixborders are a mixed decorative flower garden from early spring to late autumn. Translated from English means "mixed border". These are quite large flower beds with an elongated shape: from the correct geometric shape to smoothly curved wide stripes. Plants of one species are planted in groups, and the end of flowering of one species was at the beginning of flowering of another. If the mixborder has a one-sided view, then tall plants are located in the background, medium-sized plants in the center, and undersized and creeping in the foreground. In mixborders viewed from all sides, the tallest plants are placed in the middle line along the flower garden. For a better view, it is recommended to leave a strip of lawn about 50 cm between the path and the mixborder. The planting density should be based on the size of an adult plant.
For our gardens, this is the most interesting type of flower arrangement. By choosing the right color scheme, height and shape of plants, you can create beautiful compositions on our sites. The basis of the mixborder is perennial plants, summer plants serve only to fill in empty spaces during the growth of perennial flowers.It is quite natural that as the mixborder matures, the need for summer flowers decreases, which means that we do not have to suffer every year with seedlings. Plants for a mixborder are selected so that flowering is continuous from early spring to late autumn. When decorating, it is possible to use a large number of different types of plants, this will ensure constant flowering and give the flower garden individuality. If space allows, in a large mixborder, one or more low ornamental shrubs are often added to the flowers. In this case, the shrubs must be arranged so that they do not obscure the light and the main composition of the flower garden.
An array is a very large flower garden of regular or free form, with an area of up to 500-1000 sq. m. such flower beds are possible in large areas, in spacious meadows, forest edges, in large parks. Consist of perennials, annuals, and bulbous plants. Often pebbles, tiles, decorative gravel or lawn areas are used in decoration.
Rockeries - flower beds with elements of stones, built on a plane or on terraces. And rock gardens - an artificial rocky slide, in the design of which only alpine plants are used. Rock gardens and rockeries can be of very different shapes and sizes and have natural, smooth outlines. The planting and arrangement of stones is asymmetric. In rock gardens, there should not be too many plants and every plant should be out of sight. Stones are the most important element of this type of flower garden. The advantage in design is given by perennial plants and undersized and ground cover prevail. The overall composition may include small bodies of water, streams or fountains. It often seems to people that creating a slide is a fairly simple task and it is enough just to put stones in a slide and plant any plants that come to hand, as a result, so-called "dog graves" appear among the people. But in fact, the creation of this flower garden requires very careful preparation, a large amount of various building materials is needed: crushed stone, tiles, stones (from small boulders to large blocks). Retaining walls and individual sites may require cement.
You can use different types of flower beds on your site, but not all of them will successfully fit into our gardens, primarily due to the small size of our summer cottages.
So, you have chosen a place, decided what kind and what size your future flower garden will be. So where to start planning your flower garden. I propose to disassemble the points.
1. First of all, it is necessary to assess the ecological conditions of the place of the proposed flower garden. If plants preferring partial shade to plant in the sun, they will be very uncomfortable, they will develop worse and may even die. The same will happen if you plant sun-loving plants in the shade.
Of course, the largest selection of flowers for a flower garden will be in a well-lit area.
A very large assortment of plants can be used here: roses. clematis, peonies, carnations, bells, poppies, delphiniums, irises, rudbeckia, coreopsis, liatris, monarda, phlox, sage, lavender, most of the annuals.
Suitable for shady and semi-shady places:
astilbe. hosts, badan, ferns, volzhanka, dicentra, aconite, aquilegia, peach and broadleaf bells, brunner, anemone, geranium, marigold, black cohosh, Kupena, foxglove, primroses.
Soil moisture is of no small importance. Plants that thrive in moist soil: hosts, Siberian irises, tradescantia, primroses, forget-me-nots, brunner, daylilies, kupena, swimsuit, marigold, buzulnik.
sage, yarrow, thyme, sunflower, bluehead, monarda, bearded irises, gypsophila, carnation.
Soil acidity is also of great importance. Some plants require slightly acidic soils, others prefer acidic soils, others grow well on slightly alkaline, neutral or slightly acidic soils, fourth only on alkaline soils.
Plants suitable for slightly acidic and acidic soils
rhododendrons, hydrangeas, heathers, ferns, some types of magnolias, maples, primroses, tradescantia, oriental and tubular lilies, dogwood, begonias, some types of geraniums.
Plants preferring alkaline and slightly alkaline soils: heliotrope, calceolaria, lilac, carnations, snapdragon, cornflower, gypsophila, cinquefoil, onions, monarda, sycamore, pyrethrum, bluehead, sunflower, thyme, yarrow, sage, weigela, lavender, St. John's wort.
2. Next, we are trying to define a general idea. Often, a lot here depends on the general style of the site, on the appearance of the buildings, on the functional purpose of the zone in which the future flower garden is located.
An idea can be associative, associated with some kind of memory, based on a color scheme, but the main thing is that it should be.
The idea may even come from childhood memories. For example, I have always liked the fairy tales of the Brothers Grimm, so a flower garden with red and white roses appeared, which I call "Rosette and Belyanochka".
-The idea can be inspired by memories of summer holidays, when you want to bring a little southern flavor to the garden, and a "Mediterranean style" flower garden appears. And then in the flower garden spicy herbs, lavender, thyme, wormwood grow, fragrant roses smell sweetly. The flower garden can be raised on a retaining wall made of natural stone. Pyramidal cypresses will replace junipers. The color is dominated by various shades of blue, yellow, orange, red and dark pink. The composition of the flower garden can include terracotta flowerpots with flowers such as pelargonium and small figurines.
-And maybe the memories of the house in the village are dear to you and there is a "Countryside Flower Garden" and "Country Style" with a sea of daisies, phloxes, poppies, mallows, golden balls, foxglove, calendula and sunflowers. Household items can be included in the composition of a flower garden: a wattle fence, a jug, and even a wheel from a cart. More bright and cheerful colors and the flower garden is ready.
-Or maybe you want to bring a little romance into your garden and a romantic flower garden appears. Calm white-silver-pink-blue range of a flower garden, soft lines, natural style. The beautiful roses will languidly bow their large flowers. English roses are perfect for this style. In front of the roses there is a border of delicate bells, sage and cuffs, and a pink foxglove proudly rises above the roses. In front of the flower garden there is a small circular area paved with tiles with elegant white chairs and a small table. So the "Romantic flower garden" is ready, near which you can also sit, dream and have a cup of tea.
-Sometimes the idea of a flower garden arises by itself in connection with the climatic features of the place reserved for the flower garden. For example, you want to make a flower garden in a shady garden under old trees, and then the idea of a "Shadow Flower Garden" appears. And the kingdom of decorative leafy plants is born with beauties of hosts, brunners, lungwort, ferns, tiarella. Such flower beds and flowering plants astilbe, aconite, foxglove, kupena, and dicentra revive such flower beds. According to the color scheme in such places, white looks the most advantageous color, which refreshes and brightens the dark corners of the garden.
- The idea can come from the color combination. Take, for example, the now popular monochrome gardens and the "Blue Flower Garden" may be born. It just seems that there are few blue colors, blue and light blue have many shades and midtones. These can be irises, catnip, lavender, clematis, flax, veronica, forget-me-nots, decorative onions, geraniums, hyacinths, scilla bells, cornflowers. From the annals: lobelia, ageratum, petunia, heliotrope.
- If you are fond of some one plant and you have already gathered a whole collection, then the idea of a “Collectible flower garden” arises. Of course, your favorite plant will solo in such a flower garden.
- And now natural gardens are in vogue and the idea of a “Natural flower garden” is emerging. The main rule in such flower beds is the maximum naturalness of plantings and minimal maintenance.
We solve the color scheme of the flower garden.
Color is very important in a person's life, it has the ability to influence the perception of the world around us, is able to raise mood and stimulate appetite, give a feeling of coolness and warmth, visually expand the perspective and bring it closer to us, instill a feeling of discomfort and soothe. It is important when choosing clothes and when creating interiors and when creating flower beds. That's why I would like to dwell on color issues in more detail.
Yellow - stimulates the desire for change and awakens creativity. Associated with wealth, gold, warmth and bountiful harvests. This color of the sun, holiday, and it gives inspiration, drives away fatigue, cheers up. However, it should be borne in mind that bright yellow intense tones in large quantities cause headaches. But people prone to depression perfectly perceive the yellow range, which increases their vitality.
In the garden, yellow flowers seem larger and closer than they really are. A large group of yellow flowers will attract attention and become the focal point of the garden. Too much of this color in the garden can destroy the balance and cause feelings of anxiety and anxiety. Optimists and lovers of life love yellow flowers, they draw positive emotions from yellow.
They cheer up in the "golden garden":
roses, lilies, daylilies, tulips, primroses, autumn helenium, marigolds, goldenrod, doronicum, buzulnik, escholzia, coreopsis, ornamental sunflowers, rudbeckia, heliopsis, evening primrose, bathers, etc.
From shrubs and trees, golden forms are suitable, as well as those with a golden border along the edge of the leaf - barberry, privet, mock orange, euonymus, thuja, spirea. (dogwood, ash-leaved maple, etc.). Shrubs with yellow flowers: forsythia, broom, rhododendrons, cinquefoil.
Red is the color of life, symbolizing activity and energy, strength and determination, love and anger. Energetic, active, leaders by nature, public people love red. In the garden, red, just like yellow, will immediately catch the eye, attract attention, visually bring the perspective closer. An excess of red in the garden can tire quickly.
To create a "red garden" are used:
roses, lilies, daylilies, tulips, amaranth, balsams, dahlias, carnations, phlox, salvia, zinnias, fiery red beans, gravilat, lychnis, poppies, etc. Purple-leaved trees and shrubs complement red flowers - these are Norway maple, warty birch, Thunberg barberry, purple apple tree, etc. The red bark of some dogwood plants, willow, etc., especially in winter, adorns the garden.
Orange - orange color symbolizes health and energy, heat, ripeness, warmth and joy. Excites and encourages communication. Gives a good mood and positive mood. Orange flowers also "catch" the eye, they are loved by successful or actively striving for success, ambitious people.
The joyful "orange garden" is created by:
roses, lilies, daylilies, tulips, marigolds, calendula, dimorphoteka, mimulus, nasturtium, dahlias, lilies, tulips, daylilies, etc. In spring, Japanese quince and deciduous rhododendrons are covered with bright orange flowers.
White - symbolizes purity, innocence, freshness and clarity. However, in large quantities, a white person is capable of invoking uncertainty, dull thoughts, even depression and fear. In white rooms, people feel cold more often. This is due to the fact that white is associated with hospitals, with snow, ice. White is a hint of innocence, naivety. White clothes are more often worn by kind people, but coldish, not inclined to succumb to emotions. Refined, restless people often strive to create a light "White Garden". White flowers are a symbol of nobility, purity, purity.The White Garden is created by:
snowdrops, lilies of the valley, daffodils, tulips, hyacinths, peonies, anemones, alissum, phlox, lilies, astilba, gladioli, gypsophila, white chrysanthemums, roses, irises, chamomile, delphiniums, clematis. Trees and shrubs blooming with white flowers: lilac, hydrangea, bird cherry, spirea, mock orange, etc. Some trees have white bark and shoots: birch, narrow-leaved elk. White color is present in the color of variegated or white-bordered leaves: hosta, phlox, white dogwood, Drummond maple, barberry, weigela, brunner, kupena, sweet lungwort. Plants with silvery foliage can also be attributed to the white garden, these are: white poplar, sea buckthorn, silvery elk, cineraria, decorative wormwood, yaskolka, edelweiss, chisetz, etc.). White and silver - and an atmosphere of celebration and solemnity will appear in your garden. And in the evenings, the white garden shimmers in the dark, giving the garden a mystery.
Blue - has a calming effect, allows us to relax on hot days, creates the illusion of coolness. Blue is wisdom, loyalty, dispassion and calmness.
We associate with a clear spring sky and water. In a very hot room, blue and light blue will create a feeling of freshness, and a small room will be visually larger. And of course, blue reminds us of the sea, distant travels and hot countries, will give us courage and energy. If you like second thoughts, blue is very suitable for you. However, too much blue can cause a feeling of self-doubt, a feeling of depression. Discreet, humble, and patient people often plant blue and blue flowers in their garden, which characterize peace and openness. The blue-blue range of flower beds expands the space, refreshes the garden, balances the bright colors. To create a "blue garden" use:
prolesku, brunner, forget-me-nots, lungwort, nigella, periwinkle, ageratum, cyanosis, aconite, cornflowers, delphiniums, gentian, lobelia, platycodon, clematis, meconopsis, irises, bells, etc. blue hosts, tenacious, blue flax, etc. Flowers and leaves in the garden of the blue-blue scale are complemented by blue large-leaved hydrangea.
Green is the color of health, expressed in volitional activity and the strength of the mind. Very good for mood and allows us to dream. Green - the main color of the foliage of the spring and summer garden, has a calming effect on us. The green color is complemented by silvery, golden, bronze, purple foliage of some plants. The motley leaves are very elegant: with specks, border, veins.
Purple is night, mystery, mysticism, sadness, calamity, old age, eclipse. It is the color of the starry night, air, smelling of tropical flowers. Violet is mysterious, extravagant, but not intimidating. Purple is the color of intellectuals. Both shy, rather timid, and open-hearted people, as well as people who dream of travel, dress in purple. Fans of all the mysterious are very attracted by the purple color, it casts extraordinary fantasies. The "Purple Garden" is created by:
irises, delphiniums, clematis, viola, heliotrope, anemones, tradescantia, roses, tulips, crocuses, phloxes, bows, etc. Shiny shrubs with purple tinge. scumpia purple. Rhododendrons bloom with purple flowers.
Meanwhile, being combined with each other, colors also have a special effect on a person:
Yellow with white - cause a feeling of lethargy and apathy.
Yellow with blue-green - a feeling of coolness, calmness and coldness.
Yellow with purple - create ceremonial compositions.
Yellow, red and orange - evoke cheerful feelings, raise vital energy.
Yellow with yellow-green - evoke refreshing and joyful feelings.
Red with white - make the contours of the flower garden not sharp, blur the boundaries.
Red, green and yellow - very energizing and invigorating.
Red with purple - cause lethargy and weakness.
Red with blue is a very energetic combination, it is dynamics and life affirmation.
Red with gray - a large amount of gray gives severity, the predominance of red evokes pleasant, warm feelings.
Red with black - depressing.
Blue and white evoke a feeling of coolness and purity.
Blue and green are static and cold compositions.
Blue with orange - cause activity and excitement.
Green with orange - a sense of joy and brightness.
Green with white is a very restrained and cool combination.
Purple with green evoke a sense of unreality.
Flowers on the site are present mainly in flower beds. When flowers and ornamental plants are located on the site "just like that" - they are just plants, and if they are "organized" in a special way, this is already a design. We can say that flower beds are certain flower arrangements with corresponding attributes. How exactly to arrange flower beds? And how to make your flower garden the most beautiful with your own hands?
To do this, you need to know what is their design and, therefore, the technology for their creation, what types of flower beds exist and, finally, what are the rules for the selection and combination of plants in a flower garden.
Free flower beds are flower beds without any framing, with a free layout. But in fact, there is a frame, it is simply not visible. But it is necessary for your flower garden to be neat. The flower garden is separated from the lawn with special flexible vinyl "bumpers", which are dug into the ground almost completely, no more than 2-3 cm of material remains on top. Or you can make a dump of decorative gravel along the edge of the flower garden (first make a "line", framing around the perimeter with a lining of black film, and then pour gravel on the film). Also, free flower beds are those that are arranged in modules among the pavements and on gravel "lawns".
A free flower garden not only does not have noticeable borders and not only has an arbitrary shape. Another characteristic feature of it is that its surface is flush with the surface of the earth.
Flowerbeds are flower beds with a noticeable frame, that is, with bumpers. What do the sides depend on? From the style of the garden and from the materials that are used from the decor of the garden. The design of the flower beds should correspond to the general concept. In general, there is practically no such material that would not be suitable for flower bed borders. You can use any natural and artificial stone, concrete, brick, vibration casting, forging, metal strip, wattle, boards, logs and saw cuts, ready-made fences for flower beds in the form of a "constructor". Also, you can be creative with flower bed fences and use any items of a completely different purpose for this: old boats, trolley wheels, suitcases, baskets and the like.
Flower borders are both flower beds and not flower beds. They themselves can be somehow framed, or they can be free. But the main thing is that they themselves are a frame for something: paths, playgrounds, lawns. In other words, a curb is a "frame" for some landscape object.
Multidimensional flower beds are volumetric flower beds with an unusual "appearance". We can say that these are flower beds-compositions. You can make a flower garden on a hill, a flower garden, which will include a fountain or an alpine slide, or maybe your flower garden will be made in the form of a “flowering sofa” or a cute hedgehog? Making such flower beds is not difficult at all.
The selection of plants depends on the style of your site and your personal preference. But, nevertheless, there are certain types of flower beds. within which you need to show imagination.
Mixed flower gardens contain a mixture of all kinds of plants, namely, they may contain annuals, perennials, shrubs and even conifers. Perennial flower beds suggest the presence of decorative deciduous perennials and perennial flowers in them.
Summer flower beds are the brightest and most colorful. Only annuals are planted in them, these are flower beds for one season.
Mono flower beds are not flower beds of one flower, but rather flower beds of one idea. To make such a flower garden, you need to choose either plants of the same type, with the same flowers or flowers of the same color, or plants of different types, but blooming flowers of the same color.
Take two flower gardens: a flower garden of only yellow viola and a flower garden of a variety of plants, with flowers of all shades of yellow: calendula, marigolds, nasturtium, yellow zinnia, yellow tulips, daffodils and decorative terry sunflowers. Both flower beds are called mono flower beds, only the first is called a flower garden of one plant, and the second is called a flower garden of the same color.
Containerized flower beds are small, handy, "mobile" flower beds. In the garden, they will always help out, always "in the wings" and will help to decorate with flowers those corners of the garden where planting flowers is impossible. But that's not all: containers are part of the author's garden, because you can decorate them yourself in the desired style. They can be painted, painted on their own or on a stencil, tied with bamboo or branches, made textured, "aged", pasted over with shells, mosaics, coins, glass pebbles, vinyl borders for wallpaper (under varnish), pebbles, CD-disks, wrap with ropes. And you can also make them yourself, using various items for a completely different purpose for this purpose. What do you say about drift container, chain container, boat container, ball container. You can also make a container from a bucket, a glass jar, an iron, garden rubber shoes, and coconut shells. Plants in containers are very simple, only you need to provide for especially good drainage, and the plants are watered and fed much more often than in the open field.
It also happens according to the rules. Create a composition in your flower garden
Tiering principle. Plants in flower beds should be planted on a tiered basis. Each flower garden can be such that it can be viewed from all sides or only from some. If the flower garden can be viewed from all sides, then the tallest plants are planted in the center, if only partially, then in the background.
Asymmetry principle. The flower arrangement will look better if it is somewhat asymmetrical.
Scientific selection of color combinations. Color combinations in a flower garden are best chosen according to the color wheel. However, there are win-win combinations: blue - yellow, orange - blue, crimson - silver, pink - white. Far close. In the distance, dark and gray shades look better, and in the foreground - yellow and red. White always adds light - it's the perfect background color.
Curtains. Most types of flowers are best planted in a flower garden in clumps, and not one by one, that is, use a bouquet planting.
Continuous flowering principle. Match the types of flowers for a continuous flowering garden.This means that there should be flowers in the flower garden, replacing each other during the season, and for each season, select at least 3 - 4 types of plants.
Remember the composition of the garden as a whole. Since there will be many flower beds in your garden, combine them into a single composition using repeats of certain plants in different flower beds.
Combine vegetables and flowers in flower beds.
Try to consider the flower beds as small paving stones. It resembles garden modules, but a module is a fairly large object located in a pavement gap, but flower beds-elements are tiny modules arranged in the same way as individual tiles in a paving could be located. Combine flower beds with lighting.
Use unusual supports for flowers and shrubs. Some of them you can do yourself.
Hanging containers are a classic. See what will change if there are a lot of them. You will end up with real flower "curtains" on the wall, say, a gazebo. Use decorative sedges and cereals in flower beds.
Use garden sculptures and figurines in flower beds. Sometimes objects that are atypical for flower beds can also be considered garden sculpture, but nevertheless it is worth trying them in this role - for example, an old globe, a lamp, a ladder or a vase. A flower bed on a lawn can be in the form of a ring. Use colored gravel to decorate flower beds.
The tree trunks can be turned into flower beds for shade-tolerant plants.
A fashionable idea is a flower garden of only wild flowers framed by natural stone or in a log.
Introduce plants with an "exotic", unusual "appearance" into your flower beds. These can be the most common plants, but with unusual colors for them, for example, pink calendula.
Combine flowers, shrubs and short conifers within the same flower garden.
Actively use mirrors and ceramics in flower beds.
Decorate your rose garden with decorative gravel, glittery balls and mirror tiles. Roses and mirrors are the most successful combination.
Let some flower beds in your garden be green, that is, composed only of decorative deciduous perennials. As an exception, plants with green flowers can be added to such a flower garden.
Arrange a vertical flower garden - combine various climbing and ampelous plants together. Even several different varieties of clematis together are no longer just vertical gardening, but a vertical flower garden.
The flower garden can be located on the water, more precisely in shallow water: it is a collection of separate large containers located in a very shallow (no more than 10 cm) reservoir. The flower garden can be made in the form of a "clock" or in the form of an artist's "palette".
The whole garden can be a flower garden if many separate small flower beds are “scattered” over the entire area of the garden. These flower beds can be connected with each other by various garden decorations.
The sides of the flower bed can be faced with ceramic tiles with a pattern. A flower garden, even the simplest one, will become quite difficult if you select it, like a picture, with a frame. This frame can be placed on the ground, but it is best if it is raised slightly, creating a slight slope.
The sides of the flower bed can be made of metal, for example, galvanized. Oddly enough, this option is suitable not only for high-tech style. There are ordinary garden figurines, and there are very large ones. Such figures themselves serve as a "showcase" for placing container plants. For example, a ship, a beehive or the Eiffel Tower. Well, such a figure should also stand surrounded by flowers. Decorate your flower garden with a graceful decorative bridge.
The flower bed can be organized in the form of a "balcony" with a fence made of low curly balusters.
Organize a large flower garden at the intersection of several main paths. Then it will be a kind of "main square".
A wheelbarrow is always a good container. Large cars look especially advantageous.
Maybe you are the owner of some old thing, for example, a cart? The best option for an unusual flower garden is difficult to find.
Mirrored containers are so pretty. Mirror containers are so easy: just cover rectangular wooden boxes with mirrored plates. The most common containers will become unusual if used in an unusual way. For example, stack one on top of the other.
When the start of the day starts with good feelings, then the whole day is better and more fun. The content of the plants is quite satisfactory.
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Echinacea and rudbeckia came to our gardens
Famous "American women"
Outwardly, these plants are echinacea and rudbeckia (Astrovye family), which are home to the prairies and forests of the southeastern states of the United States, as twins are very similar. The center of their inflorescences looks like a slightly elongated thorny bump.
And it is no coincidence that the first Europeans, having arrived in the New World, gave them one name - coneflower (translated as "cone flower"). Later, in the middle of the 18th century, botanists named both plants "rudbeckia" after the Swedish naturalist Rudbeck. And only four decades later, having finally figured it out, they isolated echinacea in a separate genus Echinaceae (Greek Echinus - "hedgehog"), linking the name with the same cones with hard spiny bracts.
The site is intended for amateur gardeners and landscape designers of the NORTH-WEST REGION and its CLIMATE ANALOGUES. All site materials are copyrighted, original, based on the recommendations and advice of professionals: biologists, agronomists and landscape designers, as well as on the personal experience of amateur gardeners.
A BEAUTIFUL GARDEN at the suburban area of the North-West: landscape design, garden planning, garden planting, gardening, planting and caring for plants.
DEVICE OF THE GARDEN. Examples of compositions are offered by gardeners and landscape designers: front garden, flower bed, flower garden, vegetable garden, hedge, alpine slide, orchard, garden in the shade, pond, rock garden.
PLANTS FOR THE GARDEN. Conifers: spruce, thuja, juniper, pine, fir, larch. Flowering shrubs: rhododendron, lilac, jasmine, hydrangea, spirea, Japanese quince. Roses: varieties, cultivation, shelter for the winter. Perennial flowers: peonies, asters, hosts, chrysanthemums, astilbe. Trees and shrubs, annuals, fruit and berry crops: apple, pear, cherry, plum, currant.
PLANT PROTECTION. Shelter for the winter, diseases and pests, weed control. WALK IN THE GARDEN. A virtual tour of the gardens of the world and the Leningrad region for those who like to watch the author's gardens.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. How to create a beautiful northern garden? How to buy a seedling? How to choose a type and variety? Why didn't the plants bloom? Will wisteria grow? What plants are suitable for clay? High groundwater, how to drain?
There is an opinion that growing perennials from seeds is an extremely difficult business that requires special knowledge. This is partly true, but only for some plants. Among the perennial flowers, there are many that any beginner can cope with growing through sowing.
Is it worth planting perennials at all when they can be purchased in any garden center and even in the nearest supermarket? This is a trick question. The cost of planting material is growing every year, and if you need a lot of plants of the same species or variety at once, this will hit your pocket hard. In addition, not all perennials can be found on sale, and even more so in the right amount. First of all, this concerns rare species of plants, many of which are listed in the Red Book. Try, for example, to buy yellowing chamber with flowers of delicious vanilla color! You can get it only by growing it from seeds. Some perennials cannot be propagated by dividing the bush, and then seed reproduction again comes to the rescue.
In the photo: Yellowing lumbago in nature
A complete list of perennials for sowing seedlings: Alpine Arabis (rezukha), mountain cornflower, hybrid Gaillardia, autumn helenium, paniculata gypsophila, eastern doronicum, black cohosh, branched, racemose and simple, Carpathian bells, milk-flowered and peach-leaved, large-flowered coreopsis, oriental lupine, multifoliate large-flowered platycodon (shirokokolokolchik), brilliant rudbeckia, Caucasian scabiosa, virginian physicalostegia, alpine edelweiss, purpurea echinacea, etc.
In the photo: Milky-flowered bell
The seeds of these perennials germinate easily and develop rather quickly. Therefore, they can be sown directly into the ground in the garden plot, as soon as the ground thaws and warms up a little. This usually happens in late April or early May. You need to choose a specific time for sowing, taking into account the characteristics of your garden. For example, soils with a high content of sand (sandy loam) dry out quickly. This means that you need to sow almost immediately after the snow melts, otherwise then the seeds will not have enough moisture for germination. Conversely, in damp, flooded areas in spring, you need to wait until the soil dries out a little, because the seeds are likely to rot in the "swamp". If you do not have enough experience to choose the right moment, focus on more advanced neighbors.
A complete list of perennials for sowing: Spring adonis, hybrid aquilegia, forest anemone, garden delphinium, marsh marigold, spring swimsuit, small-bulbous (galanthuses, crocuses, woodworms, corydalis), eastern and black hellebores, noble liverwort, lumbago (dream-grass), etc.
Photo: This luxurious aquilegia can be grown from seeds.
The seeds of these perennials quickly lose their germination, and in some (hellebores, lumbago, corydalis) they also do not tolerate overdrying. The longer they are stored after harvest, the less chance of seeing seedlings, but freshly harvested they germinate easily and amicably. Such perennials can also be sown directly into the ground or into containers, but as soon as possible.
The catch is that the seeds of the new harvest usually go on sale after the end of the season. Therefore, if your friends or neighbors with whom you are on good terms already have such impatient "plants, it is better to collect seeds from them yourself.
In addition, many private nurseries and collectors, knowing about this feature, offer the seeds of these perennials for sale immediately after collection.
In the photo: Corydalis seeds are best sown immediately after harvest
Seeds ripen at different times, because some of these plants bloom very early, such as hellebores and corydalis, and others, say the same delphiniums, at least a month and a half later. But in general, perennials blooming in spring and early summer are sown no later than late June - early July. This is the hottest time of the year, so crops need regular moisture to keep them from drying out. For those who are in the garden only on weekends, this is not an easy task. In addition, the seeds and seedlings of some plants are so small that growing them right in the garden is an almost impossible mission (unlike self-seeding, when nature does everything for you). Therefore, in the summer, preference should still be given to containers: it will be easier to care for and observe the seedlings.
When sowing in the ground for perennials, special distribution ridges are allocated. Their seedlings develop more slowly in comparison with summer plants, and bloom in the second and even in the third year after sowing. In the first summer of life, they need additional attention, and they will still look unpresentable. Therefore, it is better to forget about sowing directly into flower beds. But there are exceptions to any rule, and some plants are sown immediately to a permanent place. Due to the peculiarities of the structure of the root system (taproot that goes deep into the ground), they do not tolerate transplanting well even at a young age. Such "couch potatoes" include gypsophila, milk-flowered bell, lupine, oriental poppy, blueheads, etc.
In the photo: Any suitable container can be used for sowing.
As for containers, their choice is very wide and it is easy to find suitable ones. To save money, you can take, for example, plastic trays with high sides, which sell semi-finished meat products, wash them thoroughly and make drainage holes.
When sowing in containers, the correct substrate is of paramount importance. It should be based on peat. This is what is sold under the name "Seedling Soil". Components for looseness and moisture retention must be added to it (after all, the peat itself dries up very quickly). The most popular option is perlite or vermiculite in a 2: 1 ratio (one third of the total). Sifted sand can be used instead. But the list of additives is not limited to this. For example, hellebores and adonis prefer alkaline soil, so it is good to add limestone grains or crushed shells, generally intended for feeding chickens, to the seed substrate. Liverworts and forest lumbago, on the contrary, are lovers of "sour". For them, it is better to mix peat with rotted coniferous litter and finely chopped sphagnum moss (you can buy it).
In the photo: The composition of the sowing soil depends on the specific plant
The planting depth of the seeds depends on their size. The thickness of the soil layer, which they are sprinkled with, is equal to the size of an individual seed. And the smallest ones do not need to be repaired at all: they are scattered over the surface.
Sowings made in the ground are covered with a thin spunbond or film to retain moisture. The non-woven material can be left after germination, but the film can be removed.
The containers are covered with a lid, foil or glass, or placed in a plastic bag. Condensation formed on them must be removed regularly.
A beautiful garden is the result of hard work and systematic care. But the frantic pace of life does not always allow you to pay enough attention to your favorite plants, and changing climatic conditions constantly require regular investments. Prolonged absence of rain, persistent heat, low air humidity, dry winds are sad signs of drought and a dangerous period for plants. Many of them feel depressed, and even frequent watering does not always give the desired result. And the owners of garden plots have a hard time in terms of making great efforts to maintain the decorativeness of the garden. This was the reason for inviting unpretentious plants for drought-resistant gardens to their plots.
Planting drought-resistant plants greatly facilitates the solution of the above problems, especially since their range is large enough to create a beautiful garden that does not require much maintenance. And it's not just about "immortal" stonecrops. For me, a good example of drought-resistant gardens is, first of all, the landscape solutions of Pete Udolph. In his works, the famous designer seeks to recreate the naturalness of nature in densely populated metropolitan areas and create small-care gardens on country estates. With the help of unpretentious and, perhaps, a little unexpected for our perception of plants, Udolph achieves a year-round decorative effect of the garden, significantly reducing the cost of its maintenance.
Burnet, echinacea and chamomile, all kinds of cereals, monarda, mordovnik, foxglove, lovage, fennel - this is not a complete list of the "building material" of the master of landscape affairs. Gardens enchanting with beauty and simplicity are created by careful selection of plants.
Before you subtract lists of drought-resistant flowers on the Internet and start actively populating your garden with them, you should pay attention to how plants behave when there is a lack of moisture. They react in different ways - some freeze or stop in development, for example, cereals, others dry out, as the previously accumulated water reserves are depleted - succulents. And still others, like the escholzia plant, have time to develop, bloom and, in the form of seeds, wait for fertile rain and suitable weather conditions for development.
In botany, there is a definition of "xerophytes" - these are plants that are able to adapt to drought conditions. They are divided, according to a number of characteristics, into two categories:
1. Succulents - succulent plants with a well-developed surface system and parenchymal aquiferous tissue. It is in it that the necessary supply of moisture is contained, which helps the plant to survive the dry period. This group also includes stonecrops, sedums, lichen, prickly pear.
2. Sclerophytes - have a powerful root system, hard leaves that do not store water, but at the same time prevent evaporation due to their special structure. Therefore, with a loss of 25% of their own moisture, they are able to maintain decorativeness without losing turgor. Typical representatives of this group are juniper, lavender, feather grass.
Drought-resistant plants have adapted to survive in extreme conditions for a long evolutionary period and already "ready-made" came to our gardens from forests, steppes, mountains. That is, literally for every landscape composition, you can pick up the appropriate drought-resistant plants.
Trees and tall shrubs create on our plots not only the desired shade in the summer heat, but also a certain microclimate that favorably affects all the inhabitants of the garden. I will give a small list of plants that are resistant to long dry periods in our regions.
Yellow acacia (Caragana arborescens) - perfectly tolerates dry air and soil. Features: a two-time crown haircut is required, otherwise the lower tier is strongly exposed. Mature plants do not need feeding.
Aralia Manchurian (Aralia mandshúrica Rupr. Et Maxim.), Or tall Aralia (Arália eláta) - a spectacular tree or shrub. It is used in hedges and in single plantings. Features: superficial root system, requires careful care. The roots are located radially at a depth of 10-25 cm, thus diverging to a distance of 5 m, after which they sharply bend in depth to 60 cm.
Barberry (Bérberis) - almost all types and varieties of this genus of shrubs are suitable for planting in a drought-resistant garden. Used as tapeworms, in group plantings, to create hedges.
Birch (Bétula) is a common beauty that needs no introduction. Let me remind you that sanitary pruning should be carried out before the start of sap flow.
European spindle tree (Euonymus europaeus) is a tall shrub. Shade-tolerant, tolerates pruning and transplanting well. Used as a tapeworm, as well as in group plantings, hedges and rockeries. Features: all types of euonymus are poisonous.
Privet (Ligústrum) is a deciduous shrub that perfectly adapts to all conditions of detention. Suitable for hedges, low curbs, and for creating topiary figures.
Action (Déutzia) is a spectacular flowering shrub. Used as a tapeworm and for creating hedges. Features: when cutting, remember that flowering takes place on last year's shoots.
Cotoneaster (Cotoneáster) - all types of this shrub are ideal for creating a drought-resistant garden. They are easy to form and make good companions for most garden plants.
Loch narrow-leaved (Elaeágnus angustifólia) is a spectacular shrub or tree from the steppe regions of the country. Easily adapts to all conditions and soils. Well tolerates haircuts, suitable for creating hedges and as a tapeworm. Features: fruits are edible, blooms and bears fruit from 3 years of age, does not "shoot" root shoots.
Louisiana three-lobed (Louiseania triloba) is a spectacular shrub. During the flowering period in April - May, it needs watering, but in the future it normally tolerates dry air and soil. Looks good against the background of conifers.
Robinia false acacia (Robínia pseudoacácia) is a fast growing tree. Well tolerates pruning and replanting, undemanding to soils. Features: on waterlogged soils, it suffers from freezing of the root system.
Lilac (t. Syrínga) is a well-known shrub, resistant to any air pollution, as well as frost and drought. Features: flowering and faded branches should be carefully cut with a sharp pruner or knife so as not to damage the emerging new flower buds.
Skumpia leather (Cotinus coggýgria) - thanks to its smoky panicles, the shrub retains its decorative effect at any time of the year. Features: begins to bloom at the age of 4–5 years, lime must be added when planting.
Almost all conifers - junipers, pines, larch trees - are well suited for creating a drought-resistant garden. Selectively you need to approach the choice of thuja and spruce - some varieties at any age need fertile and moist soils.
Almost all conifers - junipers, pines, larch trees - are well suited for creating a drought-resistant garden.
Sofiero Palace Park is located 5 km from the city of Helsingborg, on the Swedish coast of the Øresund Strait, which connects the North and Baltic Seas. Only a small strip of water 4 km wide separates Sweden from Denmark in this place, where on the opposite bank you can see the outlines of Kronborg - the famous Hamlet castle in Helsingor.
Sofiero Palace was erected in 1864 when the Swedish crown prince (heir to the throne) Oskar acquired the Skabelycke farm north of Helsinborg in order to build a summer residence for the royal family here. Construction was completed the following year, but the appearance of the palace, which Oscar named Sofiero after his wife Sofia Nassau, was somewhat different at the time. In the period from 1874 to 1876. Oscar II, who had already become king by that time, reconstructed the palace, giving it the look that we can see today.
In 1905, the king presented Sofiero's palace for a wedding to his eldest grandson, Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf and his wife Margaret Victoria Charlotte Augusta Norah. The couple restored many of the interiors of the palace, and the prevailing dark colors gave way to bright and light colors. There was no garden at that time, only on the eastern side of the palace there were lawns with plantings of chestnuts, beeches, acacias and paulownias. The gorge leading to the sea was overgrown with weeds, impassable and dark.
Gustav Adolf and Margarita mapped out the territory and began work on the arrangement of the space around the palace. Crown Princess Margaret came from a noble English family, whose members were engaged in gardening, and was an adherent of the Art and Crafts style, which originated in England and was popular at that time. While working in the garden, she even published several books: Our Garden in Sofiero (1915) and In the Blooming Garden (1917). The books were richly illustrated with photographs taken in the garden by the princess herself and the royal photographer Alfred Nilsson.
In a short time, the royal couple managed to create an English Garden with a Winery, Queen Ingrid's Fragrant Garden, Pleasure Garden, Victorian Food Garden, many flower borders and paths. To protect the plantings from the wind, decorative trellises were installed in the garden, which were quickly overgrown with hops, honeysuckle, clematis and tree trees.
In 1920, at the age of 38, Margaret of Connaught died, and Prince Gustav Adolphus married again - to Lady Louise Mountbatten. With no less enthusiasm than Margarita, Louise was busy with the garden, interested in the life of the townspeople and neighbors.
Until 1973, Sofiero Palace was the official summer residence of the Swedish royal family. After the death of King Gustav VI Adolf in 1973, Sofiero's estate was bequeathed to the Municipal Council of Helsinborg. Unfortunately, over the next two decades, the gardens fell into decay and desolation. In 1993, the government allocated funds for extensive restoration work on the former royal residence, marking a new turning point in Sofiero's history.
The most beautiful time in the palace park is spring, when it is time for the flowering of numerous rhododendrons, the first of which appeared in Sofiero in 1907 thanks to Princess Margaret. It was she who, to decorate the new estate, brought several young specimens of this plant from her ancestral English estate Bagshot Park.Currently, these are powerful trees about eight meters high.
Most of the rhododendrons were planted here by Gustav Adolf himself. It was his famous collection that gave the gardens such fame. The king not only loved his summer residence immensely, where he spent a lot of time, but he himself was engaged in breeding rhododendrons in a small nursery near the garden. There were greenhouses and outdoor areas with different temperature conditions and varying degrees of illumination. Each year, about 40 new species were sown in the nursery or planted by cuttings, brought to Sofiero from all over the world. Seed and planting material was constantly exchanged with many botanical gardens and parks, including the Botanical Garden of Gothenburg, Kew Gardens in London, the Botanical Garden of Edinburgh, Windsor Park.
Since the 1930s, King Gustav Adolphus has planted many varieties and hybrids of rhododendrons in the park, bred by such famous breeders as Ernest Wilson, George Forrest, Frank Kingdon Ward and Joseph Rock. The ravines and ravines to the south and north of the palace are well protected from adverse weather conditions, but at the same time, they are sufficiently illuminated to create ideal conditions for rhododendrons to thrive. Soil indicators - low acidity, looseness, porosity and good drainage - also favor their growth and development.
The harsh winters of the 1940s did not pass by Sofiero either. Many plants in the park died and the king had to work hard to restore his collection. Nurseries in England and Germany rendered invaluable help. The famous botanist of the past, Professor Bertil Lindquist wrote in his notes about King Gustav Adolf: “His Majesty himself was engaged in the acquisition and care of plants, and also directed the planting process in the garden. He kept records of the plants with his own hand. His card index of rhododendrons demonstrates meticulous attention to detail - not only the origin of each plant is noted, but also the parameters related to the growing season, as well as further paths of the seed material of these plants. "
By the time of the death of King Gustav VI Adolf in 1973, Sofiero had about 5,000 specimens of rhododendrons and more than 500 species of them. Today there are about 10 thousand rhododendrons in the park. The Scottish nursery Glendoick and the German nursery Hans Hachmann made a significant contribution to the replenishment of the collection with modern varieties. Through contacts with various institutions and individuals, it was possible to obtain many rare combs and varieties brought by the Kunming-Gothenburg Botanical expedition in 1993 from the southern Chinese province of Yunnan. In 2005, these plants were transferred to Sofiero on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the garden. Planting and observation of rhododendrons continues to this day.
Sofiero Palace Park, whose territory today is about 15 hectares, is, of course, not only magnificent rhododendrons. Here, in all its diversity, local plants are presented, collected from the shores of the Øresund Strait. Lovers of ornamental flowering plants will surely appreciate the impressive, far-reaching flower gardens that decorate the ancient stone walls that separate the different areas of the garden. Here you can see clusters of thorny purple liatrises and lilac bluebells, large plots with purple phlox, dark pink clouds from the steep sap, and, of course, mallow with flowers of all kinds of shades - lemon, crimson, pink, white and lilac, with translucent petals, especially decorative when illuminated by the sun. Mallows growing in Sofiero reach a height of more than two meters and multiply in plantings by self-sowing.
In front of the flower beds are numerous white cosmeas, yellow echinacea, coral antirrinums, hosts with lovely bluish-green leaves, bright green sedum pillows, silvery purse, and dark purple lobelia. On the way, we come across several openwork arbors, entwined with climbing roses of the 'Dorothy Perkins' variety. This profusely blooming rose with tiny pink flowers was a favorite plant of Princess Margarita.
The regular garden of sheared boxwood hedges forming squares and diagonals is called the Pleasure Garden.The inner spaces of the squares are sown with delicate flowering plants that tune in a romantic mood - purple verbena, purple heliotrope, pink foxglove, raspberry carnation, cream gaura and white gypsophila. In the center of each square, on towering pedestals, vases are set, surrounded by garden geraniums. The garden is enlivened by boxwood bushes, sheared in the form of chicken, duck and fish.
Passing through the rose garden, through the vegetable garden and the fruitful vineyards planted even when the garden was laid, you will find yourself on a lawn with a magnificent collection of dahlias of all kinds of colors and shades. It is especially interesting to look at this riot of colors through the "windows" of a tall linden hedge. Each variety of dahlia grows separately from the others, in an array against the backdrop of an emerald lawn. Among all these varieties with huge flowers, special attention is deservedly used: 'Otto's Thrill', 'Pink Skin', 'Pompon Roze', 'Spartacus' and 'Arabian Night'.
Further down the gravel road, you will find a wide lawn surrounded by a double grassy curb. On the one hand, annuals and perennials of warm colors prevail, on the other - cold ones. At the height of summer, it is especially decorative here: snapdragons, phloxes, nasturtiums, geleniums, coreopsis and blue sage. This part of the garden was created in honor of the anniversary of Princess Margaret. From here, through thickets of balsam and wild-growing herbs, the road descends by steps into a hollow, leads past a ravine overgrown with primroses with a stream, and then past a pond and thickets of rhododendrons. From this point of the garden, there is a beautiful view of the Sofiero Palace, as well as the restaurant and observation deck located next to it.
The season during which the palace, shops, restaurant and café are open starts in April and lasts until the end of September. However, you can visit Sofiero and book an orientation tour at any other time.
Exhibitions and exciting events in the beautiful park take place regularly and are well worth seeing. A small permanent exhibition of contemporary art is always open here.
In 2010, the Sofiero Palace Park was recognized by experts from six countries of the world as the best park in Europe. Cecilia Wonge, the current chief gardener of the park, also spoke at the awards ceremony, which took place within the walls of the palace. She noted that Sofiero is the first Swedish park to receive such a high award, and, first of all, it owes this success to King Gustav VI Adolphus and Crown Princess Margaretha - "for their excellent work with flowers and forms that laid the foundation of the park."