1. Covering the raspberry with the snow that has fallen to prevent freezing of the shoots in the event of severe frosts when the level of snow cover is still insufficient. Then, throughout the winter, it is necessary to control that the raspberry bushes are constantly under the snow.
Raspberries are a good berry, of course, but the problem is that it is not easy for gardeners. The love for it on the part of winged pests is already very strong: it is attacked by numerous weevils and raspberry beetles, helping us in every way to "cope" with the ripening crop. And she also has a lot of diseases. All this greatly complicates obtaining the desired harvest. I will not list all pests and all raspberry diseases. I will name only those of them that are the most annoying in our zone.
One of the most unpleasant and completely untreatable diseases is considered to be a viral mosaic, which almost all varieties of garden raspberries suffer from - this disease can be determined by the presence of yellow spots on the leaves of raspberries, which alternate with green ones, as a result of which the leaves really very much resemble a mosaic. Most often, the disease is brought in with planting material. If its symptoms are found, the plants are dug up and destroyed. And in the future, raspberries are no longer planted on this place (in general, according to official recommendations, the land where the affected bushes grew must be kept under steam for a year). I have never had a global damage to plantings with mosaics, and in isolated cases I just replaced this land, because if, in an extremely limited space of the raspberry tree, part of the land is not yet used, then too much waste will turn out.
In wet years, a lot of harm is caused by the usual gray rot, which affects leaves, buds, flowers, berries and even shoots. It manifests itself in almost the same way as on strawberries. The most effective remedy to combat it is Trichodermine (100 g for 2 buckets of water). It is best to spray twice - before flowering and immediately after harvest. The second spraying with Trichodermine should be carried out no later than a week before harvesting, otherwise the berries will smell like mushrooms.
Another incurable disease of raspberries is considered to be curliness. The leaves of diseased plants become lumpy and chlorotic. The shoots are very thick and grow poorly, the flowers bloom on these shoots, but the berries are not tied. Gradually, the diseased bush dies. The disease cannot be treated, so such bushes have to be removed.
Overgrowth is less common, but no less unpleasant. It is characterized by the fact that the affected plants form a huge mass of weak growth (up to 200 shoots per bush). Naturally, normal shoots from such a growth cannot be formed, and the plant also has to be destroyed.
Raspberry purple spot and anthracnose are some of the relatively easy-to-treat diseases. Both of them show up as specific spots on trunks and shoots and can cause significant harm if no action is taken. With annual preventive treatments of raspberries with a 1% Bordeaux mixture (immediately after the leaves bloom and after harvesting), these diseases, I think, are not terrible.
One of the most unpleasant pests is, of course, the raspberry beetle. It is his larvae that feed on the contents of the berries during their ripening and are often found in them during the harvest period. Larvae and beetles overwinter in the soil at a depth of 15-20 cm, and in spring, after warming up the soil, they come to the surface. Therefore, it is extremely important to mulch the raspberry tree with a thick layer of manure: some of the pests that hibernated deeper simply will not be able to overcome such a path and will die. The females of raspberry beetles begin to actively move through the plants in order to lay eggs during the budding period. And at this moment it is necessary to spray with Intavir or another similar preparation in order to destroy at least part of our competitors. And when collecting berries, the larvae that come across must be destroyed.
During the period of budding, the strawberry-raspberry weevil begins to be actively active, pouncing on the unopened buds. To combat it, the same Intavir is used, spraying is carried out during the budding period.
An equally unpleasant pest is the raspberry fly, which severely damages young shoots. It begins to act at the moment the first growing shoots appear, laying eggs in the leaf axils. The larvae that appear from them bite into the stem, and the tip of the shoot withers, and then dies. The larva continues to dwell inside the shoot. Therefore, it is so important to inspect the raspberry tree weekly in order to see damaged shoots in time. They need to be cut or broken off below the point of damage and burned. If the damaged shoots are not cut out in time, the larvae gnaw through new holes, leave the shoots and go into the soil.
Naturally, the taste of berries of the same raspberry variety can vary greatly depending on the growing conditions. In other words, if you can create the most favorable conditions for the plants in your raspberry garden for their development, you can count on the ripening berries to be tasty and fragrant. True, one should not deny the fact that the choice of the variety also plays an important role. So, if you prefer sweet and flavorful raspberries:
Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg
Distinguishing by color of berries - the last thing - is completely unpromising. There are varieties of raspberries with yellow fruits, orange, apricot, pink, red, burgundy, purple and black. There are blackberry varieties (mostly grown in the USA) with white, yellow-orange, glossy black and burgundy fruits. Blackberry-raspberry hybrids have red, burgundy, black colors. I.e, by color - no way.
Thorny varieties, it seems, can be distinguished on the thorns - in raspberries, they are frequent, sharp, straight, in blackberries - healthy, bent and a lot of small ones. Although here everything is confused by black raspberries (great-grandfather - "Cumberland", he is already 130 years old, from the Russian - "Coal", "Luck", "Pivot", "Gift of Siberia"), her thorns are hard and bent, although smaller than blackberries ... There are also small ones, a kind of prickly hairiness. And the Yezhemalins have all sorts of options for thorns. Raspberries, blackberries, and raspberries are also available without thorns. It turns out that you can't really decide on the spikes either.
Yield the usual raspberries and blackberries are different: blackberries bear fruit much more abundantly. But here again the black raspberry comes in, which, by the way, has a yellow and burgundy shape. She, too, is far ahead of the usual raspberries in terms of productivity. The yield is comparable to the blackberry in terms of yield.
Taste raspberries and blackberries are very different and quite recognizable. And black raspberry tastes neither like raspberry nor blackberry. In contrast, ezhemalin has traits of both raspberries and blackberries, as well as additional flavoring bonuses, taste and aroma, as a rule, rich.
By the nature of the growth of shoots - raspberries give root shoots, blackberries and raspberries do not give, but they take root at the tops. But here again everything is confused by the black raspberry - it does not give root shoots and takes root at the tops. However, some varieties are reluctant to take root with their tops, purple "Glen Coe" (Glen Coe), eg.
Height - also not an indicator, there are dwarfs and giants among raspberries and blackberries. True, up to 5 meters, like blackberries, ordinary raspberries do not grow. But black raspberries are easy!
With berries it will turn out more precisely: the raspberries are ripe berry removed from the fruit, it is empty inside, and in blackberries, the berry (strictly speaking, drupe) grows to the fruit and comes off with it. Ezhemalin have different options, that's why they are hybrids. That is, the best option is to wait for the ripe berries, but do not shove them right into your mouth, but first see if they are empty inside or not?
Well flowers they are different - blackberries are larger and more decorative.
Both raspberries and blackberries belong to the same genus - Rubus. Therefore, they have the opportunity to interbreed in all kinds of combinations. They have been doing this for many millennia on their own, and now breeders have joined this fascinating process.
A hybrid of blackberries and raspberries. © Columbian Blog Directory
Scab is a very common disease caused by marsupials. Reaches greater distribution in areas with wet and cold springs. Many gardeners and truck farmers met with this ailment on.
Repaired raspberries are a group of certain varieties of raspberries that are capable of bearing fruit on annual and biennial shoots.
The remontant varieties practically do not differ from ordinary varieties, only remontant ones.
Many people know that cranberries are a very useful berry for the whole body. For Americans, this is a holiday berry that is consumed on Thanksgiving Day. The benefits are found only in fresh berries, but in.
The apple tree (from Lat. Mālus) is a tree that is grown all over the world. Nowadays, there are a huge number of apple varieties that can easily adapt to your climate and soil. The apple tree is pretty.
Gardeners know that the currant is a spreading bush. Therefore, the main task is to form a bush with 20 branches of different ages. During its life, currants bear fruit abundantly for about four years. Most bountiful harvest.
Blackberry is a semi-shrub with delicious black-purple berries. Growing garden blackberries is not easy. In this article, we will focus on important points in growing and nursing.
Hazelnut is a cultivated form of wild hazel, everyone's favorite nut, the most nutritious of all existing nuts. Its bush can grow up to 2.5-3 m, has a strong root. Leaves and fruits are slightly large in size.
Actinidia is a woody, deciduous, perennial vine from the Actinidiaceae family. The most famous fruit of the gourmet actinidia tree is the kiwi. The name of the plant is translated from Greek means.
Japanese quince (chaenomeles) - plants from the genome Chaenomeles and the Rosaceae family. Deciduous shrub that does not exceed 3 m in height. It gained its popularity thanks to its decorative apple fruits.
Lilac is a shrub from the Olive family. There are more than 2 thousand varieties in the world. They differ in shape, color, flower size, bush height, flowering time. It is believed that the lilac is named after.
Repaired raspberries are a group of certain varieties of raspberries that are capable of bearing fruit on annual and biennial shoots.
The remontant varieties practically do not differ from ordinary varieties, only remontant ones.
Correct and timely pruning of the shrubs of this delicious berry is the key to an excellent harvest. Each bush consists of one- and two-year-old shoots. Common raspberries begin to bear fruit the next year after planting and.
Raspberry is a famous thorny shrub of the Rosaceae family that has small white inflorescences. From them, fragrant and tasty berries of a beautiful color ripen. But, sadly, raspberries are susceptible to attack.
Probably everyone will agree that raspberries are one of the most favorite summer treats. In addition to sweet pleasure, this berry brings considerable health benefits, because raspberry jam is not only tasty, but.
Raspberries are harmed by adults leafhoppers (Macropsis fuscula). Eggs of leafhoppers overwinter on raspberry shoots at the very base; at the beginning of summer, pale yellow or green nymphs hatch from them, feeding on buds and fruits. In July, grayish-yellow or brownish adults emerge from the nymphs, sucking juice from the leaves.
After that, the leaves are covered with white dots, the growth of raspberries slows down, the berries become small.
Control measures for leafhoppers: in the spring, before flowering, and in the summer after picking berries, spray the plantings of raspberries with insecticides.
Lyachka is a common (not remontant) raspberry that bears fruit on two-year-old shoots. The beginning of fruiting earlier - often at the end of June in southern latitudes, berries begin to ripen. A feature of the variety is a prolonged yield period, the fruits ripen gradually, over a long period. In central Russia, the first fruits begin to be removed in mid-July, and in early September there may still be berries on the bushes.
The strength of growth is medium and strong, it all depends on the microconditions and care. Shoots grow from two to three meters (sometimes they can reach 3.5 meters). The stems are rigid, with a wax coating, in the upper part they are bent onion-like. There are many thorns, but they are not prickly, so harvesting is not difficult. On two-year-old stems, many rather long and well-branched laterals (fruiting shoots) are formed. The variety is not prone to strong growth, replacement shoots are formed in moderate quantities.
On the vigorous bushes of Lyachka raspberry, many branched fruiting shoots are formed
The berries are large, from 6 to 8 grams, can reach 10 grams with good care.The color is light red. Slightly pubescent surface. The shape is elongated-conical with a blunt end. The berries are dense, the drupe is small.
Large cone-shaped berries of Lyachka raspberry are light red in color, their weight is 6–8 g, with good care it can reach 10 g
The taste is balanced, sweet and sour, dessert. Tasting score - 9 points. When they are on the bushes for a long time, they do not crumble, but only gain sugar and lose acid. The fruits can be used universally.
Transportability is declared high, 9 points. However, opinions on transportability were divided. There are numerous reviews that good transportability is maintained only with timely harvest. If the berries are on the bushes for a long time, then they darken and after being picked, the next day they lose their presentation and flow. It can be concluded that you should not be late with the harvest if the berries are intended for transportation and sale.
With timely harvesting, dense Lyachka raspberries have high transportability
The average yield on an industrial scale is 170 c / ha, the maximum is 200 c / ha. Experienced gardeners with careful care received 4–5 kg of marketable products from one bush.
The yield of Lyachka raspberries is high, with the proper level of agricultural technology, you can get up to 5 kg of products from one bush
According to the description of the originator, as well as according to the reviews of the gardeners who grew Lyachka, abundant yield, large size and quality of berries are achieved only if optimal growing conditions are observed.
Winter hardiness and frost resistance are high - 9 points. Freezing of flower buds is 5-10%. According to reviews, the bushes withstood frosts down to -35 ° C. However, Lyachka has a peculiarity due to which plants do not always successfully endure winter.
Lyachka's winter dormancy period is very short - it is at the genetic level. As a variety with a prolonged fruiting period, plants vegetate for a long time in autumn, and due to early maturity they wake up early. In a climate characterized by alternating thaws and recurrent frosts, the kidneys freeze slightly. The roots remain viable and the plants recover successfully, but fruiting does not begin until the next season. Most often this happens in the mild climate of the southern latitudes of Russia and Ukraine. Bent and covered with snow shoots Lyachki more successfully endure winter in cold and snowy regions without thaws.
Lyachka raspberry bushes tolerate winters well under thick snow cover in the northern regions
Like many modern varieties, Lyachka is relatively resistant to common diseases (8 points) and pests (7–8 points) of raspberries. In the description of the variety, resistance to fading shoots and rotting berries is separately noted.
Raspberry is a shrub of the Pink family. It grows in the wild and is cultivated in horticulture. Raspberries are unpretentious in care, but in order to get a high-quality harvest, you need to follow the rules for their cultivation, otherwise it will be attacked by pests.
The culture is planted in the spring-autumn period in open sunny areas, since the plant loves light. You can plant raspberries in one place for no more than 7 years, after this period you should choose a new place for planting.
Raspberries are planted in spring and autumn. The plant prefers spacious, sunny areas. When growing, it must be borne in mind that raspberries are a light-loving culture. If you plant it in the shade, the shoots will stretch out. The plant does not make high demands on the composition of the soil, but the whims of specific varieties should be taken into account. Raspberries grow well in black soil, loamy soil. The optimum soil pH is 6. It is not recommended to plant the crop on tops or steep slopes. If you place raspberries on a hill, they will not have enough water.
A flat, slightly sloping area is ideal for this crop. Raspberries grow in one place for 7 years, after which they are transplanted. The culture draws a large amount of nutrients from the soil. In the 10th year, the soil becomes depleted. If raspberries grew on the selected garden plot, you should wait 6 years, and only then plant them again. Poor plant predecessors:
The best predecessors are legumes and grains.
To plant raspberries in spring, you need to make a trench at the beginning of March measuring 40 x 40 cm. The distance between the seedlings should be 50 cm, between the rows - 12 cm. The top layer of soil is mixed with fertilizers, the soil mixture is poured into the pit. Soil for raspberries is prepared as follows: take 10 kg of compost, 50 g of potassium sulfate, 450 g of wood ash and 80 g of granulated superphosphate. First, the mixture is loosened, then the seedling is placed. The replacement point should be just below the ground surface.
Care must be taken when planting. The roots are gently straightened. The pit is covered with soil mixture and compacted. For the convenience of watering, a small hole is formed. After the soil is saturated with moisture, you will need to add a mixture of humus, sawdust and dry straw, cut the seedling by 30 cm. Watering must be correct. If the weather is rainy, do not add water. Under normal conditions, the seedling is watered once every 7 days. It is recommended to plant the plant immediately after purchase, since the raspberry planting material is unsuitable for long-term storage.
The plot is prepared in 1.5 months. The earth is dug up to 30 cm, the weeds are removed. Rotted manure is used as fertilizer. Take 3 buckets of organic matter, add 200 g of superphosphate, 100 g of potassium sulfate. If you use such a composition when planting, in the future you will not need to make potassium-phosphorus fertilizers. Peat soil is enriched with sand. Take 30 kg per 1 m2. Raspberries are planted in late September or early October.
Last year's foliage is removed. In the weed grass, pests can hibernate, which lead to viral and fungal diseases. It is necessary to tie up the bushes. A 1 m long stake is placed near the bushes. It promotes uniform growth of raspberries. To build a trellis, it is necessary to dig up columns with a height of 1.5 m, pull the wire tightly in 2 rows. The first row is at a height of 70 cm, the second is 110 cm.
Twine is used to tie up raspberries. 2 years after planting, the third row is pulled at a height of 1.5 m. In the spring, organic matter is introduced in combination with mineral compositions. Fertilizer is prepared as follows. 5 g of urea is added to 10 liters of droppings. The composition is applied to the soil in the 20th of March. An alternative is to use nitrogen fertilizer. Requires 25 g per 1 m2. After applying top dressing, the soil is loosened.
It is necessary to provide the plant with a favorable wintering, for this the culture is covered. Mulching is performed in the middle of autumn. To control pests, insecticides are used or collected by hand. The earth is dug up to 10 cm. Compost and wood ash are added every 2 years. In autumn, it is better not to use nitrogen fertilizer, otherwise the growth of shoots will accelerate, which will lead to frostbite.
Raspberry care must be timely. At the beginning of October, formulations with potassium and phosphorus are introduced. For these fertilizers, holes are formed with a depth of 20 cm. 50 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium salt are taken. Thanks to such feeding, the plant lays new buds, and in the future, the amount of harvest increases. In late August and early September, water is added as needed (if the soil dries up). In dry weather, the plant is watered more often. In May, before flowering, it is required to water the plant abundantly. This is done by the drip method, which saves water and avoids waterlogging of the root system. Horticultural water should not be cold.
The picking is carried out according to the same principle as the landing. It should be borne in mind that the shrub grows strongly, which is why it forms many daughter shoots. When transplanting, these shoots are cut off along with the roots. The procedure is carried out in the spring. So that the shrub does not begin to grow actively, it is required to place iron sheets near it.
You can grow raspberries from a cuttings. Growing from seeds is a painstaking and unclaimed process. Cuttings are made in cloudy weather. For reproduction, it is worth choosing those that are already 3 years old. The optimal length of the planting material is 11 cm. It should have 3 strengthened leaves. The cuttings are placed in a growth stimulator for 12 hours, then in a peat-sand mixture.
The planting material is covered with foil. It develops well at a temperature of + 25 degrees. Shoots appear in a month. At this time, the plant is transplanted. First, it is placed on a training bed, then on a permanent one. The first time you need to shade the cuttings. The prepared planting material is treated with a fungicide. The drug helps to avoid fungal diseases. The plant for planting is covered with peat and placed in the basement. Stratification takes 4-5 months. The soil is periodically moistened. In the spring, cuttings are planted in a permanent bed, and the soil is mulched.
In the spring, it is necessary to remove the frozen shoots. It is important to remove dry and loose branches. The bushes are shortened by 20 cm. If the raspberry is actively growing, it is required to shorten it as soon as possible. There will be few berries at first, but they will grow large. Pruning is done in the fall. Spring is also necessary, it increases the quality of the crop. If the crop is harvested from specific shoots, they will not bear fruit the next year.
In the fall, raspberries are pruned after fruiting. Thanks to this procedure, she spends her energy on the formation of new shoots, which will bear fruit next year. At this time, preparations for winter are being carried out. Bushes need to be bent to the ground as low as possible and secured in this position. Leaves should be removed from the shoots, but the growth buds should be left intact. The shrub should be covered with snow.
If you take care of the plant incorrectly, diseases will overtake it:
If you take care of the plant incorrectly, it will be attacked by insects:
The following varieties of raspberries are popular in Russia: