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Ginkgo biloba isthe sole surviving member of the extinct division of plants known asGingkophya, which dates back some 270 million years. Ginkgotrees are distantly related to conifersand cycads.These deciduoustrees are prized for their bright fall foliage and medicinal benefits, soit’s not surprising that many homeowners would want to add them to theirlandscape. And while there a number of ways to propagate these trees, ginkgocutting propagation is the preferred method of cultivation.
Propagating ginkgo cuttings is the easiest way to make moreof these beautiful trees. The cultivar ‘Autumn Gold’ is the easiest to rootfrom cuttings.
When it comes to propagating cuttings, your first questionmay be, “can you root ginkgo in water?” The short answer is no. Ginkgo treesare sensitive to poor drainage; they prefer well-drained soil and do well inurban areas surrounded by concrete. Too much water drowns them, so rooting inwater is not very successful.
Just as there is more than one way to propagate a ginkgotree, such as with seeds, there is more than one way to propagate by way ofcuttings depending on your level of expertise.
In the summer (May-June in the Northern Hemisphere), cut thetip ends of growing branches into 6- to 7-inch (15-18 cm.) lengths using asharp knife (preferred) or a pruner (tends to crush the stem where the cut wasmade). Look for the hanging yellow cones of pollen on male trees and only takecuttings from these; female trees produce sticky smelly seed sacks that arehighly undesirable.
Stick stem ends into loosened garden soil or a 2- to 4-inch(5-10 cm.) deep container of rooting mix (usually contains vermiculite).The mix helps prevent molds and fungus from growing in the seed bed. Rootinghormone (a powdered substance that aids rooting) may be used if desired.Keep the seed bed damp but not sopping wet. The cuttings should root in 6-8weeks.
If winters aren’t too cold where you garden, the cuttingscan be left in place until spring, then planted in their permanent spots. Inharsh weather, pot the cuttings into 4- to 6-inch (10-15 cm.) pots of pottingsoil. Move pots to a sheltered area until spring.
Make 6- to 7-inch stem tip cuttings using a sharp knife (toavoid bark ripping) in summer to assure sex of trees. Males will have hangingyellow pollen cones, while females will have stinky seed sacks. Use rootinghormone to help improve success when rooting cuttings from a ginkgo.
Insert cut end of stem into rooting hormone, then intoprepared soil bed. Keep soil bed evenly moist by using a light covering (e.g.bug tent) or daily watering, preferably with a timer. Cuttings should root inabout 6-8 weeks and may be planted out or left in place until spring.
Take stem tip cuttings of around 6 inches (15 cm.) long insummer for fall rooting to assure cultivation of male trees. Dip cuttings inrooting hormone IBA TALC 8,000 ppm, place in a frame and keep moist.Temperature range should remain about 70-75 F. (21-24 C.) with rooting takingplace in 6-8 weeks.
Making more ginkgo from cuttings is a cheap and fun way toget free trees!
Note: if you areallergic to cashews, mangoes, or poison ivy, avoid male ginkgoes. Their pollenis very aggravating and powerfully allergy-triggering (a 7 on a 10 scale).
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The Ginkgo is a gymnosperm , meaning "naked seed", because the seed is not enclosed in a ripened fruit as in flowering plants (angiosperms), but is protected by cones or a fleshy seed coat. Its propagation is unique. Pollination and the development of the sexual phase occur in the first year (April to September in the northern hemisphere). Research indicates that the embryo is well-developed at the time of dispersal and that the seed coat only contributes to winter dormancy. After shedding of the seeds the embryo carries on developing according to external temperature: the higher the temperature, the faster the development.
The Ginkgo is (like some conifers and cycads) dioecious , each spring pollen and ovules are produced on separate trees on the short branches among the bases of the young leaves, for the first time after 20-35 years. Occasionally both genders are found on the same tree. It's a dicot. The female tree must be growing in the presence of a male tree to be fertilized. Ginkgo and the cycads are the only living seed-producing plants (spermatophytes) that have motile or free swimming sperm (more info here). The Ginkgo has a unique place because it is the sole living link between the lower and higher plants, between ferns and conifers. This was discovered on September 9, 1896 by Sakugoro Hirase. He found swimming sperms in the seeds of a female tree in the Botanical garden Todaifuzoku in Tokyo. Read more about Hirase on my History-page.
videos female ovules
ovules in April
ovules in June
Sakugoro Hirase observed swimming sperm (motile spermatozoids) for the first time in the seeds of a female Ginkgo tree growing in the Botanical Garden of the University of Tokyo in Japan in 1896.
The basal end of a male gametophyte is suspended in a cavity above the female gematophyte (called the fertilization chamber).
This female gametophyte in the ovule is then green-coloured, filled with starch grains and is unique among seed plants in containing chlorophyll and photosynthesizes. In the pollen tubes the sperm cell of a male gametophyte divides, producing two sperms, each having thousands of flagellae. The actual fertilization takes place in fall. The pollen chamber and the space around the tentpole unite into a bigger archegonial chamber filled with fluid. The sperms and the contents of the pollen tubes are then released by a rupture of the basal end of the gametophyte (because of its swelling) and swim upwards (the micropyle faces downwards in fall!) into the fertilization chamber filled with fluid (an inner sea). The sperms swim shortly in the liquid and then one of them fuses with the egg nucleus.
The seeds fall off the parent tree in fall after the leaves. They are relatively large in comparison to the seeds of most other trees (esp. conifers).
Because of the presence of butyric acid, the fleshy layer produces an odour similar to rancid butter upon decay. Its tissues may cause nausea or skin eruptions (dermatitis) in man. The inner tissues are palatable (gametophyte and embryo). The seed coat also contains small amounts of urushiol, an allergen that only on contact with the skin is responsible for poison oak and poison ivy contact dermatitis in sensitive people so when gathering the ripe fruits wear rubber gloves. Squeeze out the seeds in a bucket of water, wash them thoroughly and then dry them. After that they look like a large unsplit pistachio nut. (female trees seeds: more info here).
| seeds in September |
Ginkgo trees can also reproduce asexually : read the section about the chichi on my Tree-page about this.
The Ginkgo can also be propagated by cuttings (best way to be sure of the sex). Take young or half-ripe wood about 15 cm long during May-July. Put these in a frame and keep moist. They usually start growing best in their second year. You may also take cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth. Shoots about 15-30 cm long are taken in December and placed in a frame. They should root in the spring.
More information about treating the cuttings via the propagation-links on my Links-page.
Grafting : Grafting is often used by nurseries to grow new Ginkgos. Also branches of male trees are grafted onto female trees in order to fertilize them or visa versa the female trees often produce very good seeds.
Vegetatively propagated Ginkgos seldom have a dominant central leader, because a lateral branch (rooted or grafted) will continue growing in the direction it had when still attached on the parent trunk. Therefore nurseries stimulate the production of vertical shoots by cutting back the trees.
Mostly the only way to know the sex of the Ginkgo tree is to wait until the plants bloom. The DNA-sequence data for the Ginkgo is known however.
Occasionally both genders are found on the same tree.
The tree's gender is not easily classified so some say it can be seen by the deepness of the cleft in the leaves (female trees are said to have less deeper incised leaves). Others say a young tree's gender can be seen on female trees which flower 2-3 weeks later than male trees and the female leaves fall later in fall. For instance the old Ginkgo in Utrecht is male and the leaves of the female branch turn yellow later in the season than those of the male tree where the branch is grafted upon (click on photo left for enlargement to see this female branch in fall). Also the female tree tends to have almost horizontal branches. In Chinese literature it is said that seeds marked with two ribs produce female trees and those with three ribs male (although these are more rare). Also the seeds should be sown in such a way that they face each other and those with three ribs should be grown along a waterside.
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| Dispersal agents |
A cache of seeds was found in a tree crotch about 50 m from the nearest source of the seeds, apparently done by birds.
If you don't want to stratify the procedure is the same, but then put the closed container or bag in a light spot at room temperature (70-75 0 F/21-24 0 C). Put in pots when a few leaves have grown.
After stratification move 3-5 seeds into 4-6" pots . The pots must be clean and have at least one drainage hole and best is pots with ribs or slits to get better rootforming. Use fresh soaked sandy potting soil (40% sand with some grit or perlite) (you may spray a fungicide again). Best is sandy loam that drains well. Sowing depth about 0,6"=1,5 cm. Cover lightly with sand. Don't compact, just tap the soil. Put in a cold frame or indoors in a light place, not full sun. Mist daily, water only when necessary. Keep the soil moist, not wet. After germination never let the roots dry out or stand in water. Take care of good air circulation. When the seedlings have grown enough put them outside (transplant in autumn into individual pots) in a shadowy position and fertilize (organic). Put in permanent position after about 2 years.
You may leave your Ginkgo permanently in a pot and treat it more or less like a bonsai. Then you can grow a Ginkgo even on your balcony! More about Ginkgo as a bonsai on my Bonsai-page.
In fall sow preferably in a cold frame or unheated greenhouse. Put seeds 2-3" deep and cover with 2 inches of mulch or straw (in autumn), remove this in spring. Then cover the seeds lightly with sand, mulch etc. Best sowing time is March-May when there's longer daylight. Misting is better than watering. Watch out for squirrels, mice etc. Don't sow in the height of summer.
Ginkgo seeds have an irregular germination. Low temperatures (between 2 and 10°C) following fertilization hinder embryo development and delay the germination of outdoor-sown seed until the following spring or summer.
More information about planting can be read on my page about the tree.
Please email me your sowing results and ideas!
This is the first year I've really cleaned seeds (250+). The smell wasn't as bad as expected, but still bad enough. However, I cleaned the seeds in Sodium Carbonate or washing soda 2 table spoons/1gal water (60ml/4L). Which wipe out about 90% of the smell. I figure that since the smell is caused by acids why not just nutralize the acid with a base and get rid of the smell. It seemed to work. Also, Sodium Bicarbonate which is baking soda should work as well. It's a little weaker though and maybe you should double the rate. I should also note that both of these chemicals are both fungices and very safe to use. You can eat baking soda. My procedure for cleaning is listed below.
My method with most all tree seeds is to keep them in the kitchen refrigerator in a plastic bag of moist sphagnum moss over the winter. That worked well with Ginkgo seeds. By spring, some of them were already germinating in the bag.
I use peat/perlite mix: take the peat and put it in a container, then pour boiling water over it. This will get the peat to absorb water and it will kill any fungus spores present. Add the water slowly as to not overwet the mix. Then, once it is cool enough to mix, add perlite. I usually go for a 1:1 mix. You could just as easily go 2:1. Mix it up, and take a handful, make sure you don't get water dripping down your arm when you hold it. Take a couple handfulls, put them in a ziplock bag, add 3-5 seeds, seal, shake it a bit so the seeds are in the mix. Within a week or 2, the first seedlings will appear. Pot them up as soon as possible, and then reseal the bag and wait for more. Always has worked well for me.
I collected some seeds and started growing them about 3-4 months back. After carefully reading Cor's directions of course! For a little more than a month, the seeds did nothing. Nothing happened. I thought I had killed them all even though I followed the directions. One day, I woke up and found one little seed have cracked and a tiny root was sticking out! That was so exciting! Since that first seed sprouted, quite a few have followed. That first seedling is about 10 centimeters tall now. And I have 13 more that are growing up everyday. My dream is to plant a Ginkgo forest.
About 100 Ginkgo seeds were planted in milk cartoons in the Ottawa area, Canada, outside under a protective screen of chicken wire. I watered these regularly and 90-95% have germinated. (source: Truscott).
I soak the seeds 2-3 days in water and then put them in a tray on a layer of sand. Then I cover them lightly with sand. I put the tray on a warm and light spot. I check the sand each day and if necessary moisten it again.
I live near Merano, Italy, and collect seeds in January, this way saving the stratification. After washing away the smelly flesh, I soak them in water for 4 days (in the house, about 20°). Afterwards I plant them in pots on the windowsill. The windowsill is at a window facing the east. After 6 weeks 90% have grown.
Both of my Gingkos dropped their leaves this morning. What a sight - That is just weird to me.
Many of my college texts have the leaves pressed between the pages. It seems like they all fell off the trees overnight and I simply HAD to pick up the ones that caught my eye!
I have always been fascinated with the Ginkgo and have even grown one from seed when I was living in California. I haven't had much luck sprouting a seed here in Colorado but will continue to try. I think Ginkgo's are probably the best looking ornamental tree on the planet .
Although growing up as children, we played and danced in the carpet of yellow leaves each autumn, and spent many a day and night keeping cool under it through many hot summers, it has been only in the last 10 years we actually discovered what a treasure we had in our small suburban backyard. We only found out its name 10 yrs ago when a friend of mine , who was of Chinese descent spotted the fruit and asked to collect them for cooking, from there we asked someone from an institute to view our Ginkgo who informed us it was well over 50 yrs old and happily took away seeds and seedlings my mother had collected.
I have a female tree in my yard and the first fall after buying my house a man came and asked if he could pick up the seeds. Not knowing what kind of tree it was I said yes. He now comes every year and is most grateful for the seeds as they are fertile ( male tree down the ally). I asked him what he does with the seeds and it turns out he grows seedlings and sells them in his nursery! I'm very happy that I can be a part of sharing this tree with the rest of the region. My tree must have hundreds of "children" around the area! After reading your site I'm going to try to grow a few myself. This year ( 2000) has a bumper crop of seeds!!
About 20 years ago I read in a Chinese glossy of an ancient Ginkgo in Wuxi province that had seemingly died in a bushfire. The huge ginkgo was auspicious and was shown in a photograph. The tree had a large circular rock wall around its base , this made it appear as a huge bonsai. The report stated that locals were amazed when after 10 years of dormancy the ginkgo burst forth with "a luxuriant mass of foliage". Another quirky story: in the seventies radical students at Melbourne university ripped freshly planted ginkgos and north American conifers from the university gardens protesting that they were not native. A few days later ginkgo fossils were found in bass straight (a nearby waterway). In 1929 millionaire Alfred Nicholas began to construct Burnhum beeches, a huge garden at Sherbrooke 50 km from Melbourne. No expense was spared. Nicholas was as impatient as he was grandeur. He wanted 3 large ginkgos to plant near twin lakes (I think a replica of lakes at Buckingham palace). Legend has it that he rode around Toorak (Melbourne’s most expensive suburb) for a week and finally made offers that could not be refused to their abundantly wealthy owners). The ginkgos are magnificent and in the public domaine at Alfred Nicholas gardens.
I have been fascinated by Ginkgos for over 30 years and have had a tree about that long.. Several years ago it produced seeds and now happily I have a number of seedlings. All my friends and relatives beg for a seedling. No seeds last year though. I'm hoping this year will be different. Love Ginkgos. treasure.
We have just recently purchased a Ginkgo Tree. The circumstances were very strange. When my father was in Japan (WWII) he fell in love with the tree, and during my youth he mentioned it several times. Well as times went by, my father passed. This year, and believe it or not, on Father's Day I took my mother shopping and we stopped at a small garden/lawn store. As we entered, right in front of us was a small ( maybe 1 1/2 years old) Ginkgo Tree. Needless to say we took it home and as of today it is doing very well.
Can you please tell me the Indian name for this tree, and where it is found in India.
I have not decided if all of this work is worth it, as my family thinks I have gone nuts! They think I should just let the squirrels eat the fruits and nuts or just compost all of them. I really hate to have it all go to waste as I feel fortunate to have this living fossil in my yard.
In Mexico city they grow in Chapultepec park, there are 24 ginkgoes aprox., and get fruit every year. In rainy years they produce lots of fruits, in dry years less.
Come early fall you can see the Chinese women with their hooks, benches, and gloves collecting them off the ground in the Garden. My students (6th graders) are doing a project on the gingkos and they are scouting around their neighborhood's for more sightings. And also, as it turns out there are about 8 trees 2 blocks away from my home. One morning I noticed an Asian lady shaking the "seeds" from the tree so I went home and got a jar and gloves to collected some to show my students. And I have directed my students to your website for information.
I was on holiday recently and have fond memories of a spot that happened to be near a fruiting ginkgo. I managed to grab three seeds and wrapped them in a paper towel for the journey home. They're in the crisper now for a couple of weeks at your suggestion. With any luck, I'll get at least one of the seeds to germinate and will have a wonderful reminder of my trip!
There is a small slim Ginkgo Tree at the entrance to the Park..Carl Schulz Park..home of Gracie Mansion, New York. Not very tall..but elegant and slender. It roots below and to the right of the street sign 86th Street and East End Avenue.
My mom gave me a "twig" about 5 years ago and said it was a Gingko tree. I planted it in my backyard, not really serious about it growing-I have 2 big dogs. They chewed on it , dug it up a few times and so on. I didn't have the heart to just get rid of it, because my mom had passed away 3 years ago, and it was a special reminder of her. (She loved gingkos.) Well, that tree has really earned its spot in the yard !! It's now about 10-12 feet tall . The leaves are beautiful. It has thrived. The dogs no longer bother it.
I would just like to add my method germinating seeds. I don't have a 100% germination rate but I do have a 100% survival rate of the trees that do germinate. I have two supposedly male ginkgo trees, but several branches on the top of the crown of both trees seem to produce seeds every year. I take these seedlings when they fall from the tree and place them in the bucket outside on some soft earth under a pile of leaves. These trees are located in the moist temperate regions of New York State, near Mattituck, Long Island. The soil is rich and loamy with quite a bit of sand in it and has good drainage.
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Redbud Tree Propagation Instructions
The redbud tree, Cercis canadensis, can be propagated with great success from cuttings or seedlings. Young redbud trees will flower before they are seven years old, but will only bear fruit once they mature, at seven to eight years of age, so incorporate this into your long-term landscaping plan. Here are some things you should know before you begin propagating your redbud tree.
Propagate the Redbud from Cuttings
Step 1 - Select and Make a Redbud Tree Cutting
In early June, after flowering and leaf production, select a healthy redbud tree with lateral branches at least four inches in diameter. Cut an 18-inch segment well above any branch junctions to ensure limb regeneration. Make as small an angled cut as possible. Clean the wound with an antifungal preparation to prevent infection.
Step 2 - Prepare the Cutting for Propagation
Divide the cutting into three sections that are each six inches long. Remove 1/2 inch of the bark at one tip of each section.
Place these sections in a warm sandy soil, 72 degrees F (20 C), for four weeks. Cuttings from redbud trees will root quickly. Plant in potting medium when the roots appear. They need four more weeks in potting soil to develop strong tap roots. Plant shortly after full root development, to enable the long tap roots to stabilize before frost.
Propagate Redbud and Eastern Redbud from Seeds
Step 1 - Harvest Seeds
All redbud trees generate long bean like seed pods. Collect several from a tree that has plenty.
Remove the seeds from the pods.
Step 2 - How to Remove Seeds from Pods
While the seed pods will split open under finger pressure, the durable seed covers themselves will not.
Test the seeds for fertility by putting them in a glass of water before opening the covers. Those that float are infertile, so you can dispose of them. Retain those that sank, and separate the seed covers. Nick or slash the seed covers with a sharp knife, or rub them with coarse grade sandpaper to penetrate the covers.
Alternatively, soak the seeds in a solution of sulfuric acid at a high concentration for 30 minutes. Do this in a well-vented space, or under a fume hood with the fan on high speed to prevent eye, nose, and throat damage.
Rinse the seeds under warm water and pat them dry with a lint-free towel.
Step 3 - Ready the Seeds for Propagation
Lay the seeds out in a flat glass dish or pan and pour in enough boiling water to immerse them fully. Allow them to soak in the water overnight, letting the water cool off. Put the seeds in a sealable plastic bag with some vermiculite or other potting medium (not soil) and refrigerate at 40 degrees F (4 C) until early spring. The seeds need time to propagate in a cool moist environment to germinate successfully.
Ginkgo Biloba Tree Care
Generally, fertilizer is not required but to give a boost you can fertilize it in spring using a slow-release balanced fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N-P-K), according to the label instructions. A balanced 10-10-10 fertilizer is suitable. Annual application of compost or manure is also helpful for plant.
Mulching is essential for growing ginkgo biloba tree. In summer to preserve moisture and in winter to protect the roots from the cold.
Ginkgo biloba is a beautiful tree, it does not require additional pruning unless you want to control its shape or size.
Pests and Diseases
Diseases are rare as ginkgo biloba is a very resistant plant. Mealybugs might attack it. To control them, try spraying a mixture of vegetable oil and liquid dish soap in equal proportion diluted to one teaspoon per 150 ml of water to get rid of them.
Watch the video: How to turn a Ginseng Ficus into a real Bonsai Tree