At the summer cottage, more and more often the eye is attracted by such a beautiful plant as astilba. It is successfully grown by both amateurs and professional florists. The perennial plant has decorative foliage and a beautiful panicle inflorescence, so it can become a garden decoration for many years.
Astilba is a member of the Kamnelomkov family. The word is translated as "very shiny" due to the special shine of the leaves. The plant develops in the form of a bush with different heights - from 20 cm to 2 m. Inflorescences also have different heights depending on the variety and can reach from 8 to 60 cm in length. Shades of flowers are purple, pink, red in a variety of variations. The flowering period is June-September. The seeds are in a small box.
The inflorescence can be formed in various shapes, therefore, the drooping, pyramidal and rhombic astilba are distinguished.
The historical homeland of Astilbe is considered to be the territories of East Asia, America and Japan.
One way to classify astilba is based on the height of an adult bush. There are the following types:
Astilba in its kind has about 400 different species, but the Russian harsh climate allows only a small part of them to be grown. In summer cottages, you can find the following varieties:
Astilba Arends - got its name in honor of the famous scientist. It belongs to a tall variety with an inflorescence length of about 1.5 m. Flowering is long, shades of flowers vary from white to deep burgundy;
Chinese astilbe - inflorescences are rarely more than 0.4 m long. The variety is unpretentious and has a drooping bush structure. Panicle shades are red, white, or pink;
Japanese astilba - refers to a dwarf species, reaching a maximum height of 0.4 m. It prefers constantly moist soil, therefore it can become an adornment of both natural and artificial reservoirs. The structure of the bush is drooping;
Common Astilbe - the most frost-resistant variety, shades of flowers are white, yellow or cream;
Astilba Thunbrga - refers to a pyramidal species, a spreading bush, densely covered with foliage. The variety is tall, belongs to a moisture-loving species, therefore it is suitable for decorating reservoirs.
Astilba is an unpretentious plant for growing conditions, but in order to obtain the most lush bush and abundant flowering, certain rules for its cultivation should be observed.
Astilba grows well in brightly lit areas, but without direct sunlight. It should also not be planted in dense shade, especially under garden trees, as their root system will have a depressing effect on the plant.
Depending on the variety, the level of soil moisture is regulated. So some types of astilba are best grown near water bodies. Light shade is best tolerated by varieties with white inflorescences.
Astilba is suitable for creating alpine slides. It can be successfully combined in the neighborhood with lilies of the valley, hosta, mountain goat weed, badan, tulips. The choice of the foreground or background of planting is carried out depending on the height of the variety.
Astilba will show good growth on almost any soil, but it will not be superfluous to make it looser, apply organic fertilizers.
The shrub is planted in the spring, from late March to early May. If the transplant is carried out in the fall, then this must be done long before the onset of the first frost, otherwise the plant will take root poorly and die.
The bush is planted in a pre-prepared hole so that the root collar of the plant is not covered with earth. A distance of at least half a meter is left between the bushes.
The planted bush is watered abundantly, and the hole is covered with a thick layer of mulch so that moisture lingers in the soil for a long time, and also in order to protect the root system from overheating by the sun's rays.
The main thing for observing the rule of caring for astilba is to constantly keep the soil moist. Drying out of the substrate is detrimental to the plant. Periodically, the soil is loosened and fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium are applied to it. Nitrogen fertilizing is applied only once for the whole season - before flowering.
After each loosening, the soil surface should be covered with a thick layer of mulch.
A young plant with a small root system can be oppressed by weeds, so the bush will need regular weeding. With the growth and development of astilba, the need for this disappears.
Astilba tolerates the process of transplanting it to a new place well. You need to transplant the plant once every 5 years. If this is not done, then the root system will come close to the soil surface and begin to dry, and the plant itself may die. With a new transplant, the bush is deepened by 5 cm.
If astilba was grown from seeds, then early transplantation will only harm it, since the root system of such a plant forms slowly. It is not at all necessary to change the place when transplanting, you can just dig up the plant, add fertilizer into the hole and plant the bush back, deepening it by 5 cm.
The bush does not need additional pruning, since it forms the necessary crown on its own. Only occasionally is it necessary to remove dried leaves and stems, as well as wilted flower stalks.
The astilbe flower can be successfully propagated in one of the following ways.
The procedure is carried out in the spring when transplanting an adult plant. Each plot should contain two or more buds. As a result of division, we have several full-fledged plants with an independent developed root system. The place of dividing the bush is covered with ash or charcoal for disinfection.
Reproduction by budding is carried out in the spring. One bud is separated from an adult bush and planted in a greenhouse. After the cutting takes root, it is kept at home until next spring, after which it is planted in open ground.
The least preferred method, as the seeds are quite small, difficult to work with, and also have a low germination rate. You can activate the seed germination process in the following way. For this, the seeds are kept for 20 days at an ambient temperature of +4 to -4 degrees. After this period, they are placed in a warm room for 3 days.
For sowing, use a container containing a substrate from a mixture of peat and sand. Seeds are poured onto its surface. It is not necessary to cover with a layer of soil. The greenhouse is daily ventilated and humidified from a spray bottle. Keep in a bright place at high temperatures. To cover the greenhouse, I use glass or transparent plastic wrap.
The first shoots can be observed on days 21-28. As soon as the first pair of leaves is formed, the astilbe dives. Reproduction by seeds is the least preferred method, since the resulting plant specimens can turn out with unexpected color of panicles, low decorative effect of leaves, weak and short flowering.
Proper care helps to grow a healthy and strong astilba, which can easily endure wintering and low temperatures, and in spring and summer will again delight the gardener with good growth and lush flowering.
Peduncles, which have already withered, need to be cut off in time so that they do not take excess moisture and nutrients from the bush. The only exceptions are those flower stalks from which the gardener plans to receive seeds in the future.
With the onset of late autumn, before the first frost, ground pruning of the entire bush is carried out. Astilba is a frost-resistant plant, therefore it does not need additional covering material. To protect it from frost, only a snow cover will be enough for it. If winter in certain areas of the country passes without snowfall, then astilba can be covered with a thin layer of spruce branches, straw, fallen leaves.
Astilba is a plant resistant to pests and various diseases. With improper care, its root system can dry out, which will lead to wilting of the leaves.
Among insect pests, astilbe is most often affected:
Astilba needs more care for the first two years of life. In the future, it will not require much attention to itself, but will delight with lush flowering and beautiful decorative foliage.
Astilba: growing, care, reproduction
Increasingly, in summer cottages and in personal plots, you can find beautiful shrubs that literally catch the eye with a lush scattering of unpretentious flowers of different shades of lilac, purple, red, white and cream. That is why it attracts summer residents and landscape designers, which retains its decorative qualities until the onset of cold weather. What is this shrub? This is Astilba, a native of Asia, which can still be found in the northern parts of the American continent. Despite the fact that this shrub easily tolerates the cold, you still need to know how to prepare Astilba for winter. What are the features of caring for her in the fall? We have already considered growing astilbe in the garden earlier, but here is what needs to be done in the fall for the astilbe bush, the preparation for the winter of the plant has not yet been said. It's time to pay attention to this.
Astilba - care in anticipation of winter
When to prune a plant?
Since there are many varieties of astilba that bloom at different times, it cannot be said in general terms that this shrub is cut off after flowering. Some plants fade at the end of June, while others - with the onset of cold weather. After flowering, only peduncles are removed. Summer residents and owners of backyard territories are in no hurry to prune, since the shrub is beautiful even without its colorful inflorescences. Its unusual spreading leaves continue to delight the eye until early October.
Astilba pruning is done when the leaves of the bush begin to darken and dry. In this form, the plant already loses its decorative qualities. How is astilba pruning for the winter? To remove the above-ground part of the shrub, you will need a pruner; it is in the arsenal of any gardener. Before starting work, it is necessary to disinfect the tool in order to avoid contamination of the bush with various diseases. Prepare a manganese solution: several crystals of the substance per liter of water. Treat the pruning shears on all sides. After cutting off the branches of one plant, process the tool again. So prune all the bushes.
Remove shoots leaving young buds. They are always located slightly above the rhizome. So that they do not remain naked, astilba must be spilled. After loosening the soil near each bush, make a small mound about 4 centimeters high.
Astilba mulching is carried out after pruning and hilling the plant. It is necessary to protect the root system and new buds of the shrub. Mulch is a kind of blanket that covers the plant, serving as protection from cold, evaporation of residual moisture and weed propagation. Thanks to mulching, the soil at the roots remains loose, which allows it to breathe, protecting the roots not only from the cold, but also from decay. Despite its amazing endurance, astilba in autumn and winter needs such protection, especially when it comes to a one-year-old shrub or a four-year-old plant. During this period, the root system of astilba is either still too weak, or is already becoming obsolete, therefore it requires special attention.
Gardeners can use various means as mulch - peat or rotted manure, as well as sawdust or bark.
How is astilba fertilized in the fall?
In order for the plant to delight you with its beauty in the spring, it is necessary to fertilize the soil layer for the winter. Astilba will answer with gratitude if you use potash-phosphorus fertilizers as top dressing. For each individual plant, 20 grams of this substance is enough. In order for the soil to be enriched with nutrients by spring, it is recommended to use humus. Decaying very slowly, such fertilizer will enrich the soil just in time for the onset of the growing season of the plant. But if the soil on your site is rich in organic matter, you do not need to do this.
Do I need to cover astilba for the winter?
If by winter astilba has already settled well on your site, which is in the middle lane, then you do not need to worry about a shelter for a plant. It belongs to cold-resistant, therefore it is able to withstand cold winters. Mulching will be enough. However, if the plant is planted in the northern regions, it is better to make a shelter for the winter. It is also necessary for plants that were planted more than four years ago. With age, their roots become bare, and the shrubs themselves lose their vitality. Such astilbe can die in frost conditions, not accompanied by snowfall.
How to make a shelter? Some gardeners use sawdust as a "blanket", others prefer hay or dry leaves, which are enough in every garden in autumn. When covering the soil, the main thing is to observe one rule - to use only materials given by nature. They do an excellent job of retaining heat and preventing excess moisture from entering the soil. And these are exactly the conditions under which you can be sure that the beautiful Astilba will safely survive the winter cold. Some gardeners cover the shrub with polyethylene. But since it is not a breathable material, it creates a greenhouse effect underneath. Such conditions are unacceptable for astilbe - its roots can rot in winter.
Owners of personal plots are very fond of and appreciate astilba for its beauty and unpretentiousness. If this plant flaunts at your dacha, then you should know that a healthy and strong plant will definitely survive the winter if you create suitable conditions for this. Only young and old astilbe bushes require special attention. Take care of them as described in this article, and in the spring you will receive a reward for your efforts - once again enjoy their charm and beauty.
Found in the wild in East Asia, Japan, North America.In Russia (Far East, Kunashir Island) two species grow .
Representatives of the genus are found in deciduous forests, along the banks of streams, in swampy places where moisture remains in summer. Under a layer of snow, plants tolerate winter well; in Canada, astilbe is found in areas where the temperature drops to -37 ° C.
A perennial herb with an aerial part dying off for the winter. The stem is erect, the height, depending on the species, is from 8 to 200 cm.
Numerous basal leaves on long petioles, double or triple pinnate, less often simple, dark green or reddish green, serrated.
The flowers are small, white, pink, lilac, red or purple, collected in apical inflorescences - panicles of various lengths. Bloom in June - July.
The fruit is a capsule. In 1 gram up to 20,000 seeds.
According to database information The plant list, the genus includes 25 species :
In mid-latitudes, Astilba has few enemies. Most often, the bushes suffer from slobbering pennies and nematodes (strawberry and gallic). You can recognize the presence of pennies living in the leaf axils of plants by the foam "spitting" on the shoots. In saliva-like secretions, leafhopper larvae live. As the colony of pennies grows, the condition of the bushes worsens - the leaves wrinkle and become covered with yellow-brown spots. They destroy insects with powerful insecticides such as Aktara, Karbofos, Komandor, Fitoverm.
Gall nematodes and strawberry nematodes are much more difficult to cope with. The first affects the root system of the astilba, the second parasitizes the aerial parts of the plant. The attacked bushes lag behind in development, bloom poorly and soon die. Closely monitor the state of plantings and ruthlessly discard infected specimens, and immediately treat neighboring plants with Fitoverm.
As for diseases, with proper care, Astilba successfully resists all known infections.
Many gardeners are happy to grow an unpretentious plant called astilba on their plots. This is a hardy, spreading shrub that delights with lush flowering. The flowering period lasts for one month.
The herbaceous shrub is a member of the saxifrage family. The foliage is painted in a bright green hue and is located on burgundy cuttings. The height of the shrub varies from eighteen to two hundred and ten centimeters. The color range of colors is quite diverse. There are varieties with snow-white, cream, red or milky flowers. The aroma of astilba is similar to the smell of bird cherry. The entire garden area is filled with honey, sweet notes. Later, seed sacs ripen in place of flowers.
The shrub is a real decoration of any garden. With the onset of cold weather, the ground part dies. The next spring, the roots start up fresh shoots. Due to the fact that the rhizome grows on top, every year it is necessary to fill up the earth in order to hide the exposed buds. Every year the shrub grows in size and forms new roots. Planting of low-growing shrubs is carried out while maintaining a distance of twenty to thirty centimeters. Tall bushes will require a distance of 35 to 45 cm.
The landing site must meet certain requirements. This allows you to shorten the adaptation period and get a lush, colorful bloom. Lack of sunlight and excessively dry soil can cause great harm to plant health. Light shade and moist soil have the most beneficial effect on the development of bushes. An excess of moisture provokes rotting of the root system and the formation of fungal diseases. A perennial is able to survive on any land, but gives more preference to nutritious, heavy soil. If the soil has high acidity, then phosphorus fertilizer will need to be applied before planting. Planting next to conifers will help prevent overheating.
Reproduction of a perennial occurs in several ways.
1.Dividing the rhizome. The easiest and most effective method of obtaining a new shrub. Astilba is extracted from the soil and, with the help of a tool, is subject to division of the rhizome. Injured and rotten roots are removed. During the first month, daily watering is required.
2. Young kidneys. This method is applied in mid-April. Young buds are carefully trimmed along with part of the rhizome. They are placed in the ground and covered with a plastic bag.
3. Sowing seeds. This method is used exclusively by breeders. Before sowing is carried out, the seeds must be kept in a cold place for thirty-five days. During this time, strong and healthy seeds will give the first shoots, which will subsequently take pride of place in the gardens.
Young shrubs are planted in holes about thirty centimeters deep. During the first few weeks, astilba is watered abundantly and mineral fertilized. Before the onset of night frosts, the plant is mulched. For this purpose, fallen leaves or spruce branches are used. The plant will start growing next spring.
An unpretentious rhizome perennial for shady and semi-shady places, it is moisture-demanding, in arid and lighted places, the inflorescences become smaller. Transferred at any time. In one place, without losing decorativeness, it grows for 4-5 years. The foliage is decorative all season from the moment of regrowth to frost.
Varieties have different forms of inflorescence (pyramidal, paniculate, rhombic and drooping), according to flowering time and bush height they are distributed on: - early (1 decade of July) 40-50 cm tall - Bonn (lilac), Cologne (red), Fanal (burgundy ) and Peach Blossom (pink and white) - average flowering period (2-3 decades of July) 50-100 cm - Diamond (white), Siegfried (lilac), Amethyst (lilac-violet), Betsy Tsiperus (light pink), Strausen Feder (pink), etc.
In flower beds, in mixborders and rock gardens, they go well with daylilies, irises, phloxes, peonies, tulips, roses, functions, lilies and other perennials.