Gardeners and farmers are showing increasing interest in remontant raspberries. Common raspberries often freeze in severe winters, their productivity sharply decreases in drought, pests lead to the loss of most of the harvest, and the growth is annoying, creeping over the site. These problems can be avoided by planting remontant species instead of ordinary raspberries. Russian scientists have created a remontant type raspberry that has no analogues in the world. The real admiration is the Bryansk Marvel variety with large chiseled fruits.
Twice-harvesting raspberries have been cultivated for two centuries. However, the first varieties in the cold climate of central Russia did not have time to fully mature and the second crop was given only by a third. Thanks to the efforts of the outstanding Russian breeder I.V. Kazakov and his colleagues, it was possible to create new types of raspberries with excellent taste characteristics, bearing fruit right up to the snow. One of the best varieties of I. Kazakov and S. N. Evdokimenko is Bryansk Marvel, the result of pollination of the large-fruited form 47–18–4. In 2001, this raspberry was recognized as a separate species, and in 2008 it was included in the State Register.
Malina Bryanskoe Divo is one of the best large-fruited remontant varieties of domestic selection
The variety is zoned for the Central and Central Black Earth regions, has a high frost resistance and tolerates frosts down to -25 ° C. It is appreciated for its large fruit size, excellent taste of the fruit, as well as for its resistance to pests. By the time the harvest ripens in late summer, the flight of the raspberry gnat and the raspberry fly ends, so there is not a single wormhole on the berries.
Repaired raspberries, unlike ordinary varieties, bear fruit not only on annuals, but also on two-year-old shoots. During the season, you can get a crop twice - in summer and autumn. Having a short growing season, the culture manages to give 90% of the harvest before the cold weather. Grown on fertilized soil, under good weather conditions, the variety can yield more than 13 t / ha.
The Bryanskoye Marvel variety is valued for its high yield - more than 13 tons per hectare
Bryansk Marvel is a tall (1.5-1.8 m) slightly spreading bush, consisting of 5-7 straight shoots. Stems are powerful, covered with a small wax coating, prickly. Young shoots are reddish-purple in color, biennial - brown. From each node of the shoot, 2 fruit branches grow, which is characteristic of this particular variety. Shoot formation is average. The leaves are dark green, large, slightly coiled, slightly pubescent.
Large raspberries Bryanskoe miracle of extended conical shape, with dense fragrant pulp
The genotype is distinguished by the large size of berries: 4 cm long, with an average weight of 8 g, and a maximum of 11 g. The fruits are beautiful, chiseled, elongated-conical in shape. The pulp is red, juicy, aromatic, sweet and sour. Tasting score 4 points. Due to its high density, the berries are not damaged during transportation. Fruits ripen at the end of June, the second wave begins in mid-August and lasts until frost. The variety is fruitful - 3.5 kg per bush.
The disadvantages include the loss of sugar content with insufficient lighting and the demand for watering. Maximum yields can be obtained only with regular irrigation of the raspberry tree.
It is possible to grow a good harvest of raspberries in the Bryansk miracle only if the rules of agricultural technology are observed.
For planting, you should choose the most illuminated places - even a slight shade delays the ripening period, worsens the taste of the berries. Raspberries should receive as much heat as possible, therefore they are planted on the south side of the garden, along the sheds, protected from the wind by planting trees, hedges - in such places a warmer microclimate is formed. Only in hot areas, in order to save the culture from the sultry sun rays, places with a little shading are permissible.
For a raspberry tree, a section should be taken along the fence to protect the planting from the wind
You should not plant bushes in lowlands, where cold air is retained, water stagnates after rain. Groundwater should be at a level of at least 1.5 m. Raspberries are also not suitable for elevated areas, where snow is blown off in winter and plants suffer from a lack of moisture in summer.
The culture is undemanding to soil conditions, but prefers to grow on sandy loam or light loamy soils with neutral acidity. The plant will take root in clay areas, but in conditions of high humidity, the bush will grow intensively, and fruit ovaries will form weakly. Therefore, to improve the quality of the soil, sand must be added (1 bucket / m2). Sandy areas can be suitable with abundant fertilization and watering. The acidic soil is alkalized (500 g of lime / m2).
Preceding crops are very important for raspberries. You should not lay a berry field in areas where tomatoes and potatoes previously grew. The culture grows well after cucumbers, legumes, zucchini. Raspberries get along well next to an apple tree, cherry, red currant. And it is advisable to plant grapes and sea buckthorn in another corner of the garden.
Experienced gardeners sow mustard and lupine in advance on the site of the future berry plant to increase soil fertility, at the end of the season they mow the herbs and mix with the ground.
Siderata will displace weeds from the site and enrich the soil with useful elements, but they need to be mowed before flowering begins
You can plant raspberries in the spring, before bud break. However, with spring planting, fruiting is not so abundant, because all the strength of the plant goes to survival. Therefore, the optimal planting time is after leaf fall, 20 days before stable soil freezing. Plants planted in the fall will have time to take root, adapt to new conditions and approach wintering when they are stronger.
It is very important to choose healthy planting material, therefore it is necessary to purchase it in fruit nurseries. First of all, it is worth carefully examining the seedling: its root system should be developed, fibrous, without mold, branches 8-10 mm thick, flexible, without spots.
Seedlings with open roots should be dipped in a clay mash or wrapped in a wet cloth when transporting. It is advisable to buy container plants - 2-year-old raspberries with a well-formed powerful root system, ready for transplantation. They can be planted from spring until the end of the season.
It is better to purchase container seedlings with better survival rate
Planting material purchased in late autumn is added dropwise in the garden until spring. Plants are placed in a groove 15 cm deep, sprinkled with earth, and covered with spruce branches on top. In such a shelter, raspberries will not freeze in winter and will be reliably protected from rodents.
20 days before planting, weeds are removed, the site is dug up and fertilized. 1 m2 make:
When a raspberry tree is formed, holes of 60x45 cm are dug from individual bushes with an interval of 80-100 cm between them, and 2 plants are planted in each. For linear planting, trenches 50x45 cm are prepared, leaving 1.5-2 m between rows, 70 cm between plants.
On large areas, a belt planting method is usually used with a distance between rows of 1.5-2 m, between plants - 70 cm
The planting process consists of the following steps:
Sprinkle the seedling with earth, compacting it so that there are no voids
Mulching the soil after planting allows you to retain moisture for a long time and prevents weeds from spreading
In temperate climates, for a more intensive development of plants and an increase in productivity in early spring, the raspberry tree is covered with a black film that attracts the sun's rays. The soil warms up faster, the vegetation of plants begins 2 weeks earlier, and the yield increases by 500 g from 1 m2.
Raspberries of the remontant type are more demanding on nutrition, moisture, light than ordinary varieties.
At the beginning of the season, when there is an intensive build-up of green mass, preference is given to nitrogen fertilizers. Once every 10 days, add urea (30 g / m2). In the middle of summer, shrubs are fertilized with nitrophosphate (60 g / 10 l), at the end of the season - with superphosphate (50 g) and potassium salt (40 g / m2). For regular feeding, you can use Kemir's complex fertilizer (50 g / 10 l) at the rate of 500 g of solution per bush.
Remaining raspberries have a much higher nutritional requirement than ordinary raspberries, but their yield is 2 times higher.
Organic fertilizers in their composition are not inferior to mineral additives. Under the bushes, solutions of mullein or chicken droppings rich in nitrogen compounds are introduced every 10 days. They are diluted in water 1:10 and 1:20 and the plants are fed (5 l solution / m2). After applying the fermenting liquid, the soil should be well watered. The source of calcium, potassium, magnesium and other elements necessary for the plant is ash (500 g / m2).
A good feed for raspberries is nettle infusion. 1 kg of grass is poured with 20 liters of water, 3 kg of manure and 200 g of ash are added. Leave to ferment for a week. The resulting infusion is diluted with water 1:10 and 500 ml is introduced under the bush.
Root dressing should be combined with foliar dressing. The application of liquid fertilizers Uniflor-micro (1 tbsp. L / 10 l), Kristalon (30 g / 10 l) to the sheet allows you to quickly replenish the deficiency of trace elements, has a general strengthening effect on plants, and helps to increase yields.
Fertilization on the leaf allows you to quickly saturate the plants with the necessary nutrients
The culture is hygrophilous; in extreme heat, in the absence of watering, the berries become very shallow. Moisten the raspberry tree every 7 days (10 liters per bush). However, stagnation of water with excessive watering has a depressing effect on plants.
There are several ways to irrigate a raspberry tree: sprinkling, through grooves, drip irrigation. It is better to supply water through a drip system, which allows you to directly moisturize the rhizome and significantly save water consumption. This type of irrigation is especially convenient on large plantations.
With drip irrigation, water evenly flows through the droppers in belts to the plant roots
When watering along grooves made around a bush or along a row to a depth of 15 cm, water is brought in from a bucket or hose. After absorbing moisture, the grooves must be sealed. On hot days, it is advisable to use sprinkler irrigation with sprinklers, which moistens not only the soil, but the entire bush. Such watering is carried out in the morning and evening hours to avoid foliage burns and reduce moisture evaporation. Before the onset of cold weather, in the absence of rain, pre-winter watering is required (20 l / bush).
When simulating rain, the soil around the plants, leaves and shoots is well moistened
After each watering, the soil is loosened to remove the crust that prevents air from reaching the roots. Loosening in the root zone is carried out to a depth of no more than 7 cm. Then mulch is laid - hay, straw, humus. A mulching layer 10 cm thick improves the structure of the soil, does not allow moisture to evaporate quickly, and protects the roots from freezing in winter.
The raspberry Bryanskoe miracle has long lateral shoots, they can break under strong gusts of wind. Lodging of branches loaded with crops is also possible, since the berries are distributed over 2/3 of their length. Therefore, it is necessary to tie the shoots to the support. It is easy to install it yourself. A stake is installed near the bush, to which the bush is tied.
With a linear planting of the raspberry tree along the row, every 3 m, pillars are dug in and the wire is pulled in 2 rows. Tying shoots to the trellis is carried out at a height of 50 cm and 1.2 m. You can use the fan method of tying to the support. Pegs are installed on both sides of the bush, to which part of the stems of one plant and part of the branches of the neighboring plant are tied at different heights.
To protect the shoots from lodging under the weight of berries, raspberries are grown on a trellis
Pruning remontant raspberries has its own characteristics. If the berry is grown for one late summer harvest, all shoots are mowed at the end of October. If they plan to get 2 crops per season, only the two-year-old stems that have fruited are removed, the annuals are shortened by 15 cm.
At the beginning of the season, they examine the bush, remove the dried stems. In the summer, excess shoots and root suckers are cut off, leaving no more than 6 branches to provide them with adequate nutrition. With this pruning, the bush is well ventilated and evenly illuminated.
Raspberry pruning is carried out when cold weather sets in, shoots are cut at ground level
The berries begin to ripen from the top, gradually descending to the lower tiers. If the lowest flowers are removed at the bud stage, the remaining fruits will be noticeably larger and sweeter.
The variety is frost-resistant, winters well in central Russia without shelter. The root system can withstand a significant drop in temperature with a snow cover of 30 cm. However, in snowless winters, with a sharp change in severe frosts with thaws, the rhizomes can freeze slightly. Prolonged rains in warm autumn promote the growth of new shoots, which also reduces the level of winter hardiness.
Annual shoots are bent in an arc, tied to a stretched wire and covered with non-woven material
If you plan to get two crops, only two-year-old shoots are cut. Annuals are left. The root zone is moistened, mulched with humus. The left branches are bent, attached to the established arcs and covered with agrofibre.
Double fruiting greatly weakens the plants, their winter hardiness decreases, this method is recommended only for the southern regions. In temperate climates, late summer fruiting with the removal of the aboveground part is more productive. When cold weather sets in, all the shoots are mowed, the area is cleared of leaves and debris, watered and a layer of mulch is laid. In this case, insulation is not required.
Raspberry Bryansk miracle gives few replacement shoots, little root suckers are formed - 2–4 per bush, so it does not fill the garden space and does not drown out the crops growing in the neighborhood. Several methods are used for breeding varieties.
The culture is easily propagated by green cuttings. In June, young shoots 5 cm high are cut underground and planted in a greenhouse at an angle of 45 degrees. Moisturize and ventilate regularly. Rooting takes 2 weeks. Green plants need to be fed with complex fertilizer and a week later planted in the garden according to the 10x30 scheme for growing. In the fall, they are transplanted to a prepared place.
It is easy to propagate raspberries by cuttings
Raspberries are also bred using root cuttings. At the end of the season, the roots are cut into 10 cm pieces and planted in a fertilized area.Water, mulch the soil and cover with ephedra for the winter. In early spring, having freed the beds from spruce branches, stretch a film over them. When green offspring appear, the film is removed. In the fall, the seedlings are transplanted.
You can divide the bush into parts with a root and shoots and plant it separately. The branches must be shortened to 45 cm.
A bush with well-developed roots can be divided into several parts
The seed propagation method is rarely used, it is rather laborious and does not guarantee the preservation of varietal traits.
The variety is moderately resistant to diseases, especially susceptible to fungal infections. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures.
Natural enemies of aphids are the seven-spotted ladybug, rider, praying mantis, lacewing, wasps, dragonflies. Dill, anise, coriander will help to attract them to the site. Entomophagous insects can destroy up to a thousand aphids per day.
Gardeners who grow raspberries Bryanskoe Divo on their site are enthusiastic about this variety with very tasty fragrant large fruits without a single wormhole. Ease of care, winter hardiness, excellent yield, the ability to feast on berries before frost make this remontant type of raspberry very popular.
Rate the article:
(0 votes, average: 0 out of 5)
Share with your friends!
Raspberries are a very tenacious crop that tends to turn into a weed. You can plant it, especially from your own raspberry tree, all season. If you buy an expensive seedling and doubt its viability, then, of course, it is better to adhere to the rules of high agricultural technology, in our case, observe the deadlines. In the South of Russia there is a short spring, hot summer, which means that the purchase should be postponed until autumn. In regions with warm rainy summers and short cold autumn, the best time to plant any seedlings is spring. In the middle lane, raspberries are broken in both spring and autumn.
If, according to tradition, you choose a place under the fence, where the snow does not melt for a long time, and then the earth does not dry out in any way, then you will not get a good harvest even from the most productive variety, such as Patricia. Raspberry bushes should be illuminated by the sun, and moisture and air should be supplied to the roots. Always damp earth is favorable conditions for fungal diseases. Patricia is susceptible to late blight and gray rot, which means that dampness is contraindicated for her. An ideal case - the bushes warm up in the morning from one side, in the evening - from the other, that is, they are oriented from north to south.
Stepping back a couple of meters from the fence, you will provide the raspberries with good lighting and ventilation.
When choosing a sunny place for raspberries without stagnant rain and melt water, consider the neighborhood. There should be no strawberries nearby (weevil will come from it) and potatoes, often suffering from late blight. The raspberry itself should not oppress nearby growing crops. This can be avoided by digging slate sheets around the perimeter of the raspberry tree or planting bushes in cut and dug barrels.
Raspberries, with competent agricultural technology, grow and bear fruit in one place for 10-15, and sometimes 20 years.
Any kind of raspberry grows well on light loam. One of the ways to prepare such soil: to dig up the area, after sprinkling 1-2 buckets of humus or compost and 2 glasses of ash per 1 m². If there is little organic matter, you can add it when planting in the hole. On sandy and clayey soils, everything is more difficult. Water and fertilizers dissolved in it do not linger in the sand, raspberries suffer without moisture and nutrition. On clayey, water spreads over the surface, the roots do not breathe and also do not receive vital elements.
To grow Patricia's claimed crop on sandy soil, you will have to dig a trench. The essence of this event is to create a layer for the raspberries that will absorb water and rot. Thus, under the roots will be a moist and nourishing cushion. The trench is made in the fall, when there are many materials on the site for filling it.
How to make a raspberry trench:
On clay soil, a raised breast will help. It should rise only 15–20 cm above the soil, but this is enough for the root system to breathe, feed and develop. If you make it higher, then the bed will quickly erode, and the roots will dry.
The quality of a raspberry seedling is assessed by the root. It is from it that replacement shoots will grow and give the first harvest. But you also need to inspect the existing escape.
Signs of a healthy and promising seedling:
A high-quality seedling has fibrous roots and rudiments of replacement shoots
If there are two or more varieties on the site, then the yield due to cross-pollination will be higher.
It is better to grow high-quality raspberries by a bush method, according to the scheme: 150-180 cm between rows and 100 cm in a row. With this planting, each bush will receive its own portion of light, air and care. Regardless of what you cooked for raspberries: beds, trenches, or simply dug up an area with fertilizers, the planting steps will be the same.
How to plant raspberries Patricia:
If trenches and beds have not been prepared in advance, fertilizers have not been applied, then:
The classic pruning of raspberries is the removal of all fruiting shoots, and then young ones, so that 5-7 of the strongest annual (green) stems remain in the bushes. In the spring, the broken, frozen ones are cut out and tied to trellises. With this cultivation, berries are formed only in the upper part of the bush. To maximize yields, gardeners practice double pruning.
For any growing method, cut out lignified shoots immediately after harvest.
Double cropping according to Sobolev:
If the raspberries are not tied to the trellis, the shoots will fall on the ground and give roots in the places where the lateral branches grow. That is, several new plants will grow from one stem, but there will be no berries. That is why, in abandoned gardens, a raspberry jungle grows from one row in 1-2 years.
When growing with double pruning, the distance between bushes in a row should be increased by 1.5–2 times, since a lush tree grows from each shoot. Or leave fewer shoots in the bushes, for example, 4 instead of 7. This is the formation. Patricia gives 6–10 replacement shoots. However, in summer and autumn, do not rush to remove healthy, but superfluous, in your opinion, young stems. Keep in mind that the part may break when bending to the ground or freeze in winter. Some will have to be cut due to diseases and pests. Therefore, postpone the thinning of the bush until spring.
The above does not apply to the growth. It is removed as soon as it appears. If the sprouts have crawled out at a distance of 25-30 cm from the bush, they can be dug out with a shovel, if closer - rake the ground to a depth of 5-7 cm and cut with a pruner. Do not pull out the growth, you will damage the main root.
The shoots are not pulled out, but cut off with a pruner or chopped off with a shovel so as not to damage the mother root
Raspberries do not like stagnant water on the soil surface, but their roots require a lot of moisture. This is especially true for the large-fruited Patricia variety. With a lack of water, the berries will grow small, ugly and dry, and with an excess, they will grow watery, tasteless and rotten. During the season, you need to water 4-6 times, but not when you like, and not according to the calendar, but only during specific periods of raspberry development.
Development phases requiring a lot of water:
The irrigation rate for Patricia is 40–50 liters per bush, but this is the maximum consumption. In fact, you need to take into account the weather conditions and the condition of the soil. Not every rain is able to soak a layer of earth 50 cm, and it is to this depth that the roots of raspberries go. During the indicated times, excavate the soil between the rows. At any depth up to 50 cm, it should shrink into a non-crumbling lump. If not all layers are sufficiently moistened, for example, only the upper or lower 25 cm are dry, then watering is needed, but at a rate of half the maximum.
Water Patricia at the root: with a hose or buckets. So that a crust does not form on the ground and weeds do not grow, cover it with mulch from sawdust, hay or grass cut and yellowed in the sun. Sprinkling is excluded, since water droplets on leaves, flowers and berries are a "home" for pathogenic fungi. Raspberries have enough natural moisturizers: rain and dew.
|When to deposit||Fertilizer and dosage||Method of application|
|At the end of the spring frost||Infusion of mullein (1:10), bird droppings (1:20) or weeds (1: 5) |
In the absence of organic matter: potassium nitrate (20 g per 10 l of water)
|Pour on wet ground at the rate of 5 liters per 1m²|
|During fruiting||2 tbsp. l. double superphosphate, 2 tbsp. l. potash fertilizer without chlorine and 1 tsp. Dilute Uniflor-micro in 10 liters of water||Add after watering 1 liter under the bush|
|In October||1-2 buckets of rotted manure or compost||Spread out under each bush in the form of mulch|
Raspberries do not like acidic soils. In addition to fertilizers, add deoxidizers twice a season: 1 glass of garden lime or dolomite flour per 10 liters of water. This volume is enough for 10 running meters of landings. Ash is a good alternative: scatter 1–2 cups under each bush on damp soil.
Fertilize raspberries with humus in the fall.
If in your area in winter the temperature drops below -30 ⁰C, then the shoots of Patricia need to be bent to the ground. To do this, after the first frost, tilt adjacent bushes to each other and connect them in an arc of such a height so that in winter it is all under the snow. In addition, you need to cover the raspberry roots with a thick layer (10-15 cm) of sawdust, fallen leaves, hay. With this technique, you will protect the roots from freezing and temperature extremes. After all, it happens that frosts come when there is still no snow, and in spring there are strong jumps in temperature: warm days are replaced by frosty nights.