Amanita muscaria: Amanita has always been known as the hallucinogenic mushroom used in shamanic rites to cause hallucinations


MUSCLE AMANITA

L'A. muscaria it has always been known as the mushroom used, since ancient times in shamanic rites, to cause hallucinations.

This article contains information that can generate situations of danger and harm as it deals with hallucinogenic substances. The data present are for informational purposes only, not exhortative and in no case medical.

BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION

Kingdom

:

Fungi

Division

:

Basidiomycota

Class

:

Basidiomycetes

Order

:

Agaricales

Family

:

Amanitaceae

Kind

:

Amanita

Species

:

Amanita muscaria

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

There Amanita muscaria also known as (Agaricus muscarius or Agaricus pseudo aurantiacus) whose vulgar name ismalefic egg, ovolaccio, false cocc, crazy mushroom,moscaria or fly agaric (for the British) is a mushroom that belongs to class of basidiomycetes and to family ofAmanitaceae which includes more than 10,000 species with over a hundred genera. In the order of the Agaricales, the Amanita genus is certainly the most studied and known.

This is one of the most popular and well-known mushrooms also due to the fact that its presence does not go unnoticed given the liveliness of its colors. It is very beautiful to look at, as it is possible to find species that can even reach 25 cm in height.

The hat (the fruiting body of the mushroom)it is fleshy and at the juvenile stage it is closed and hemispherical in shape which, once ripe, opens taking on the classic mushroom shape that we all know. To the touch it remains slimy with a very bright red or orange or yellowish color normally covered by small vesicles usually white or tending to yellowish which are nothing but shreds of the veil (a sort of protection that forms when the fungus is developing). white color that remain adherent to the top of the hat.

We see other fragments of the veil in the upper part of the stem to form a sort of collar.

The hat is supported by a stem, typically cylindrical, mostly solid (hollow in the central part) which remains enlarged in the lower part to form a sort of bulb forming white concentric circles.

In the lower part it presents numerous lamellae, very dense, white or slightly yellowish that develop the hymenium, the fertile part of the fungus from which the spores (the "seeds" of mushrooms to be understood) are formed.

If you cut the mushroom you notice that the inside of the pulp is white just below the cuticle of the hat while below it remains yellowish with an insignificant smell and taste.

The spores they are white and their number is almost incalculable in the order of billions in the course of a year.

There are several varieties that differ from each other for the different color of the hat ranging from more or less intense yellow to orange.


Amanita muscaria variety buxom


Amanita muscaria variety Sunrise

It is easy to find it both in summer and in autumn in the coniferous and broad-leaved woods even if it has a large number of host plants ranging from pine, poplar, fir, birch.

HISTORY

The story is based on the linguistic analyzes of different peoples, especially Asians. In fact, it has a long reputation as a mushroom used in shamanic rituals to cause hallucinations.

In the northeastern areas of Siberia

Numerous hieroglyphs have been found which date back to 1000-2000 BC. with figures of men with mushrooms in hats. This is the area inhabited by Chukchi people (who inhabit the Chukchi Peninsula at the northeastern end of Asia between the Pacific and the Arctic Sea where the Bering Strait separates it from Alaska) who still use the Amanita muscaria as intoxicating.

In the Rig Veda

(an ancient Hindu sacred text written in Sanskrit) dating back to 500 BC. there is often talk of an intoxicating called soma which the scholar Gordon Wasson in 1968 attributed toAmanita muscaria. Also confirmed later by numerous scholars even if some claim that it is theCannabis.

Recite one of the hymns: “We drank soma, we became immortal, we reached the light, we found divinity. What can the enemy do now to harm us and what harm can mortals do? It expands, Soma oh! Our life to live. These splendid waters grant a lot, to live.How the fire is lit by scrubbing so the waters are kindled! This will help us transcend our vision and increase our well-being! ”.

For all these reasons it is now believed that this mushroom is the first oldest psychoactive plant that has been used by man.

There are many peoples who still today have handed down and use the Amanita muscaria

:the chikchi, i Lapps (which currently mainly occupies the lands north of the Arctic Circle), i Koriak (or Coriachi, of Mongolian lineage living in the far north of Kamchatka, still populated today by groups of nomads, hunters and ranchers) and other populations that gravitate in the area of ​​the Bering Strait and central Siberia near the Ob and Yenisei rivers. In practice throughout the vast territory of Siberia where the figure of the shaman exists, this mushroom is still consumed today both for magical practices and for healing purposes. Also in the American continent there are reports of two populations, the Chippewa and the Dogribs, on the border between the United States and Canada in the area of ​​the great lakes, who use this mushroom in their shamanic rituals.

It is thought that the spread of the use of this mushroom is due to the migration in prehistoric times of Indo-European populations towards America from Kazakhstan to the Asian steppes, to the north of Germany and to the British Isles, arriving as far as France and Italy. other with him also the knowledge of the use of iron and bronze.

The American peoples of Mexico and Central America associated this mushroom with the supernatural forces that controlled the time although there is no documentation that associates them with magical practices. In the Mayan-Quiché language of the indigenous Guatemalans there Amanita muscaria she was calledKakulya (pre-Hispanic name of the god of lightning) while i Tzetzal-speaking Maya of Mexico they called him yuy chauk "Mushroom of lightnings". It is not known what this fact came from, although over time it was associated with more beneficial divinities.
According to some scholars it seems that the Amanita muscaria was used by the Vikings before their raids by giving them strength and aggression. This was deduced from the fact that a passage from Norse mythology tells how Odin was persecuted by demons and that from the mouth of Sleipnir, the six-legged horse, a red foam fell which turned into mushrooms.

Others who used theA. muscaria they were the Scottish clandestine salmon fishermen to give more resistance. They drank a soda based on A. muscaria and wisky known as Cathy (also used today) in honor of Empress Catherine of Russia (photo above) who greatly appreciated this drink.
Over time, the use of this mushroom was lost and anthropologists attribute this both to the great social and cultural changes that took place in the Neolithic period and to the advent of Christianity which has always fought against the use of psychoactive substances considered pagan rites. Practically only when theAmanita muscariaassumed the role of "hallucinogenic plant" became a poisonous mushroom.

ACTIVE PRINCIPLES

Several substances have been isolated from this mushroom:

Vanadium, (a chemical element with atomic number 23 and symbol "V" is a rare, soft and ductile element) which up to now has not been isolated in any other representative of the vegetable kingdom; mostly found in minerals compounded with other elements.

Muscarina, an alkaloid, discovered in 1869. When it was discovered it was thought that she was responsible for the hallucinogenic properties of the mushroom. In reality, it was later discovered that its action is entirely secondary, but it is responsible for the symptoms of nausea, vomiting and blurred vision. Among other things, it is present in minimum quantities of about 2.5 mg / kg.

Atropine, a tropan-alkaloid, present in several plants.

Bufotenin which is a poisonous active ingredient that is mainly secreted by some skin glands of toads (species Bufo bufo).

But the main substances, isolated in the laboratory and responsible for the hallucinogenic effects are:ibotenic acid, themuscimol and to a lesser extent themuscazone.

Ibotenic acid it does not cross the blood of the brain as it is but is partly transformed into Muscimol while the remaining part is eliminated. Laction is then carried out by the muscle which works as a GABA antireceptor (gaba antagonist). It has been shown to be particularly active in the cerebellum, cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

The muscimol, is expelled as it is from the urine, without being metabolized and this explains the custom evidenced by various writings, of drinking the urine of those who have eaten these mushrooms (in order to have the hallucinogenic effect) as the muscle passes through the kidneys without be modified so that urine would have the same effect asAmanita but without the negative effects of nausea and vomiting caused by muscarine which is not found in the urine so it is somehow metabolized.The use of drinking urine horrifies us Westerners but for Native American and Oriental peoples it was normal to use it as a disinfectant and medicine. Therefore it should not seem strange that they drank the urine of those who had ingested the Amanita muscaria .

However, ibotenic acid naturally becomes muscle with time, a more stable compound. This fact is linked to the tradition according to which the Siberian natives let the mushroom dry in the sun or in the fire so that its effects are more powerful. They also used the smaller sized mushrooms with many "white spots" as they were said to be more potent than the larger, faded ones.

It has been ascertained that the quantity of these psychoactive substances is very variable depending on the place of origin of the Amanita. This is why the effects of the fungus are not always the same.

HOW IT IS USED

Traditionally they were used dry as fresh caused vomiting. Their effect starts about 2-3 hours after taking and lasts about 6-8 hours.

Some people smoke dry amanita with an almost instant effect but short-lived.

It is impossible to give certain indications on the minimum doses that can be toxic as it varies from mushroom to mushroom and from the areas where it is grown. Only a chemical examination can tell the percentage of active ingredient present.

It is known that koryaks like chukchis used to dry these mushrooms in bunches of three which was considered the average dose. Once dried and made crumbly they took them with a little water. Or they were chewed directly.

The bibliography on this mushroom is very extensive. In any case, many scholars affirm that if it is eaten as it is, without adequate preparation, it is deadly, vice versa if treated properly, considering that its toxins are soluble in water, it can be taken without problems as it still happens in Japan today and in some areas in southern France and Spain where they consume the mushroom for its psychoactive effects.

Any attempt to emulate the examples described above is strongly discouraged, as the side effects have not been tested: the majority of mycological texts advise against any type of food use.

EFFECTS

TO physical level has stimulating effects on the parasympathetic system causing sweating, contraction of the pupils, decreased heart rate and increased intestinal peristalsis, nausea, disorientation.

No physical harm has been reported from prolonged use of this mushroom nor is it known to be addictive.

At low dosages it causes a feeling of intoxication, greater physical strength with impaired vision when seeing objects of different dimensions from the real one. Those who have studied the effects that these fungi cause have found that its effects are very subjective and vary a lot from person to person.

LEGISLATION

It is considered legal in almost all states as it is not counted among the psychoactive substances for which it can be safely grown, sold and owned. An exception is the state of Louisiana, in the United States where the use of this mushroom is not legal if it refers to humans, while possession and cultivation is permitted for strictly aesthetic, landscaping and decorative purposes.

CURIOSITY'

The name Amanitacoined by Persoon Christian Hendrik may derive from the Greek nameamanitai «Without details» or from Amanus a mountain of the ancient Roman province in Cilia south of present-day Turkey.

The name muscaria it would derive from the Latin muscarius«Pertaining to flies» due to the fact that its juice mixed with milk (or pieces of mushroom left to macerate) has excellent fly-killing properties (flies attracted to milk drink it and die).

Some scholars have pointed out that this mushroom, considered poisonous, "object of the evil one" is actually always associated with beautiful images, especially in Mediterranean countries. For example, have you ever noticed why when children draw a mushroom they draw it with a red hat and white dots? Or, have you noticed that the houses of the gnomes and the fairies are always represented with the red hat and the white dots? In practice it is associated with magical figures, so it can be linked to its shamanic origins that have remained dormant but still present in current culture.

In the original fable Alice in Wonderland

by Lewis Caroll illustrated Sir John Tenniel, when Alice meets the caterpillar, in chapter V, Alice finds herself in front of a gigantic mushroom on top of which is a caterpillar with a pipe, the typical one for smoking opium, listening to Alice's complaints for being too small in stature and the caterpillar finally tells her: "One side will make you taller and the other will make you shorter" and Alice replies: "One side of what? And the other side of what? " "Of the mushroom," said the Caterpillar, as if Alice had questioned him aloud and immediately disappeared. This can be safely linked to the fact that one of the effects of theAmanita muscariais to see things of a different size than they actually are (either very large or very small). And by eating the mushroom Alice changes its size.

Online bibliographic sources

  • College of Health
  • Las drogas as it is
  • Scientific Electronic Library Online (ISSN 1851-2372)

Joseph Zanda

Psychotherapist psychiatrist doctor

Dr. Giuseppe Zanda, psychotherapist psychiatrist. Via Consani 80, Lucca.

Website that collects publications and interventions carried out in recent years. The articles are scientific and informative.

Hallucinogenic plants of abuse
Joseph Zanda
University of Pisa
Department of Psychiatry, Neurobiology, Pharmacology and Biotechnology
Postgraduate II level Master in "Pathological addictions"
Pisa, February 24, 2009

3
The strong desire, which leads man to escape from monotony
of everyday life, it instinctively made him discover strange
substances.

most of them are products of the plant kingdom,
in whose silent growth and in whose creative abundance
man has not yet fully penetrated.

These substances, on the one hand, lead us into the depths
darker than mental instability and the precariousness of the body,
on the other, to hours of ecstasy, happiness and a peaceful state
Of the mind.


Why a lesson on hallucinogenic plants,
an argument that might seem outdated, out of date,
in these years in which it has been witnessed
to the appearance of young people in the recreational world
of an enormous quantity of synthetic substances
with stimulating-hallucinogenic and / or dissociative properties?

The fact is that today the use and abuse of hallucinogenic substances, behaviors very distant from the so-called "psychedelic revolution" of the 1960s,
they are part of the increasingly widespread youthful attitude of "sensation seeking" and "high",
the reasons for which have yet to be fully understood.

In this search for strong sensations and novelty
experiencing experiences with hallucinogenic substances,
provided by mother nature,
not synthesized in cold laboratories, often squalid and clandestine, it has an added value and, it seems, very palatable.

In the practice of SerT these experiences are generally associated with the abuse of other substances (heroin, alcohol, cocaine) and it will hardly happen that someone will ask to be helped to overcome an addiction to hallucinogenic plants (if addiction to cannabis is excluded , which, as a hallucinogenic drug of abuse, has a very particular position).

The topic, therefore, could seem more within the competence of the Emergency Medicine Services and the Toxicology Services, which are more likely to deal with cases that present hallucinatory and / or confusional symptoms, most often acute, difficult to classify.

However, precisely for what has already been mentioned, also for the operators of the services for pathological addictions e
of psychiatric services
it is important to know this subject on the border between toxicology, addictology and psychiatry.

Little was known about hallucinogenic substances in Western countries until the 1960s when,
simultaneously with the defense of a new culture of psychedelics, icons of protest,
they took on the function of catalysts for an immense change in society.

The use of hallucinogens seemed to disappear until the late 1990s, when a sort of revival of interest in them began to occur.

9
Today in the literature there is a growing alarm for the
rebirth of the use of psychoactive substances of plant origin, due

the prompt availability of advertising and information about it via the Internet,

to the cultures of rave and dance-based trance states,

to the increase in migratory phenomena and imports and exports,

to the intertwining of many cultures

10
In nature there is a large reserve of medicinal substances and toxic substances, many of which are yet to be discovered or to be thoroughly understood from the point of view
security,
effectiveness,
of drug interactions.

With the exception of a small group of strictly controlled substances, most plants capable of producing hallucinogenic effects are readily available and, therefore, continue to be consumed for purposes
experimental,
recreational,
spiritual.

In general, hallucinogenic plants have been described as harmless substances, yet their unpredictable nature makes their intoxication potentially dangerous.

11
The populations most at risk of abuse of these plants are young people, especially adolescents.

The increase in the use of psychoactive substances contained in certain plants by young people and the ease with which inaccurate and incomplete information can be obtained often make it necessary for clinicians, parents, teachers, law enforcement and politicians to be more and more aware of the risks associated with their use and abuse.

In this respect, the Internet can also be an effective means of disseminating correct information on these substances.

13
Hallucinogenic plants have always been used and abused by mankind.

Hallucinogenic substances occur naturally in many species of mushrooms, in cacti and in numerous other plants that have flowers.

For centuries these substances have been associated with religion, black magic and medicine, and in our day they have been the subject of a large number of songs and stories as well as illustrations and children's books.

14
The discovery and description of the hallucinogenic plants of the new world, which represent the vast majority of known hallucinogenic plants, is due to the exploratory botanists of the nineteenth century, among whom a particular mention should be reserved to the English Richard Spruce (1817-1893), that, after having
traveled to the Pyrenees, in 1849 he followed Alfred Russell Wallace and Henry Walter Bates to the Amazon and the Andes, collecting and cataloging thousands of plants.

15
The first scientific research on hallucinogenic plants began towards the end of the 19th century.

In 1924 the German physician, pharmacologist and toxicologist Louis Lewin (1850-1929) published the monograph "Phantastica (Gebundene Ausgabe)" (published in Italian by Vallardi in 1928 with the title "Phantastica. Drugs narcotic and exciting").

In this pioneering work, Lewin described the effects and the ritual and voluptuous use of the various substances, also following their traces in the history of literature and fairy tales, proposed a classification of psychoactive substances and plants and called phantastic those plants that

"They cause obvious cerebral excitement in the form of hallucinations, illusions and visions. followed by unconsciousness and other symptoms of brain alteration '.

16
Classification of psychoactive substances and plants according to Lewin (1924)

They cause sensory illusions
peyote, cannabis, mushrooms (Amanita muscaria and psilocyb), nightshades (datura, brugmansia, henbane), banisteriopsis caapi
Phantastica
(hallucinogens or entheogens)
They induce sleep
chloral, paraldehyde, potassium bromide, kava
Hypnotica
(tranquilizers or hypnotics)
They cause mental sedation
opium, morphine, codeine, cocaine
Euphorica
(euphoric or narcotic)
They stimulate the mind
camphor, betel, khat, caffeine, cocoa, tobacco
Excitantia (exciting)
They cause excitement followed by brain depression
alcohol, chloroform, ether, benzene
Inebriantia (intoxicating)
Effects
Substances and plants

Starting from 1938, compounds with hallucinogenic properties synthesized in chemical laboratories were added to the collection of natural hallucinogenic substances.

In 1938, in fact, the Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann (1906-2008), who died over a hundred years old in April 2008, synthesized LSD 25, diethylamide of lysergic acid, the twenty-fifth of the molecules synthesized from the alkaloid in the laboratories of Sandoz ergot (ergot), of which he studied the effects on the circulatory system.

18
Five years later, in 1943, Hofmann accidentally ingested a small amount of LSD 25, later known simply as LSD, and had a shocking personal hallucinatory experience.

After further studies, LSD was proposed by Sandoz as a drug, called Delysid, with specific and limited indications:

as an adjuvant in analytical psychotherapy,
as a means of studying the nature of psychosis (it should be remembered that since the early twentieth century numerous experiments had been carried out with mescaline to study schizophrenic psychoses).

19
After the synthesis in the laboratory of the first chemical substance capable of producing hallucinatory experiences in humans, similar to those that until then were obtained only through the use of natural plant products, natural hallucinogens and synthetic or semisynthetic hallucinogens have alternatively or together it trod more and more the stage of human comedy in the western world with prevailing recreational purposes.

The entry of the study of hallucinogenic substances into scientific laboratories led as a consequence, in the first half of the twentieth century, to the approach of previously distant disciplines, which largely overlapped and mutually enriched.

The study of hallucinogenic substances is currently a field of common interest for botanists, pharmacologists, chemists and psychiatrists, who recognize themselves in disciplines, such as ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, ethnotoxicology and ethnopsychiatry.

20
After the shocking discovery of the hallucinogenic effects of LSD Hofmann came into contact with R. Gordon Wasson (1898-1986), a former American banker, who later became one of the greatest scholars of ethnomycology in the world and with the French mycologist Roger Heim ( 1900-1979), who had made numerous trips to study the hallucinogenic substances traditionally used in the Amazon in shamanic rites.

It was Roger Heim who brought the Psilocybe mexicana mushroom to Europe, from which Hofmann extracted psilocybin and psilocin.

Several years later Hofmann and Wasson in the book "Discovering the Eleusinian Mysteries" (1978) argued that

"The characteristic property of hallucinogens, that of removing the barriers between the knowing subject and the external world in an ecstatic-emotional experience, can make it possible, after appropriate internal and external preparations such as those scrupulously taken care of in Eleusis, a mystical experience for so say according to the program. "

21
Already in 1958 Aldous Huxley in the novel "Brave New World" had spoken of a substance, called soma, which could serve

"Partly as a remedy for the inconveniences that could occur despite, or because of, the complete rational organization of life in the New World, but partly also as a source of ecstatic experiences and as an alternative to religion".

Due to the property, supported by some researchers, of putting man in contact with the divine, hallucinogens were also called entheogens and the science sector that dealt with the biological basis of this property was called neurotheology.

Recently Benny Shanon, professor of psychology at the University of Jerusalem, in an article, which caused a sensation, published in Time and Mind in March 2008, argued that the experiences of Moses described in the Bible were due to the use of substances. hallucinogenic.

22
The fathers of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacotoxicology
Richard Spruce (1817-1893)
Richard E. Schultes (1915-2001)
Louis Lewin (1850-1929)
Albert Hofmann (1906-2008)
R. Gordon Wasson (1898-1986)
Roger Heim (1900-1979)

23
Scientific statute of hallucinogens

24
Hallucinogens are chemically and pharmacologically heterogeneous substances that cause hallucinations, that is, significant distortions of perceptions of reality.

Under the influence of hallucinogens, you see images, hear sounds and have sensations that seem real but do not exist.

Some hallucinogens also cause rapid and intense changes in emotions.

Hallucinogens cause their effects by destroying the interaction of nerve cells and the neurotransmitter serotonin.

The serotonergic system, distributed in the brain and spinal cord, is involved in the control of systems of behavior, perception and regulation, including mood, hunger, body temperature, sexual behavior and sensory perception.

25
The term hallucinogen emphasizes the effects of substances on perception.

The term psychotomimetic emphasizes that the effects on emotion, cognition and perception of these substances resemble the symptoms of psychosis, which occur naturally.

The more vague and less restrictive term psychedelic, proposed in 1957 by the English psychiatrist Humphry F. Osmond (1917-2004) to indicate the property of these substances to "reveal" the mind, to broaden the consciousness, gained immense popularity.

26
According to Hoffer and Osmond (1967), hallucinogens "are chemical compounds that in non-toxic doses produce variations in perceptions, thoughts, mood but rarely mental confusion and memory loss".

According to Hoffman (1973), hallucinogens "induce profound psychic alterations associated with the variation of the perception of space and time and of personality without alterations of consciousness".

These two definitions reflect, in particular, the characteristics of synthetic hallucinogens.

As regards, instead, the hallucinogens obtained from plants we will see that for many of them, especially the tropane alkaloids of some solanaceae, the effects correspond to states of intoxication, in which alterations of the state of consciousness frequently occur.

27
The main hallucinogenic plants of abuse

28
The American Richard Evans Schultes (1915-2001), considered the father of modern ethnobotany and the worthy successor of Richard Spruce and other botanical explorers of the Amazon, classified hallucinogenic plants into two groups:

1) those originating from the old continent (Europe, Asia, Africa,
Australia),
2) those originating from the new world (Americas).

Of all the numerous plants described by Schultes (1976), only those that currently have a certain importance as substances of abuse in Western countries will be considered.

29
1) Hallucinogenic plants of the old continent
Muscarium agaric
Indian hemp
Henbane

31
Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria). 1
Amanita muscaria is a mushroom whose characteristic appearance (round red chapels from which white growths sprout) has given rise to many legends and many fairy tales. In English it is called Fly agaric, in reference to its use as an insecticide: ingested by flies or mosquitoes (fly) it causes their death.

The Amanita muscaria is found in the British Isles, on the European continent, in North America, Siberia and Asia and has been transported and widely spread also in the southern hemisphere, New Zealand, Australia, South America and South Africa.

32
Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria). 2
Its main constituents are isoxazole derivatives ibotenic acid and muscimol (3-hydroxy-5-aminomethyl-1-isoxazole), while muscarine is contained in insignificant quantities.

Ibotenic acid is an agonist of the glutamate receptor, an excitatory neurotransmitter.

Muscimol is a GABA receptor agonist.
The neurotransmitter effects of Amanita muscaria resemble those of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), which in high doses produces central nervous system depression and excitatory effects.

33
Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria). 3
A single Amanita muscaria mushroom, which contains about 6 mg of muscimol and 60 mg of ibotenic acid, ingested or smoked, is sufficient to produce toxic clinical signs.

The combined effects of muscimol and ibotenic acid, which appear one to two hours after ingestion, include:
intense hallucinations, delusions,
indistinct language,
ataxia, dizziness, headache,
nausea, vomiting,
unconsciousness and "alcoholic" euphoria.

The anticholinergic effects are very modest.

The intoxication symptoms last for about 6-12 hours.

34
Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria). 4
A specific characteristic of Amanita muscaria is that, after being ingested, one of its main components, ibotenic acid, is almost all excreted unchanged in the urine, so it is possible to store and drink the urine of a consumer to renew the previously experienced hallucinogenic effects.

The Siberian Koryaks first discovered this pharmacokinetic property and used to carry small containers on their sleds for this purpose.

35
Muscarium agaric (Amanita muscaria). 5
R. Gordon Wasson (1967) hypothesized that the mysterious substance called Soma, to which 120 of the 1028 verses of the oldest known sacred text, the Rig Veda, written between 1500 and 500 BC are dedicated. by the Aryans who lived in the Indus Valley and considered the foundation of the Hindu religion, was the Amanita muscaria.

In the Rig Veda, Soma was described as a plant without root and without leaves, which possessed divine properties and ensured immortality and divine inspiration.
"We drank the Soma we became immortal, we came to the light we found the gods."

36
Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria). 6
It is also suggestive that since the beginning of the twentieth century in central Europe the image of this red mushroom with white spots has been widely used during the holiday season for greeting cards, and that its colors are precisely those of the dress of Santa Claus.

And the reindeer of Santa Claus, which fly over the houses carrying Christmas gifts on the sled, do not perhaps bring to mind the traditional "flights" of shamanic rites?

37
Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria). 7
An entire chapter of the book by Mordecai C. Cooke (1825-1914) The Seven Sisters of Sleep, published in 1860 and considered a classic of the scientific literature on narcotics, is dedicated to Amanita muscaria.
Mordecai C. Cooke (1825-1914)

38
Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria). 8
«Mushrooms, which in one country are very poisonous, in another are eaten without any danger, as happens for the Amanita muscaria, the fungus of the flies, common in England, where it is always poisonous while in Kamtschatka it is frequently used as food [ . ]

the mushroom in question certainly possesses poisonous properties, with fatal effects unless these properties are countered or eliminated by a specific preparation method.

The Russians and some other peoples are familiar with this method, which consists in soaking mushrooms well with salt before cooking them [. ]

39
Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria). 9
What coca is to Bolivians and opium to Chinese, areca to Malays and hashish to Africans, tobacco to Europeans and Americans and stramonium to Andean, Amanita muscaria is for the natives of Siberia and Kamtschatka [. ]

The way to use this unique substance consists in making it into a ball in the form of a bolus and swallowing it without chewing [. ]

Some effects produced by this particular narcotic are similar to those produced by intoxicating liqueurs, others resemble the effects of hashish.

At first it causes a state of joy, which is followed by dizziness and intoxication, finally, in some cases, there is a complete loss of consciousness.

40
Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria). 10

The natural inclinations of the individual are stimulated. The dancer performs a pas d’extravagance, the music lover starts singing a song, the chatterer divulges all his secrets, the speaker lets himself go to a tirade and the mime to a caricature.

Perceptual errors of dimensions and distances are common, both when swallowing Amanita and cannabis [. ] Furthermore, this mushroom has the property of transmitting its properties to excreted liquids [urine], making them intoxicating. In Siberia, hard drinkers keep their urine as a precious liquor to use in case there is a shortage of the fungus. "

41
Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria). 11
«. And to test the effect, he gingerly nibbled a crumb [of mushroom]. She felt a violent jolt in her chin as it touched the tip of one foot: frightened by this sudden change and aware that there was not a minute to lose, because it continued to shrink continuously, she had the wit to bring another to her lips. piece of mushroom. But his chin was already so close to his foot that he could hardly open his mouth. She was immediately resumed by terror, no longer seeing her back. He could see only the neck, a long, immense neck that seemed to rise like a pole. With grateful surprise he found that the neck was very elastic, and that he could move it in all directions with the greatest ease. "
Lewis Carroll - Alice in Wonderland - 1865

43
Indian hemp (Cannabis). 1
Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug of abuse in many developed countries. Hemp fiber, oil and a hallucinogenic narcotic are obtained from it.

Originally from Central Asia, the first news about it dates back to a Chinese document dating back more than 8000 years ago.In 13th-century Asia Minor, the Hashishins were members of a sect that perpetrated political crimes after consuming high doses of hashish: some have argued that the term "murderer" derived from their name.

Cannabis is called differently in different countries: for example, it is called dagga in Africa, kif in Morocco, bhang and ganja in India.

44
Indian hemp (Cannabis). 2
Its active constituents are called cannabinoids: delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol and cannabinol.

All parts of the female plant contain THC and are toxic.

Cannabis is smoked or ingested and is named differently based on the part of the plant that is consumed.
The dried, crushed and smoked leaves are called marijuana and contain around 1-6% THC.
The resin, obtained from freshly fertilized female plants, is called hashish, is more potent than marijuana, can be smoked or eaten after being baked and contains 6-10% THC.
Concentrated oil, called hash oil, is the most potent form of cannabis, it is smoked and contains 15-60% THC.

45
Indian hemp (Cannabis). 3
The clinical effects of cannabis include:
sense of well-being,
disinhibition,
detachment,
paranoid ideation,
hallucinations,
restlessness.

Long-term effects on motivation, cognition, and respiratory and reproductive systems have been reported.

If smoked the effects appear within a few minutes, if ingested they appear within a period of time ranging from one to three hours depending on the presence or absence of food in the stomach.

Symptoms last about 3-4 hours.

47
Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger). 1
In ancient times, Hyoscyamus niger (Henbane in English) was the most commonly used magical and medicinal plant in Europe.

The Greek physician Hippocrates administered the seeds in wine to treat fever, tetanus and gynecological ailments.

In all ages it has been used for its well-known psychotropic properties, mainly characterized by a sense of dissolution or distortion of the body, a sensation of flying, erotic hallucinations.

The total amnesia following the period of intoxication should also be emphasized.

48
Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger). 2
Although it is not possible to determine its exact origin, it is believed that Hyoscyamus niger came from the Mediterranean regions of Asia Minor and North Africa, from where it spread to Pakistan, India and China and, subsequently, to Northern Europe and, for work of the Spaniards, on the American coast.

The ancient Greeks considered the Hyoscyamus niger plant sacred to Apollo, and today many scholars believe that it was one of the substances used by the Oracle of Apollo in Delphi.

49
Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger). 3
It is believed that Hyoscyamus niger, known in the Middle Ages as "witches' herb" (a name later also given to Datura stramonium), was one of the ingredients of their infamous ointment.

It can also be assumed that witches used the broomstick as a means of applying their ointment to the mucous membranes so as to make them the vehicle for erotic flights of the imagination.

In the Middle Ages, the aphrodisiac properties of Hyoscyamus niger were also exploited in the preparation of bewitching and amorous potions.

50
Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger). 4
In general, the chemical characteristics, methods of consumption and clinical effects of Hyoscyamus niger are similar to those of other solanaceae containing tropane alkaloids.

The tropane alkaloids (hyoscyamine, atropine and scopolamine or hyoscine) act through a competitive inhibition mechanism of acetylcholine at the level of the central and peripheral post-synaptic muscarinic receptors and are rapidly absorbed through intact skin, mucous membranes and the gastrointestinal tract.
hyoscyamine
scopolamine or hyoscine
atropine

51
Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger). 5
Henbane poisoning occurs clinically with the symptoms of anticholinergic poisoning, which can last from hours to days:

tachycardia, hypertension, hyperpyrexia, motor restlessness, mydriasis, amnesia, confusion, dissociation, hallucinations (auditory, visual and also of the Lilliputian type), delusions, euphoria and, sometimes, bizarre self-injurious gestures.

Blurred vision (mydriasis) and headaches can last for weeks.

52
Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger). 6
All the plants of the nightshade family, including the Stramonium (Datura stramonium) native to the new world, have been used throughout history for the medical treatment of many diseases, in particular colds and asthma.

Today, in Western countries, pharmaceutical companies use their flowers to extract atropine, hyoscine and hyoscyamine for the preparation of numerous over-the-counter and ophthalmological drugs.
Stramonio flower

53
2) Hallucinogenic plants of the new world
Psilocybin mushrooms
Ayahuasca
Peyote
Sage
Stramonium
Trumpet of the angel

55
Psilocybin mushrooms (Psilocybe). 1
The testimonies of the first conquerors and travelers in Central America, together with numerous finds such as mushroom stones, dating back to 2000 BC, indicate the existence of an ancient cult of psilocybin mushrooms, especially in Guatemala and Mexico, which has persisted to the present day.

At least until the 4th century BC. these hallucinogenic mushrooms were considered sacred and were called Teonanactl ("flesh of the gods") by the Aztecs.

56
Psilocybin mushrooms (Psilocybe). 2
Schultes was the first Westerner to participate in a velada (healing ceremony) at Huautla de Jimenez in the state of Oaxaca in 1937.
From then on, the fame of that cult attracted more and more visitors, scholars and travelers from all over the world.
In 1953 in the footsteps of Schultes, R. Gordon Wasson had demonstrations of clairvoyance in Huautla and participated in healing ceremonies, carried out by curanderos through the ingestion of mushrooms (Psilocybe mazatecorum).
The ceremonies took place at night with the singing accompaniment of the viaje by the curandero, who ingested the mushrooms after having blessed them and subsequently received, in the form of visions or speaking with the Holy Spirit, the information requested from the mushroom.

57
Psilocybin mushrooms (Psilocybe). 3
Psilocybe mushrooms, Psilocybe cubensis or Stropharia Cubensis, Psilocybe semilanceata, Psilocybe cyanescens and related species (also known by the English terms Magic mushrooms, Liberty caps, Blue legs or Golden caps), are generally found in livestock manure (cattle, horses ) and in forests around the world.
Psilocybe cubensis mexican
Psilocybe semilanceata

58
Psilocybin mushrooms (Psilocybe). 4
Their main constituents are the indoles psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) and its lipophilic metabolite, psilocin (4-hydroxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine), which are heat stable and are not inactivated by cooking or freezing. .

These compounds, eaten or drunk in the form of tea, possess LSD-like properties and cause alterations in autonomic function, motor reflexes, behavior and perception.
psilocybin
serotonin

59
Psilocybin mushrooms (Psilocybe). 5
While the amount of mushrooms required to produce a significant clinical effect is usually enormously variable, somewhere between two and six mushrooms are already effective.

The time to onset and duration of effects are rapid and recovery usually occurs within 4-6 hours.

The short-term effects are muscle relaxation, ataxia, mydriasis, intense hallucinations and stimulation of the sympathetic system.

Long-term effects have also been described, such as flashbacks, memory changes, the onset of psychiatric disorders and tolerance.
Psilocybe cubensis grown at home

61
Ayahuasca (Psychotria viridis + Banisteriopsis caapi). 1
Ayahuasca, also known by the names Hoasca, Yage and Natema, has (been) used by indigenous tribes of the Amazon for thousands of years in shamanic contexts.

It is an infusion obtained from the chopped wooden portions of the Banisteriopsis caapi vine together with the leaves of another Amazonian plant, Psychotria viridis.
N, N- Dimethyltryptamine (DMT)
Psychotria viridis

62
Ayahuasca (Psychotria viridis + Banisteriopsis caapi). 2
harmine

63
Ayahuasca (Psychotria viridis + Banisteriopsis caapi). 3
The main active constituent of the drink is DMT (N, N-Dimethyltryptamine), present not in the Banisteriopsis caapi plant, but in the leaves of Psychotria viridis.

DMT is a tryptamine derivative similar in structure to serotonin and is a potent hallucinogen when smoked, inhaled or injected.

DMT is inactivated by MAO enzymes in the intestine: this degradation is inhibited by the reversible anti-MAO-A contained in the Banisteriopsis caapi plant.

The substances, which possess this anti-MAO activity, belong to the group of β-carbolines (harmine, harmaline, tetrahydroharmine) and have in themselves weak hallucinogenic properties.

Ayahuasca is a drink that represents an example of pharmacokinetic symbiosis, because it is made up of two distinct types of hallucinogenic substances, which together increase effectiveness.

64
Ayahuasca (Psychotria viridis + Banisteriopsis caapi). 4
DMT is also contained in other Amazonian plants, in the seeds of Anadenanthera peregrina and in the bark of Virola trees.
Anadenanthera peregrina
Virola

65
Ayahuasca (Psychotria viridis + Banisteriopsis caapi). 5
The effects of DMT are short-lived but powerful.
Smoked, DMT causes a hallucinatory experience that peaks within 2-4 minutes and recedes completely within 20 minutes, so in the 1960s it was called the "business-man's trip".

The acute effects of Ayahuasca taken orally reach their peak in the first hour after ingestion, last 3-4 hours and are accompanied by nausea and vomiting of considerable intensity.

These latter effects (purging) would have the value of a spiritual purification and physical detoxification for those who take Ayahuasca as a sacrament in religious ceremonies.

66
Ayahuasca (Psychotria viridis + Banisteriopsis caapi). 6
Currently, many natives of Latin America (Brazil, Colombia and Peru) continue to use Ayahuasca with traditional and shamanic purposes, and syncretistic faiths, also practiced outside the Amazon, mix these beliefs with Christianity, especially the Church del Santo Daime and the Church of Uniao do Vegetal.

Both by traditional populations and by followers of these syncretistic religions, Ayahuasca is considered an important medicine, used among other things in the treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction.

67
N, N- Dimethyltryptamine (DMT)
Desmanthus illinoensis
Phalaris aquatica or tuberose
Phalaris arundinacea
DMT can also be extracted from common, growing plants
in places other than the Amazon jungle.
These plants have a higher DMT content than Psychotria
viridis.

68
Beta-carboline (harmine, harmaline, tetrahydroarmine)
Besides Banisteriopsis caapi, other plants also contain MAOI β-carbolines used to prepare infusions similar to Ayahuasca.
Passiflora incarnata
Peganum harmala

70
Peyote (Lophophora williamsii). 1
Our knowledge of Peyote dates back to the conquest of Mexico by Fernando Cortez (1485-1547).

It was believed that the use of Peyote put people in contact with the spirit world and that those who ate it were able to predict the enemy's attacks and future fortunes.

71
Peyote (Lophophora williamsii). 2
Peyote is a cactus native to the desert areas along the Texas-Mexico border, but can be grown almost anywhere.

Peyote contains more than 60 different alkaloids, but its main active constituent is mescaline (β-3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylethylamine), similar in structure to hallucinogenic amphetamines and in action to hallucinogenic indoles and psilocin.

Each Peyote button contains approximately 45 mg of mescaline: approximately 6-12 buttons make up a hallucinogenic dose.

72
Peyote (Lophophora williamsii). 3
Peyote is peeled and eaten fresh, dried or in powder form, or the dried powder is prepared as a tea or mixed in water.

Peyote is never smoked. Its bitter and acrid taste is renowned.
The effects onset rapidly, within 1-2 hours of ingestion, can last up to 12 hours and include symptoms secondary to neurological and sympathetic stimulation: hilarity, intense visual hallucinations, tachycardia, hyperthermia, ataxia, redness of the face, sweating and piloerection.
Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps often occur, preceding hallucinations.
As with LSD, flashbacks often occur.

73
Peyote - Mescaline. 1
The first scientific studies of the effects of mescaline on animals and humans, conducted in 1920 by Kurt Beringer (1893-1949), who was a friend of Carl Gustav Jung and Hermann Hesse, were published in 1927 in the book Der Meskalinrausch (L mescaline intoxication).

It has been speculated that some scenes from Walt Disney's cartoon Fantasia (1940) were inspired by Beringer's studies.

74
Peyote - Mescaline. 2
Peyote is still consumed mainly during religious ceremonies by members of the Native American Church (NAC), the Native American Church.

75
Peyote - Mescaline. 3
Mescaline is found not only in Peyote, but also in other cacti, such as the San Pedro Cactus (Trichocereus pachanoi) and the Peruvian Torch (Trichocereus peruvianus), the former of which contains 0.33% -2.4% mescaline and can be purchased online.
Trichocerus pachanoi
Trichocerus peruvianus

77
Sage (Salvia divinorum). 1
Salvia divinorum is a perennial herb of the Labiateae family (the mint family) native to the Sierra Mazateca region of Oaxaca in Mexico.

It is the plant that contains the most powerful natural psychoactive substance known.

Of all the nearly a thousand species of sage in the world, none has inflamed the imagination as much as Salvia divinorum.

78
Sage (Salvia divinorum). 2
Salvia divinorum has been used since time immemorial by the Mazatec Indians of the Oaxaca region for religious divination and healing rites and by shamanic communities, together with other hallucinogenic plants or mushrooms, for the search for contact with the divinities.

Fresh leaves are used and bites are prepared, which are chewed until visions manifest. Or the leaves are squeezed to obtain a juice to drink.

Its use is intended to identify the causes of an illness or to discover the perpetrator of a crime or to find lost objects.

79
Sage (Salvia divinorum). 3
Hallucinations induced by Salvia divinorum are usually visual, auditory and tactile with visions of two-dimensional surfaces, returns to places of the past (especially childhood), sensations of movement, loss of the body or one's identity, hysterical and uncontrollable laughter and distortions of the perception of reality.

The effects are not considered pleasant and most of the people who have tried it have stated that they do not wish to repeat that experience.

80
Sage (Salvia divinorum). 4
The main constituents of Salvia divinorum have been identified in the neoclerodanic diterpenoids Salvinorina A and B.

The active constituent is Salvinorin A, which differs from other hallucinogens in terms of structure, and is a potent selective agonist of the opioid κ receptor.

In humans, a smoked dose of 200-500 μg produces intense hallucinations, which last about an hour.

The potency of this natural substance is similar to that of the synthetic hallucinogen LSD.
Salvinorina A

81
Sage (Salvia divinorum). 5
It has not long been the use of young people to smoke the leaves or extracts of leaves of this plant for recreational purposes to induce powerful hallucinations.

For some years it has been a prohibited substance in countries such as Italy, Denmark and Australia.

83
Stramonium (Datura stramonium). 1
The Datura s. it is native to North America, but is found all over the world along roads, river banks or in gardens as an ornamental plant.

In English it is called Jimson weed, a contraction of Jamestown weed, a term used in 1676 in Jamestown in Virginia following the ingestion of the Datura by British troops, sent there to suffocate the Bacon Rebellion (Bacon's Rebellion).

It is also called devil's trumpet (devil's trumpet), thorn apple and moon weed.

84
Stramonium (Datura stramonium). 2
Datura s., Like all plants belonging to the Solanaceae family, contains the tropane alkaloids hyoscyamine, atropine and scopolamine (hyoscine) in decreasing quantities.

The seeds constitute the most powerful part of the plant, followed by the roots, the stem, the leaves and the flowers: a dozen seeds are enough to have a psychotropic action.

Stramonium poisoning occurs clinically with the typical symptoms of anticholinergic poisoning, already described with regard to henbane.

86
Angel's trumpet (Brugmansia). 1
Brugmansia, a solanaceous plant very similar to Datura s. , has been used for hundreds of years in the Andes and in the western regions of the Amazon to communicate with ancestors, discover hidden treasures and heal the sick.

In the Colombian Chibcha tribes fermented drinks of Brugmansia seeds were given to the wives and slaves of the chieftains to induce a stupor before burning them alive with the deceased chief.

87
Angel's trumpet (Brugmansia). 2
As with other Solanaceae, Brugmansia is generally ingested as intact parts of the plant or in the form of an infusion.

A psychoactive dosage corresponds to four leaves or the infusion of a flower.

Mydriasis and hallucinatory confusional state (delirium) are the most common symptoms, which in most cases are not very serious and require only sedation and general assistance.


Ipomea semi hallucinogenic

Side effects hypomea purplish. Due to the hallucinogenic substances contained, i seeds of hypomea violacea are considered a real drug and therefore their consumption is regulated by a legislative norm.In particular in Italy, according to article 14 of Presidential Decree no. 309/90, i seeds of hypomea and the ergine contained in them are included in the list of narcotic substances in the. Ipomea Violacea, known as Morning Glory, is native to Mexico and Guatemala, where its seeds were used in rituals for their hallucinogenic properties, caused by. The hallucinogenic seeds are imported (illegally) and derive from the Mexican and South American Ipomea violacea (previously called Ipomea tricolor not to be confused with the Convolvolus mentioned above) and from the Turbine corymbosa (ololiuqui) The hypomea multiplies by seeds. For both perennial and annual species, the multiplication by seeds is carried out at the beginning of spring. the seeds should be immersed for about 12 hours in warm water before sowing to favor germination

Multiplication: by seed in March-April, with a soil temperature of 17-18 ° C. Training systems: the hypomea covers in a short time espaliers, racks, walls. Warning: species of this genus may contain a lysergic acid amide, component of the hallucinogen LSD The seeds of Ipomoea violacea contain LSA, a substance with hallucinogenic effects. Features . They are plants with a voluble or climbing stem that can expand up to 3-4 meters in length, the foliage can be trilobate, ovate or heart-shaped The seeds of the common Ipomea violacea contain Lsa, a substance similar to LSD You can buy them legally on internet or in the 'smart-shops' Bari, hallucinogenic plant alarm from cas

The seeds of the Hawaiian Baby Woodrose plant (Argyreia nervosa) belong to the Convolvulaceae family (which also includes Ipomea). The seeds of HBWR are known for their hallucinogenic properties, in fact they contain LSA (D-Lysergic acid starch), they are in fact called natural LSD The seeds of different varieties of Morning Glory (Ipomoea tricolor) contain a natural tryptamine called Lysergic Acid Amide (LSA), which is closely related to LSD. The seeds are consumed orally, directly or after the extraction of the active alkaloids. Morning Glory is a very common climbing vine with beautiful flowers

According to some research, the seeds of Ipomea tricolor of the blue varieties such as our heavenly blue contain LSA, a natural hallucinogenic compound similar to LSD but less powerful. In the past they were treated with toxic compounds to discourage their consumption, some of the deaths and the worst consequences of the abuse of these seeds are due precisely to this government maneuver. alucinàri, hallucinàri: deceive oneself, deriving from the root gr. alùo, alùsso: raving, being beside oneself, or from Lat. lux: light) is an umbrella term that encompasses various heterogeneous groups of substances capable of modifying perceptions, thoughts and sensations for a few hours more or less clearly based on the substance and dosage

Hypomea: properties and effects of the drug

  • Lysergic acid amide (LSA) is a hallucinogenic alkaloid contained in the seeds of Ipomea violacea, a climbing plant with usually purple or red flowers, very common in Europe as an ornamental plant. LSA is also present in other plants such as Argireya nervosa and Rivea corimbosa
  • In the region of Oaxaca, in southern Mexico, the seeds of this vine are considered to be one of the main hallucinogens in religious, divinatory and medicinal use. The species varies from southern Mexico to western Mexico to Guatemala and the North Indies. It can also be found in tropical regions of South America.
  • and later. Vase - If we decide for ourselves

Hypomea violacea is native to Mexico and Guatemala, where the seeds of these plants have been used for centuries in rituals for their hallucinogenic properties, due to LSA. Effects and type of experience caused by Morning Glory: The first effects begin to be felt within 15 - 120 minutes of taking Ipomoea indica seeds contain lysergic acid, and are consumed for the powerful hallucinogenic effects Traditionally used in divination. Seeds of the same varieties contain LSA and can produce LSD-like visual and perceptual effects. Hypomoea varieties containing LSA are Heavenly Blue, Flying Saucers, and Pearly Gates Drug, increase consumption of hallucinogenic seeds These are tropical plants whose seeds can be bought without breaking the law. 'Morning Glory' and 'Hawaiian Baby' are popular The consumption of seeds of tropical plants that cause hallucinations and can be bought without breaking the law is on the rise in Italy The seeds of purple morning glory by Native Americans, in pre-Columbian times, were called tlitlitzin, in Nahuatl, the Aztec language, sacred dark things. Tlitlitzins contain lysergic acid starches, molecularly similar to LSD (D-lysergic acid diethylamide). There is a marked narcotic component in the seeds, which is exempt in u

Ipomea multiplication. Hypomes reproduce by seed, cutting and offshoot. Sowing should be done in spring by placing the seeds at a distance of about 20 cm. To favor the germination of the seeds it is advisable to soak them in warm water for 2 - 3 hours Be careful, however, in handling the seeds of the hypomea: they contain lysergic acid in such quantities as to be harmful to humans and cause hallucinations, cramps , with visual and auditory effects very similar to those of hallucinogenic acids: even the damage caused to the organism is similar and for this reason the use and contact must be carefully avoided. give a deep blue or purple touch to your balconies. However, it is very important to pay attention to the seeds, which if apparently harmless can actually be very dangerous, due to the level of toxicity. They have been defined as a natural LSD, because they contain the amide of lysergic acid (known as. Plants represent the best way to beautify your home, but not only. Many people are passionate about it, and would like to be able to cultivate the rarest and most beautiful species. Among these we can find the Hypogee. Belonging to the Convolvulaceae family, the Hypomee, more commonly known as Campanelle , are much appreciated for the showiness as well as for the vastness of colors.

Morning Glory: effects of Ipomea - GreenStyl

It seems that the dried seeds of this plant produce hallucinogenic effects and have already produced victims in Italy Ipomea blue flower (10 seeds) Ipomea Violacea (10 seeds) Linum Grandiflorum Rubrum (10 seeds) Lunaria Moneta del Papa (5 seeds) All seeds present in the Bank they underwent a visual selection (presence of insects, molds, broken seeds). Ipomoea alba is an evergreen. One case describes a 29-year-old male who ingested an unknown number of seeds and began to feel extremely agitated to the point of jumping off the 4th floor. The effects obtained with the seeds of Argyreia nervosa can also be observed with those of Ipomea violacea and Rivea corimbosa. Intoxication Treatment Now Available in Four Varieties! the seeds contain LSA, a natural variant of LSD. It is also a very attractive plant to grow Sjamania for Morning Glory '96 Purple Ipomea seeds '96 1000 grams and Morning Glory '96 Purple Ipomea seeds How to Grow Morning Glory (Ipomee). , are climbing plants that yes

Chewed for a few hours, in fact, the seeds of this common houseplant with purple bluebells produce hallucinogenic effects similar to LSD thanks to the lysergic acid contained in them. A bomb effect for high-spirited emotions. HYPOMEA VIOLACEA. Annual vine with oval leaves, deeply cordate, 8-10 cm long and equally wide Find for sale from a large selection of on eBay. Immediately at home, in complete safety. 100% authorized, traceable and guaranteed by over 70 suppliers. The largest continuous source of semiconductors worldwide

Hallucinogenic hypomea. Gardening Forum

  • Ipomea purpurea, the Morning Glory. 26 August 2020. Ipomoea purpurea and Passiflora coerulea. Ipomoea purpurea. Ipomoea purpurea. Ipomoea purpurea. its seeds are hallucinogenic, beware that they are not accidentally swallowed by children and pets
  • to favor the ger
  • Ipomea purpurea: fast growing climber. The hypomee, also known as bells, are climbing plants, annuals and capable of giving enormous satisfaction because they grow quickly and.
  • The hallucinogenic seeds of hypomea violacea are instead what delights mice. The solemn drunkenness that monkeys, elephants, giraffes and many other animals of the African savannahs take with marula fruits, (see article) but also with borasso palm nuts and durian are very well known.
  • Ipomoea L., 1753 is a genus of the Convolvulaceae which includes about 500 species known with the vernacular name of bells (common name also for species of other genera). The genus is native to Asian and American tropical countries. In Italy the genus is poorly represented being present in the spontaneous state Ipomoea purpurea, Ipomoea sagittata and Ipomoea stolonifer

Half a dozen of these ergoline alkaloids have been found in the seeds of Rivea corymbosa and Ipomoea violacea. The main hallucinogenic elements of both seeds are ergine (diethylamines of d-lysergic acid) and isoergine, but other bases are present in smaller quantities - especially chanoclavin, elymoclavine, and lysergol. 'Ipomea Violacea. The intake takes place by ingestion. The very first physical illness is soon replaced by a sort of mental journey that will last several hours The hypomea on my terrace has become a pest. I have some in all the jars. Some I took off, some others I kept. Not being able to provide everyone with a brace, I would like to try to grow some plants freely, letting them wrap on nearby plants (obviously keeping them a little under control) The best offers for 25-100 Seeds Ipomoea quamoclit White Flower Climbing Vine cypress Seeds ipomea are on eBay Compare prices and features of new and used products Many items with free delivery Argyreia nervosa, Ipomea violacea and Rivea corymbosa: plants with hallucinogenic seeds. Argyreia nervosa is illegal in the United States, but legal in the United Kingdom. Originally from India, it has been used as a herbal medicine. (see image below [5]): Ipomea violacea was used among Native Americans [6]

Ipomoea (Climbing bells): Advice, Cultivation and Cur

  • intensity hours). Indeed, just the seeds (tlitliltzin) and to an extent
  • purple hypomea you have heard of the boy who threw himself in an angel's flight from the eighth floor to in fact, the seeds of this common houseplant with purple bluebells, hallucinogenic, in fact contain lsa (starch of d-lysergic acid)
  • Psychedelic seeds (class B) Psychedelic hallucinogen extracted from the dried seeds of Ipomea Violacea. The intake takes place by ingestion. The very first physical illness is soon replaced by a sort of mental journey that will last several hours. AVAILABLE Price: 90 coins. Edited by Lavia97 - 7/8/2015, 11: 3
  • No Ipomea is psychoactive, However I give you a suggestion to distinguish the purple / tricolor hypomea seeds: they are gray, elongated, slightly bent on one side and a little angular. Those of other species They are very very very different from the usual hallucinogens.
  • (All rights reserved) Campanula hipomoea indaca, morning glory. When in the morning I look out the window of the house and observe this magnificent bellflower hipomoea indaca, from the convolvulaceae family, they are canvases transported to places by the sea. I look at its flowers and in the center I see drawn, in indigo color, a magnificent star, with a clear channel of light in the center

Ipomea - Plant friends

Ipomea Violacea to the student until a friend of the victim spoke to the police about the smart-shop from which it is possible to buy seeds containing hallucinogenic substances. The Mexican wild plant known for hallucinogenic seeds, the Morning glory, is normally identified with the Ipomoea Violacea, for this reason I thought that the purpurea could be one of the ornamental cultivars. However, it is only my rumination, at most I can know some medicinal plants Post by * * This morning I noticed that the pot of my hypomee is sprinkled with very small flying insects, the leaves seem healthy, according to vo

Ipomea: how to grow the climbing bell plant

gen, while the seeds are called olo- liuhqui). NAME: salvia divinorum, argyreia nervosa, purple hypomea, rivea corymbosa. WHAT THEY ARE: they are plants mainly coming from Central America (argyrea also has European origins) with hallucinogenic effects and, until recently, considered natural drugs of argyreia nervosa and 100 seeds of purple hypomea. Lsd CHEMICAL COMPOSITION: diethylamide of lysergic acid 25. WHAT IT IS: it is the best known of the hallucinogens. It is a substance synthesized from lysergic acid, soluble in water and without odor. The composition is always varied and uncertain and the cuts strongly influence the effects. The seeds are the strong ones! The seeds will be classified as much more potential than cannabis. Damiana: This is my all time favorite, I stumbled upon it because a shaman who was introducing me to Ayahausca introduced me to this beautiful flower / plant. Seeds [edit | edit wikitesto] The seeds of Ipomea violacea, called tlitliltzin by the Aztecs, contain an active ingredient with hallucinogenic properties, in particular psychedelic: the amide of lysergic acid (better known as LSA)

Morning Glory seeds were traditionally used by Native Americans and the plant is native to Central America. Like LSD, LSA acts as a psychedelic substance with strong mental effects lasting about 6 hours, but with less hallucinogenic effects HAKOMAGAZINE. Hallucinogenic plants and Indian cultures HAKOMAGAZINE Contents 3 5 9 13 17 21 23 25 27 29 32 34 36 39 43 Editorial Hallucinogens and the brain Cahuachi and its medicinal plants Ritual prescriptions of Datura and Ipomea The magic bell Pubertal trance Chumash and the Painted Cave Maria Sabina and the Mexican mushrooms Male and female Peyote The way of peyote Lights of words Real de Catorce.

The hypomea bleu has hallucinogenic seeds: they said it today on TV. But let's talk about jasmine. - If you live in the center-south, you can do your operations whenever you want, especially if the plant is in pot or phytocell. In smart shops, the ISS study continues, Argyreia nervosa seeds are sold as 'collector seeds', although the number of seeds in a pack corresponds to five, i.e. the quantity needed for a 'trip' with hallucinogenic effects. . Argyreia nervosa and Ipomea violacea grow in Mexico, Guatemala, India and Madagascar Definitions of Ipomoea violacea, synonyms, antonyms, derivatives of Ipomoea violacea, analogical dictionary of Ipomoea violacea (Italian

Bari, hallucinogenic plant alarm from home after the death of

Lysergic acid is best known for the fact that it can be used to synthesize a powerful hallucinogenic drug: the famous LSD or LSD25 (lysergic acid diethylamide). LSD is combined with LSA (lysergic acid amide) which is also a hallucinogen (psychedelic), but extracted from the seeds of Ipomea violacea, and other Convolvulaceae, including Argyreia nervosa and. 3 hallucinogenic mushrooms are loaded with 1 drug class plant: B Annotations: - Linnea 14/09/2020 - Pipe Marijuana and Hashish [Edited by ´Lux 28/09/2020 11:23] xx Syren xx - Sirenide Lv. 8 xx Rooms xx - Elf Lv. 8 xx Nimm xx - Human Lv. 5. OFF LINE. Lizath. Post: 71. Recorded on: 03/22/2016 In the final section we refer to the seeds of the hypomea (seeds of a plant with hallucinogenic effects), particularly loved by Alan. Wright's piano and organ base restarts with Gilmour's electric guitar to close the sequence Post su ipomeva written by muggio01. Hi! Here, between a typo and the other, I open my blog at the top of which, yes, a rabbit with frozen eyes heads behind which a group of equally disturbing bunnies dances Don't ask why, I drew that ' header straight away without thinking about it too much (and you can see the results XD) Anyway, on this blog. Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian baby woodrose) Argyreia nervosa, name of a climbing vine, is a plant belonging to the Convolvulaceae family very common in India and was then also introduced to Hawai, (hence Hawaiian) Hawaiian baby woodrose is one of the many street names associated with the plant or even Elephant creeper and others. The principle [

There is a growing consumption of "dream flowers" such as Morning Glory or Hawaian Baby, seeds with exotic names that contain alkaloids related to LSD. The non-profit Academy has raised the alarm. The consumption of tropical plant seeds that cause hallucinations and are bought without breaking the law is on the rise. There are so many points of sale where you can buy hallucinogenic seeds in a perfectly legal way, scattered in more or less central areas of the main Italian cities

Hallucinogens and culture. 6. LSD and the sacred hypomea of the Mexican Indians. LSD and Parkinson's Disease - A historical event: the discovery of LSD - Ololiuhqui ", the sacred hallucinogen of the Aztecs - The ololiuhqui" identified - Analogy between LSD and the components of seeds di convòlvolo - L '010 liuhqui BARI, 26 September 2006 - The police are seizing the dried seeds of Ipomea Violacea (Argyreia Nervosa) all over Italy, for sale in smart shops and on the internet. The seeds contain lysergic acid and, if chewed six to seven at a time, for a few hours, they produce hallucinogenic effects due to the presence of Lsa, a drug that has a less powerful effect but similar to that of LSD Hallucinogens Hallucinogens, or psychedelic drugs (revealing the psyche), One of the sources of lysergic acid is constituted by the lenticular seeds of ololiuqui, a convolvulacea identified in the Rivea corymbosa.Another is ergot, an ascomycete mushroom Read More Seeds such as Morning Glory (hypomea violacea) or Hawaian Baby Woodrose (argyreia nervosa), which should make a beautiful plant with white and blue flowers sprout, reads the . Amanita Muscaria hallucinogenic mushrooms - photo from WIKIPEDIA The intoxication that comes from alcohol or drugs, also pleases animals. When the fruit ferments, its juices turn into alcohol and in the places where it is still hanging from the branches or has fallen, the animals consume it, finding the experience so pleasant that it becomes a habit.

Hallucinogenic hypomea. Page 2 Forum of

  • Rochester offers a wide choice of products, services and manufacturing solutions. 100% authorized, traceable and guaranteed by over 70 suppliers
  • Agriculture, gardening lessons lez18 ipomea or campanella I would not be wrong but it seems to me that it is a bit hallucinogenic is plants @ rubixx26 can be found in all DIY stores such as leroy merlin brico etc. in the part where the seeds are sold.
  • Another compound, LSA, which would be the amide of lysergic acid, also known as ergine is a psychedelic hallucinogen that is extracted from the seeds of Ipomea violacea, and other Convolvulaceae, including Argyreia nervosa and Rivea corymbosa

Morning Glory (Ipomea Violacea) seeds

Seeds of the same varieties contain LSA and can produce LSD-like visual and perceptual effects. The hallucinogenic effects of Ipomoea violacea seeds are intense and long-lasting, although lighter than those produced by an LSD stamp and was originally used in divination and shamanic rituals by indigenous peoples of Central and South America The seeds of the Hawaiian plant Baby Woodrose (Argyreia nervosa) belong to the Convolvulaceae family (which also includes Ipomea). HBWR seeds are known for their hallucinogenic properties, in fact they contain LSA (D-Lysergic acid starch), they are in fact called natural LSD. (No dosages!) These are tropical plant seeds that are officially for sale to be planted and not ingested. Seeds like "Morning Glory" (hypomea violacea) or "Hawaian Baby Woodrose" (argyreia nervosa), which should make "a beautiful plant with white and blue flowers germinate", says the package

Hallucinogenic Archives - Curative Vision

  1. ata also Morning glory, as it is considered Sacred, is native to Mexico and belongs to the Convolvulaceae family. It has intense and long-lasting SEEDS WITH HALLUCINOGENIC EFFECTS and, for this reason, it was originally used in divination and shamanic rituals by the indigenous peoples of.
  2. ipomea violacea ipomea. I sowed seeds in the middle of the thickets along my road, who knows if anyone. of them has the courage to flourish! Posted by unrosetoinviacerreto at 20:53. Send by email Post it on the blog Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on Pinterest
  3. Find all reviews for Morning Glory (Ipomoea tricolor) 10 grams on the Zamnesia website. Honest reviews from customers who have bought this product
  4. vines its vines, clinging to everything around. Not the if
  5. Seeds such as "Morning Glory" (hypomea violacea) or "Hawaian Baby Woodrose" (argyreia nervosa), which should make "a beautiful plant with white and blue flowers germinate", it says.
  6. But on hallucinogens the legislation has particular problems, in Italy and abroad: it can be extracted from the seeds of the hypomea) and is very little. Probably the use of this plant in experiments would reduce the cost of Italian pharmacological research on the subject.
  7. Hallucinogens (from the Latin verb alucinàri, hallucinàri: various chemical substances characterized by hallucinogenic effects have been produced, semi-synthetic or synthetic. History. Ipomea violacea, Argyreia nervosa, Rivea corymbosa, containing LSA or ergine

Hallucinogen - Wikipeds

  • They can have relaxing, exciting, aphrodisiac or hallucinogenic effects. There is Morning Glory (purple hypomea seeds that contain lsa), Hawaiian baby woodrose (created from various mushrooms), Kratom (which can have relaxing or exciting power), Kanna (antidepressant), Pop x (similar to Popper, hallucinogen), absinthe (derivative.
  • HYPOMEA VIOLACEA: Ergine (or Lisergamide or amide of lysergic acid LSA) is the main psychoactive (hallucinogenic) alkaloid contained in the seeds of the plant. Other alkaloids present are: isoergine which has a much lower activity than its epimer, cionoclavine, lysergol and ergometrine
  • Hallucinogenic mushrooms Îingestion of pulverized seeds Înausea, vomiting, diarrhea Îsee LSD. Ipomea violacea Turbina corymbosa Ololiuqu
  • Hallucinogens and «archetypes» Il - The tiger arrives - Mythological time travels - The «yajé» and the origins of art. 6. LSD and the sacred hypomea of Mexican Indians LSD and the sacred hallucinogenic disease of the Aztecs - The "ololiuhqui" identified - Analogy between LSD and the components of seeds of convòlvolo.
  • is. no sorry, then I saw the photo (small though). It is a Ipomea tricolor (but it has several synonyms). Car
  • Convolvulaceous plants producing ergoline alkaloids Among the psychoactive Convolvulaceae there are a couple of plants whose seeds are traditionally used as visionary sources for mostly magical-divinatory purposes among Mexican ethnic groups - Turbina corymbosa (L.) Raf. and Ipomoea violacea L. - and this use reaches the past times of the language populations [
  • i (of a plant legally bought or uprooted [some are weeds]) inside the cigarette and you spend the evening. Beautiful inconsistency: asd: juninho8

Indole alkaloids, Angelo Antonio Izzo «Pharmacognosy

- ban the sale of Indian hemp seeds, - outlaw the hallucinogenic and narcotic substances on the market today, - close, as a precaution, all smart and grow shops. In just one day in Rome we have already collected about 2000 signatures, the goal to be achieved is one million signatures on the national territory by Ottavia Massimo - 25 December 2009 It was night. The moon seemed to light up the desert and a cold of ice stopped the thoughts. We built a small altar and above, in the center, we supported that being as big as a mandarin, green as an olive, it seemed to wink in wedges of smiles would refer to the seeds of morning glory or argyreia nervosa, but now this is a term used to identify them) it is legal only by authorized dealers. The sale of cacti is always (and only) legal from authorized dealers. As for the effects of mescaline, they are not amphetamines or exciting, I would define them purely hallucinogenic (like. These are seeds of tropical plants that are officially on sale to be planted and not ingested. For this reason the points of sale where you can buy seeds in a perfectly legal way. hallucinogens are so many, scattered in more or less central areas of the main Italian cities

Morning Glory Seeds - Ipomea Violacea - Shayana Sho

Convolvulus, but it is the well-known Bella di Giorno that hides behind this name, a genus of plants, especially climbing plants, of Mediterranean origin. Before knowing it, a fantastic curiosity: this shrub is so many weeds that it has managed to infiltrate even the fairy tales of the Brothers Grimm. Reading La tazzetta della Madonna, the Convolvulus appears that makes with its flower. In smart shops, the ISS study continues, Argyreia nervosa seeds are sold as collectible seeds, although the number of seeds in a pack corresponds to five, which is the quantity needed for a trip with hallucinogenic effects. Argyreia nervosa and Ipomea violacea grow in Mexico, Guatemala, India and Madagascar

We cultivate the Ipomea to have a cascade of flowers on the

Ancient Use of Morning Glory Seeds Botanists once believed the seeds with hallucinogenic properties used by the Aztecs were datura, but in the 1930s it was established that they were morning glories (Ipomea tricolori). It was then shown that the morning glory seeds contained the same but the dried seeds of the plant are free for sale on the market that toxicologists define border-line. The plants of Ipomea violacea, in fact, are free for sale because in most of the world there is no exploitation of its seeds on the clandestine market.

1403 Morning Glory - Ipomea Violacea seeds - 5 grams

ONLINE AND IN SMART SHOP. All the news in real time from Emilia Romagna and from the March Botany and chemistry of hallucinogens. 267 54 12MB Read more. The great battles of Napoleon. Andrea Frediani tells the extraordinary parable of a small artillery officer who became emperor and domin. 196 21 4MB Read more. Mathematics in history and culture


Shamanism, psychotropic mushrooms and altered states of consciousness: a relationship to be clarified
by Giorgio Samorini

Originally published in the Camuno Bulletin of Prehistoric Studies, vol. 25/26, pp. 147-150, 1990

Mircea Eliade, dealing with the use of intoxicating substances by the shamans of various Eurasian populations in order to obtain ecstasy (a use that in some cases has continued to the present day), offers an interpretation of the phenomenon which, following of more in-depth research and the acquisition of new archaeological data, is shown to be incorrect and misleading:

"Among the Ugri, intoxication by means of special mushrooms also favors contact with spirits, albeit in a passive and brutal form. But we have already noted that this shamanic technique seems late and imported. The intoxication produces in a mechanical and subverting way the '' ecstasy '', the '' exit from oneself '': it seeks to create a model of pre-existing experience which, however, had different points of reference "(Eliade 1972, p. 247 ).

In reality, the relationship between intoxicating substances obtained from certain plants, in particular Amanita muscaria, and the phenomenon of shamanism is more intimate than it appears from Eliade's studies and this contrast has already given rise to literary disputes (Wellmann 1981 , p. 315 Warren 1982, pp. 21-24 DeRios 1984, p. 35). New iconographic data increasingly support the hypothesis that the human use of Amanita muscaria for religious, socializing and therapeutic purposes is lost in the mists of time, tracing back to the hunter man, chaser of herds of quadrupeds, often dispersed in immense forests, hungry, looking for some root, fruit or mushroom to ease the pangs of hunger (and the Amanita muscaria, with its red cap covered with white dots is one of the most showy mushrooms in coniferous woods and some broad-leaved trees, once much more widespread in the Eurasian territories).

I will briefly recall some of the most important archaeo-ethnomicological findings identified so far.

In the extreme eastern areas of Siberia, in the territory that extends into the Chukci and Bering seas, on the banks of the Pegtymel river, a rich station of petroglyphs has been found, mostly from the local Paleolithic period. mushroom pickers (Dikov 1979, fig. 51). In some cases, female (or effeminate) figures appear with showy "earrings" and a large, full-bodied mushroom on the head. Mushroom motifs have also been found in the petroglyphs of the Paleolithic settlements on the shores of Lake Ushokovo, in the Kamciatka peninsula. In these cases, mushroom motifs are represented inside huts, seen in perspective (Dikov 1979, p. 90). Both the mycological iconographies of the Pegtymel river and of the Ushokovo lake are intrinsically part of ritualistic-symbolic scenes and it is not risky to associate them with the use of "magic" mushrooms, probably Amanita muscaria, as already suggested by other authors (Wasson 1979 ).

The symbolic relationship between toad and sacred mushroom (A. muscaria) in European and Asian folk ethnomycology has already been highlighted by several authors.It is also evident from simple etymological observations (Wasson 1968, p. 174 et seq.) . The symbolism of the toad, together with those relating to the muscarious mushroom and the lightning bolt, is of probable pre-Indo-European origin, linked to archaic and widespread agrarian and fertility cults or coming, even earlier, from pastoral and fruit-gathering cultures.

It is surprising to note the relationship between sacred mushroom, toad and lightning even among the ancient Mesoamerican civilizations. More than a hundred so-called mushroom-stones are known from various archaeological sites in Mexico and Guatemala. Many of them are handcrafted copies of archetypes that could date back to pre-Columbian times in Central America. In fact, the oldest ascertained so far would have originated in the ancient pre-classical period (2000-1000 BC) (Lowy 1971), of variable height between 15 and 30 cm, these stone statuettes representing mushrooms are sometimes supported at the base by figures female anthropomorphic curled up or from toads even in one case the mushroom seems to come out of the toad's mouth. Direct associations, both from a philological and a folkloristic point of view, have also been highlighted between the muscarious mushroom and the lightning bolt, between the same Guatemalan and Mexican cultures (Lowy 1974). I also remember the frequent fungal representations inserted in the complex scenes of the Maya "codes". Several of these show individuals in the act of adoration and offering to a deity and the object offered has all the appearance of a schematic Amanita muscaria, with obvious and angular "dots" on the hat (Lowy 1972). The symbolic iconography of the sacred mushroom, that relating to the prehistoric stages of humanity, is therefore characterized by specific cult elements: the toad and the lightning bolt are the most important and widespread. It is probable that the phallic symbol, associated with cults of fertility and fecundity as well as the dualistic male-female archetypal concept, identifiable in the same fungal image, can be included in the symbolic-religious iconography of the sacred mushroom. In fact, the fungus, due to its shape, composed of a stem (phallus) and a hat (vulva), has already been synthetically associated with the act of fertilization, fusion, birth (e.g. Mesoamerican populations, Furst 1981 , p. 226).

In fact, is this the fulcrum of the question of female symbolism, a phallic emblem or a mushroom? Primitive man associated objects and events in a somewhat different way from current ways, relying more on the direct association of a pair of events close in time or with perceptual-sensorial affinities, than on logical deduction, for us now so. important in the evaluation of the most varied phenomena. I give an example: note is the legend that sees every lightning that fell in the woods give rise to an Amanita muscaria. We find it, handed down from the folklore of popular traditions, in the Indus valley, in Siberia, in Europe, in Central America (Lowy 1974, p. 188 et seq.). We would logically deduce from lightning the storm and the rain, which brings humidity necessary for fungi to be born. On the other hand, primitive man does not think about all this, he is unable to do so or, perhaps, he is not interested, he makes use of a more direct associability of events for the evaluation of phenomena (Frazer's "sympathy, 1922, p. 23 et seq.), in this case it is based on the discovery of Amanita after the storm full of lightning, in fact, lightning and sacred mushroom are "sympathetically" associated with each other as both manifestations of the sacred (hierophanies) and manifestations of strength ( cratophanies) (Eliade 1976, p. 146 et seq.). In a broader vision it is possible to note how the primitive mind makes extensive use of the geometric-visual affinities of the objects and landscapes observed objects that have different functions, but similar shape and / or coloring are seen by ancient man closer , even in the meaning (symbolic value) of what we, or our rationality alone, would see now. It is also for this reason that "mushroom" and "phallus" (and "phallus" and "vulva") are so close in the vision of the primitive mind.

Archaeological iconographic finds related to Amanita muscaria are scattered in the most disparate areas of the globe, one wonders if there are similar finds in European territories with a greater concentration of rock art, in areas characterized by an almost perennial (over millennia) natural presence of mushroom. In this regard, as already noted by Marro (1945), the "horned" motif, typical of the artistic expression of Val Meraviglie, is probably to be associated with the phenomenon of lightning, a natural power dominant from the peaks of Monte Bego, and lightning itself, as we have seen, is part of the symbolism and cultural tradition of the sacred mushroom. However, it must be taken into consideration that the lack of ethnomicological iconography among the rich rock carvings of the Alps may be due more to the current lack of specific studies in this regard, than to its actual non-presence.

I still remember the proven archaic relationships between shamanism and hallucinogens extending to the various cases, considered here, of the use of other "sacred" plants, such as the cultic use of Datura (Jimsonweed) among the Chumash shamans of California, the primary source of inspiration from the complex rock art of this and nearby native populations (We11mann 1981), as well as the use of different hallucinogenic mushrooms, also in their pharmacological action, by A. muscaria (genus Psilocybe) by Mesoamerican shamans (Heim 1959).

pineda / COGS175 / graphics / shaman4.jpeg "/>
Image taken from the UCSD Neuroscience Laboratory website

Finally, I report the image of a Saharan rock scene (Tassili) whose evident fungal symbolism plays a central role in the entire magical-cult scene. In this regard, my more in-depth studies are in progress on the stupendous Saharan prehistoric art, which from a first glance shows that it possesses a rich mycological iconography which, however, does not seem to be connected to the large species Amanita muscaria (see Lajoux 1964, pp. 68-69 and 70). Having verified the archaic relationship between shamanism and sacred mushroom, here through archaeological finds, there are several deductions that make Eliade's hypotheses unacceptable: "Drugs are nothing but a vulgar substitute for the" pure "trance.And among many Siberian peoples we have already had occasion to note that intoxications (with alcohol, tobacco, etc.) are recent innovations, which, in a certain way, accuse a decadence of the shamanic technique. An attempt has been made to "imitate" with a drug-based intoxication a spiritual state which one is no longer able to reach in any other way. Decadence, or - it must be added - vulgarization of a mystical technique "(Eliade 1972, p . 247).

While recognizing the beginning of the decadence of the shamanic technique with the introduction of alcoholic intoxications or even earlier, a distinction must be made between this or "similar" substitutes for sacred mushrooms, the voluminous scientific and empirical documentation relating to the latter should no longer leave doubts that their effect on man is characterized by a tendency towards revelatory experiences of a religious nature, in the sphere of the sacred.

The mental states induced with psychoactive substances are not an illusory imitation of "pure" states of consciousness, but are referred to with the same importance in the general case studies of altered states of consciousness, and the history of the use of these compounds demonstrates how they are generally used as means to reach the manifestations of the Self, a common goal of the various "continuums" on which the states of consciousness develop, differentiated from each other by the "methods" employed (self-induced, with drugs, etc.): "The Self of ecstasy and samadhi are the same and unique Self "(Fischer 1971, p. 902).

The psychic states of sensitivity, creativity, anxiety, as well as acute schizophrenic and catatonic states, together with mystical raptures and hallucinatory states stimulated with psychoactive substances, are all distributed on a continuum of egotropic stimuli from the state " normal "lead the subject towards the revelation of the Self, also the continuum of trophotropic stimuli, characterized by the meditative states, of Zazen and Yoga samadhi, lead the subject from the" normal "state to the revelation of the same Self, and the seriousness of this new (at least for Western culture, the field of science requires the suppression of any preferentiality of a moralistic and prejudicial nature.

In fact, all the psychic states listed above, both self-induced and not, represent, are intrinsically part of human physical history, indeed, they represent the "means" with which its evolution took place and still takes place. as "pure" and unique others.

Furthermore, it is much more likely that the hallucinatory and ecstatic states induced by psychoactive substances, as well as the states of acute schizophrenia, are to be counted among the most archaic psychic alterations experienced by man. The relatively recent origin of oriental meditation techniques, to which the best known trophotropic stimuli directed towards samadhi belong, would support a similar hypothesis. Then evaluating, even in its origins, the intimate relationship between modified states of consciousness and the psychic sphere of the sacred, the religious and the divine, it is possible to guess the probable and significant participation of the experiences induced by psychoactive plants, perhaps initially random, in the original events psychics who gave life, to quote Eliade (1961, p. 7), to homo religiosus.

Both the direct experience of generations of individuals and the historiographical (mythological-religious) documentation tend to confirm this supposition.

BETENSON G., 1982, Towards an ecology of the mind, Milan (Adelphi).

DERIOS MD., 1984, Hallucinogens. Cross-cultural perspective, Albuquerque, NM (Univ. Of New Mexico Press).

DIKOV N., 1979, Origins of the paleoeskimo culture, Boll.Camuno Studi Preist., 17: 89-98.

ELIADE M., 1961, History of religions and a new humanism, History of Religions, 1: 1-8.

ELIADE M., 1976, Myths, dreams and mysteries, Milan (Rusconi).

FISCHER R., 1971, A cartography of the estatic and meditative states, Science, 174: 897-904.

FRAZER J.G., 1922, The Golden Branch, Turin (Boringhieri), vol. I Rest. 1973.

FURST P., 1981, Hallucinogens and culture, Rome (Cesco Capanna).

HEIM R., 1959, Les champignons hallucinog nes du Mexique, Paris (MMII).

LAJOUX J.D., 1964, The wonders of Tassili-n-Ajjer, Bergamo (Istituto Arti Grafiche).

LOWY G.B., 1971, New record of mushroom stones frorn Guatemala, Mycologia, 63: 983-993

LOWY G.B., 1972, Mushroom symbolism in Maya codices, Mycologia, 64: 816-821.

LOWY G.B., 1974, Amanita muscaria and the thunderbolt legend in Guatemala and Mexico, Mycologia, 66: 188-191.

MARRO G., 1945, The prehistoric rock histories of Northern Italy and the Maritime Alps, Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Turin, 81: 22-27.

TART C.T., 1972, State of consciousssess and state-speciftc science, Science, 176: 1203-1210.

WARREN P., 1982, Diabolical plants, Milan (Savelli).


Reggio Emilia 2004 Program

3rd International Conference of Mycotoxicology
6 -7 December 2004 - Reggio Emilia
Aula Magna of the University of Modena and Reggio E.

"Poisonings or sanitation damage caused by superior fungi: updates on symptoms and comparison of experiences"
"Hallucinogenic mushrooms: use and information technology in the toxicological field"

Monday 6 - New syndromes? Comparing experiences

08.45 am Opening of the Secretariat - registration of participants

09.00 Opening of the Conference. Welcome to the participants with interventions by the Authorities

09.30 am Beginning of the talks - Coordinated by Prof. A. Bertolini and Prof. K. Kob

09.30 E. Brunelli: The new syndromes
For 10 years, 3 new syndromes have been identified. They have in common a term of ingestion - onset of symptoms that exceed 6 hours. .
"Proxima" syndrome. In 1994, in the south of the Montpellier region, a first publication reports the link between the onset of acute renal failure and the ingestion of Amanita proxima. The clinical description is as follows:
- term of ingestion - first digestive symptoms from 8 to 14 hours
- term of ingestion - hepatorenal attack from 1 to 4 days
- growth of liver enzymes (2.5 and 14 times the norm), rapidly reversible
- renal attack (tubulopathy), which progresses favorably in 3 weeks: no chronic renal failure has been mentioned.
Compared to orellanic syndrome, the onset of renal failure is shorter (1-4 days instead of 9 days) a hepatic attack is present there is no evolution towards chronic renal failure. No toxins were identified.
A recent case was reported in Italy. On the North American continent, Amanita smithiana is responsible for a similar syndrome, just like Amanita pseudoporphyria in Japan.
Acromelagic syndrome. It was in 1996 in Lanslebourg in Savoy that a painful syndrome of the extremities appeared 24 hours after the ingestion of a species taken for inverse Lepista: tingling and very painful burns of the hands and especially of the feet, which evolve due to paroxysmal seizures mainly nocturnal, started from contact and the increase of heat. These symptoms were locally accompanied by an edema and at the time of the crisis of an erythema. They could persist several weeks to a few months, they were mostly relieved by prolonged baths in frozen water.
It is the existence of poisonings similar to Japan after consumption of Clitocybe acromelalga, and the discovery of 2 unrecognized poisonings, observed in the same valley 17 years earlier, which allowed the bond to be made. The fungus was later identified: Clitocybe amoenolens species initially described in Morocco was found identified in Savoie, in the "Hautes-Alpes", the "Alpes-Maritimes" and in the "Abruzzes". The toxicity of this species has been reproduced in the animal. Acromelic acids first identified in Clitocybe acromelalga have been found in Clitocybe amoenolens. Since then, other intoxications have been described in the "Abruzzes".
Rhabdomyolysis syndrome. In 1993 a fatal rhabdomyolysis following the consumption of fungus was reported on the "landaise" coast, assigned to a possible confusion, before implying Tricholoma auratum (Canaris, Bidaou, Tricholome équestre). In sum, 3 deaths among 12 intoxicated were accounted for following an excessive consumption of mushrooms (3-6 consecutive meals). The clinic is as follows:
- term of 1 to 3 days
- muscle pain at the root of the lower limbs with fatigue
- sweats (without hyperthermia), sometimes nausea, tachypnea, skin erythema
- important increase of creatine phosphokinase (CPK).
The death occurred in the context of treatment-refractory heart failure. No medical explanation, no other toxic cause had been identified. The increase in CPKs was reproduced in the animal. Among the possible hypotheses, the consumption of very large quantities (which exceed a probable threshold) is more likely the hypothesis of an individual sensitivity has also been raised. No toxins have so far been identified. Recently new cases of intoxication have been reported, twice in Poland. The consumption of Bidaou must be banned.
These 3 new syndromes have in common the fact that they were authenticated late after the observation of the first cases. They involve species whose toxicity was not known, and lastly a highly valued edible species whose toxicity is probably discovered by excessive and approached consumption.

10.15 M. Hispanic: Food intolerances from fungi: Hypersensitivity to fungal toxins? Adverse reactions to foods are divided into toxic, which affect all individuals equally, and non-toxic, which depend on an individual susceptibility to a component of a food that is harmless to the remaining individuals. Non-toxic reactions include food allergy as an immune-mediated adverse reaction to a food and intolerance as a reaction not mediated by the immune system. IgE mediated food allergy is the most frequent and best defined allergic form.
As for the non-toxic adverse reactions to fungi, some cases of IgE allergic reaction mediated by ingestion of porcine fungus are described in the literature. The reactions of suspected intolerance due to the ingestion of edible mushrooms are not as well defined.

11.30 A. Granziero: Morphobotanical aspects of Amanita ovoidea and A. proxima
The differentiation between Amanita ovoidea and A. proxima is highlighted, illustrating their systematic and taxonomic position according to the most recent studies. "The size, the colors and the soft-tender consistency of the ring are excellent diagnostic elements that should allow us to avoid any confusion between A. ovoidea with deadly white Amanitas. In the literature there is an A. proxima, a volva più colored, up to fulvish, which seems to be ± toxic, this suggests a certain caution in the use for culinary purposes ".

12.00 P. Follesa: Case studies on clinical manifestations caused by mushrooms declared edible
In this work, the case studies of the 2nd level Specialized Section of Mycology of the L.S.P. of Milan relating to fungal poisoning from 1993 to 2003.
From the analysis of the results, in addition to numerous cases of intoxication attributable to mushrooms declared to be poisonous in the literature, as many numerous cases attributable to mushrooms declared edible were found.
It was also observed that the declared clinical manifestations (such as nausea, repeated episodes of vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, tremors, etc.), for subjects who went to hospital health facilities and to which the analyzed samples belong, they are often similar, although the intoxications are caused by fungi of different species which in turn are included in the literature in fungal groups potentially responsible for quite different symptoms.
In particular, finally, from the data collected during the activity carried out in the period considered, it is clear that the intoxications attributable to mushrooms declared edible represent a problem that is not only absolutely not negligible, but also a phenomenon characterized by a trend in continuous and evident rise in the time.
Therefore, is it still possible to think, referring to the causes already known, that this problem is always and only caused by the excessive consumption of mushrooms, by the incorrect method of preparation and cooking, by the increased individual intolerance towards this food?
Could it not, on the contrary, be a more serious and more complex phenomenon than we continue to hypothesize?
The aim of this paper is not so much to give definitive answers to these questions, but at least to stimulate the debate on this issue, trying to lay the foundations for future studies and insights.

1) C. Melchioni: The extraction and characterization of psychoactive principles isolated from matrices of natural origin with particular interest in the indole alkaloids present in hallucinogenic mushrooms.
The Investigations Section on Drugs of Abuse of the Scientific Police Service carries out technical checks on samples of narcotic substances coming from seizures operated by the Police forces throughout the national territory, aimed at the qualitative and quantitative determination of the active ingredients, cutting substances and by-products of origin and processing, in order to contest the crimes of drug dealing or possession in criminal or administrative proceedings.
The normative reference of our work is the Consolidated Law n. 309 of 9 October 1990 to which are attached tables listing all the substances that the legislator has deemed appropriate to control.
If heroin, cocaine, hemp derivatives, are the traditional substances subject to abuse, in recent years the trend of drug use has shifted towards synthetic drugs such as ecstasy even more recently, in a cultural climate in where there is a revaluation of all that is natural, even in the field of substances of abuse there has been a worrying spread of the so-called "smart drugs", substances containing active principles of plant origin with different effects ranging from mildly stimulating to aphrodisiac, hallucinogen. These drugs are on sale all over Italy in very elegant shops that are generically called smart-shops, but they are also easily purchased online through various Internet sites. The serious individual and social problems connected to the consumption of these substances have led the judiciary and the Police Forces to investigate to define this new phenomenon. Over the last few months, an operation conducted by the Postal Police has led to the interception and seizure of large quantities of materials of various kinds resulting from purchases made via the Internet. The Scientific Police found itself at the forefront of having to give quick and certain answers about the nature of these materials as well as the presence of active ingredients in them. Among the various samples arrived in our laboratories, we have analyzed, in addition to plants such as Salvia divinorum, Argyreia nervosa, Ipomoea violacea, also discrete quantities of hallucinogenic mushrooms.
From a regulatory point of view, both the Psilocybe, Conocybe and Stopharia species and the active ingredients most responsible for the hallucinogenic activity, psilocin and psilocybin, are included in Table I. The state in which the sample is often seized, in the form of fragments that are difficult to trace back to a specific species, and the need of the Police Forces and the Judicial Authority to have results in a short time has oriented our work towards the chemical analysis. to the identification of the active principle rather than to the morphological observation to recognize the species. We used fast and simplified procedures to obtain a quantitative extraction of the active ingredients from the plant matrices, as well as rapid methods for their chemical characterization. The methods developed have allowed us to establish the presence in the finds of active ingredients listed in the table and therefore to trace the material, of an uncertain nature, to mushrooms belonging to the genus Psilocybe, Conocybe or Stropharia.

2) M. Bissoli, R. Borghini, T. Giarratana C.A.V. di Milano: Hallucinogenic substances of natural origin: from the sacred to the profane.
The natural sources of hallucinogenic substances are taken into consideration, the consumption of which, in more remote times, had both therapeutic and religious significance. Currently this reality is valid only for some populations relatively isolated from the technological civilization, while in the consumerist world there is a frenetic research activity for recreational use only. In Italy, the problem is much more contained due to a lower culture of the use of these substances, but the increasingly widespread access to the internet, combined with the revival of the "new age" culture, is bringing young people closer to the behaviors observed in other areas such as the United States, Northern Europe or Latin America. The poster takes into consideration the natural substances (of vegetable and fungal origin) most widespread and used in Italy and in the rest of the world, comparing their various characteristics.

3) APAT NAT-BIO & ARTA Abruzzo: Biomonitoring of the soil in the Sirente-Velino Regional Park (Abruzzo)

2.30 pm Beginning of the talks - Coordinated by Dr.ssa F. Assisi

2.30 pm L. Cocchi: The "reference mushroom": a new tool for mycological analysis
Several factors can influence the accumulation and concentration of trace elements, heavy metals and radioactivity in fungi. The concentration of elements is generally considered species-specific, but the composition of the substrate can also be an important factor. The use of the content of metals and other compounds in ecological research or in taxonomic characterization requires the definition of the "reference type mushroom", that is, an abstract mushroom that contains the average values ​​of each substance studied, in analogy with the "reference plant "described by Markert or with the" reference man "established by the International Radiological Protection Commission.
We analyzed the distribution of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium in a group of mushrooms, commonly considered edible, collected in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy) by comparing them with the average value of a large number of samples (about 6900) of mushrooms. studied as part of a research started 15 years ago. The results of this comparison are presented and the implications of the use of the concentrations of the elements considered in the chosen mushrooms in taxonomic, ecological and physiological research are briefly discussed.

3.00 pm C. Papetti: The Mycotoxicology Commission of the A.M.B.

3.15 pm O. Tani: Guidelines for the management of mushroom poisoning

15.50 R. Resident: Amanita proxima: description of a clinical case
We describe the case of a 41-year-old Latin American woman who came to our observation for a clinical picture characterized by: oligoanuria which arose suddenly after eating some white mushrooms 24 hours before. About 6 hours after the meal, the patient experienced abdominal pain, recurrent vomiting without diarrhea. Oligoanuria and back pain appeared 24 hours later. At the time of admission to the hospital he had elevated blood creatinine (5 mg / dl) and blood urea (114 mg / dl) with a slight increase in transaminases. The patient appeared in satisfactory clinical condition and the clinical examination revealed only a pain evoked on palpation of the abdomen. The persistence of oligoanuria with weight gain, together with a worsening of the clinical and metabolic picture led us to treat the patient with extracorporeal hemodialysis and, a few days later, to perform a renal biopsy which demonstrated acute tubulointerstitial nephropathy. with tubular necrosis and IgG deposition in the basement membrane of the renal tubules. Two weeks after the beginning of the clinical picture, we noticed a progressive resumption of diuresis with a slow normalization of creatinemia and azotemia. For this reason we stopped the hemodialysis therapy and discharged the patient after 22 days of hospitalization. The mycological diagnosis, made during the hospitalization of the patient also through a survey on the collection field, was that of Amanita proxima. This mushroom, of the genus Amanita, is a variety of Amanita ovoidea, which is edible and with which Amanita proxima is mistakenly exchanged. Amanita proxima contains some nephrotoxic substances such as allenic norleucine and chloroclotiglycine, a non-protein amino acid which, unlike Cortinario orellano, can produce acute oligoanuric renal failure in a much shorter time interval, with mild liver involvement, probably also through mechanisms of an immunological nature

4.15 pm Discussion
4.45 pm Round Tables:

1) Medico-legal aspects of the mycologist (chaired by Dr. A. Grassi President of the Court of Reggio E.)
2) Procedures for the marketing of fungal species in Italy (chaired by Dr. D. Monteleone, General Directorate for Food Hygiene and Nutrition)

18.30 Closing of the works


Tuesday 7 - The hallucinogenic mushrooms

09.00 am Beginning of the lectures - Coordinated by Prof. P. Bonatti

09.00 V. Gemelli: Morpho-botanical aspects of hallucinogenic mushrooms
In some primitive societies the plants and fungi from which hallucinogens derive have been known for millennia and are used for divination, healing, communication with supernatural powers and meditation intended to improve self-understanding or social cohesion. they also serve less lofty purposes such as mitigating hunger or alleviating suffering and boredom. Their use is identifiable in all regions of the planet: from 1 'A. muscaria of the Hyperboreans, to the soma of the Indian Vedas, to the Ergot used in the mysteries of Eleusis. In the Americas of the pre-Columbian period, the ingestion of hallucinogenic plants was limited to an area that extended from today's north-western USA to the north-western basin of the Amazon. The first chronicler, who reported on the use of hallucinogenic substances, was the Dominican monk Diego Duran who wrote the "Historia de las Indias de Nueva Espana" followed by the Franciscan monk Bernardino Ribeira of Sahagun. Sent with the Spanish troops to Mexico as a missionary in 1529, he wrote "Historia general de las cosas de Nueva Espana" in 1560, while the first news about the ritual use of the A. muscaria were reported in 1730 by Johan von Strahlemberg returning from a trip to the Kamciatka Peninsula. In fact, it tells of the ritual use of this mushroom among the Ostriachi, Koriaki and Kamciadi. From the year 1000 onwards Europe was hit by a scourge which claimed numerous victims and which was called the sacred fire or St. Anthony's fire, as narrated by Sigebert de Gembloux, professor of theology in Metz. This was due to the ingestion of a microscopic ascomycete, Claviceps purpurea, from which in 1938 the chemists Stoll and Hoffman synthesized lysergic acid diethylamide, which they called LSD 25. The hallucinogenic mushrooms belong to the genera Paneolus, Psilocybe, Stropharia and Conocybe, to which must be added Amanita muscaria, A. canterina, A. citrina and Claviceps purpurea as progenitor of a hallucinogen. The most active species are those that grow in tropical countries: Southern Mexico, Central America, Bolivia, Equatorial Africa, India and Southeast Asia. Genus Psilocybe: those of tropical countries are: P. semperviva (cultivable), P. mexicana, P. atzecorum, P. zapatecorum, P. bacoecrystis, P. coerulescens while those that grow in Europe are: P. rhombispora and P. cyanescens , P. crobula, P. tenax, P. coprophila, P. montana, P. inquilina, P. merdaria. Genus Stropharia, those of the equatorial countries are: S. cubensis, S. venenata: while those that grow in Europe are: S. trausta, - S. semiglobata, S. rugosoanulata.
Genus Panelus, the active species are: P. subalteatus, P. papillonaceus, P. sphinctrinus, P. aller, P. cyanescens, P. phoenisecii. Genus Conocybe, the active species are: C. subovalis, C. pubescens
The active ingredients that act on the S.N.C. are: - bufotenina, contained in A. cit / rina and in Paneolus -muscarin, ibotenic acid, muscimol, acetylcholine contained in A. muscaria and A. panterina
- psilocybin and psilocin contained in the genera Psilocybe, Strophari, Conocybe and Mycena.
The ingestion of these mushrooms causes narcotic-hallucinogenic symptoms, while the ingestion of acetylcholine and muscarine causes the activation of the muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors with a series of cascade reactions that see Ca as a second messenger with stimulation of the sympathetic system. and parasympathetic with increase or reduction of the action potential of the heart muscle and smooth and striated muscle. Bufotenin, psilocybin, psilocin and LSD are classified as psychedelic agents agonists at the level of the 5-hydroxytryptamine or serotonin receptors.
It is not yet clear how psychedelics affect the central nervous system. The most commonly accepted theory is that of the similarity with serotonin, which makes them accepted by the brain, in fact all these substances have the indole ring in common. The transmission of the nervous impulse on the cerebral areas involved in the psychedelic effects depends on a positive factor, acetylcholine which favors the passage and on a negative balancing factor, serotonin which inhibits this phenomenon. In the brain the supply of serotonin is continuously renewed starting from tryptophan and subsequently oxidized into 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid excreted in the faeces, and indolacetic acid excreted in the urine. The enzyme that transforms serotonin into indolacetic acid would combine with the hallucinogen molecule, blocking its functioning. This would cause the amine to build up in the brain, resulting in a state of hyper arousal. According to another hypothesis, hallucinogens induce the nerve cell in error, making itself accepted as serotonin, but these are not able to normally transmit nerve impulses from one cell to another with consequent deformation of the signals. The hallucinogenic effects are believed to be determined by the presence in the 4 or 5 position of a hydroxyl group and by the methylation of N in the side chain. In fact, tryptophan and tryptamine do not produce hallucinogenic effects.

09.30 A. V. Vergoni: Hallucinogenic mushrooms and pharmacological characteristics
From the 1970s onwards, the use of mushrooms (also known as "magic" mushrooms or hallucinogenic mushrooms) as substances of abuse to obtain important psychic effects has also spread in Europe. The active ingredients present in most of these mushrooms (Psilocybe, Paneolus, Inocybe, etc.) are represented by psilocybin and psilocin. Other species, on the other hand, produce related compounds such as isoxazole alkaloids, ibotenic acid and muscimol, tryptamine alkaloids,? -Carbolines, anthraquinones. The mechanism of action and interactions with the organism, pharmacological effects and toxicity of these substances will be illustrated. In particular, the involvement of the serotonergic system, which represents the neuronal system mainly involved in the psychotomimetic effects of these substances, will be examined. Psilocybin, in fact, is a powerful agonist of 5-HT2A receptors for serotonin and other compounds act by stimulating the functionality of the serotonergic system. The hallucinogenic effects of these drugs would arise from their common ability to alter the barrier function of the thalamocortical pathway that regulates the flow of information, external and internal, to the cortex. It is believed that the loss of this control over the flow of sensory and cognitive information leads to a flood of information to the cortex, to a consequent cognitive fragmentation and to real psychotic episodes with a mechanism very similar to the one that would also come into play in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

10.00 K. Kob: Clinical manifestations and therapy in poisoning by hallucinogenic mushrooms
Psilocybin syndrome, also called "cerebral mycetism", is mainly caused by mushrooms belonging to the Psilocybe genus, eaten raw or dried. The hallucinogenic effects of such mushrooms were already known to the ancient peoples of the American continent. The Aztecs, for example, called these hallucinogenic mushrooms "teonanácatl" ("flesh of the Gods") and consumed them especially during the great religious rites. The main responsible toxins are psilocybin, psilocin, bufotenin, serotonin, beocystin and norbeocystin. The substances are predominantly indole derivatives with a chemical structure very similar to lysergic acid diethylamide ("LSD"), a powerful hallucinogenic drug. After a period of latency ranging from 15 minutes to two hours, psychosomatic symptoms appear, i.e. physical and psychological symptoms of varying degrees, often dependent on the expectation of those who have consumed the mushrooms, their psychic structure, their personality, as well as from previous drug experiences. Accidental intoxications are almost always experienced negatively, often even voluptuous ones. Physical symptoms are characterized by headache, lightheadedness, dizziness, balance disturbances, myasthenia, bradycardia, hypotension and tingling.
Psychic symptoms can be experienced, depending on the mood, both positively ("good trip") and negatively ("bad trip"). In fact, a sense of happiness, a state of anxiety, depression of mood, wildness, disorientation in time and space, a sense of happiness, illusions, hallucinations, loss of personality, delirium, up to loss of consciousness can appear. Wildness, often related to the character structure of the intoxicated subject, can manifest itself with psychomotor agitation, aggression or erotic sensations.
Psilocybin is eliminated in the urine, bile and faeces during the first 8 hours (80-90%) the remaining 10-20% within a week. Usually the effects of hallucinogenic mushrooms disappear without residual symptoms after 6 - 10 hours. There are no known addictive phenomena. However, prolonged consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms can cause severe chronic damage to the central nervous system, for example, with panic attacks, psychosis, chronic hallucinosis. Therapy: gastric lavage at the beginning. In addition, symptomatic treatment with as-needed sedatives (diazepam, chlorpromazine, etc.). On the basis of the anamnestic data and the clinical, physical and psychological manifestations, mycotoxicological confirmation is appropriate. From the psychocybin syndrome, in fact, it is necessary to distinguish above all the panterinic syndrome, resulting from the ingestion of Amanita pantherina, Amanita muscaria and Amanita regalis and rarely of other species. Panterin syndrome is characterized by nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, accompanied by a state of intoxication, such as after drinking alcohol with disorientation, difficulty walking, tremor, muscle cramps, psychomotor agitation, euphoric state, visual hallucinations and pain, delirium, rarely bradycardia and hypotension, usually no changes in pulse and blood pressure. The toxins responsible for panterin syndrome are ibotenic acid, muscimol, hydroibotenic acid and muscazone.
For the panterin syndrome the following symptomatic and supportive therapy is recommended: gastric lavage, administration of activated charcoal to reduce the absorption of toxins, intravenous saline solutions, any vasopressors, assisted ventilation if necessary, sedatives as needed. atropine in the rare cases of the appearance of cholinergic signs. Beug & Bigwood (1982) have described single episodes in which people in search of small mushrooms with more or less dark gills, for psychedelic purposes, have ingested species of the genus Galerina, Conocybe and Pholiotina, resulting in phalloid-type poisoning. Hence the need to always exclude a phalloid type syndrome.

10.30 F. Assisi: Hallucinogenic mushrooms: from ethnomycology to abuse
The hallucinogenic power of some species of plants has been known since ancient times, in fact, since man began to collect vegetables for food, he has certainly tried plants that satisfied him, others that did not make him feel fatigue while traveling, others that killed him and still others that gave "strange" sensations of well-being, of strength, or that showed lights and colors never seen before. Soon the caveman undoubtedly also discovered mushrooms (among them the Amanita muscaria, certainly attractive for its appearance) of which there are engravings on archaeological finds dating back to about 10,000 years ago (Siberian Paleolithic period), both in Siberia, near the Pegtymel river, which on rock paintings dated between 9,000 and 7,000 years ago, found in Algeria. In the pre-Columbian era (from 3,000 to 1,000 BC) in Mexico and Guatemala the fungal element appears in the mushroom-stones (stone mushrooms) depicting totemic human female or animal figures (toads) surmounted by a large fungal chapel. Also in Scandinavia have been identified rock images, referable to mushrooms, which date back to the Bronze Age (1,100 BC) of the same period are also the finds discovered in Ortaa-Sagol in Siberia. In all these archaeological finds the common theme is an almost magical sacredness of the fungal element, which is represented by a symbolic iconography, sometimes very explicit, of a "mushroom divinity", which somehow plays an important role in the life of the primitive societies of all continents. Hallucinogenic plants have been used - and still are used, especially in the countries of Central and South America, in some areas of Africa and Asia - as mediators between man and his divinities (for example the oracle of Delphi, the shamans, etc.): it was believed that "the food of the gods" (Mexican psilocybe) brought us closer to the afterlife and to the gods and that it was also used to predict the future and to prevent and cure diseases etc. In Western civilization, the consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms lost its sacred value and their use was slowly abandoned, until the 1970s, when the study of the Wasson spouses on Mexican hallucinogenic mushrooms did not push the flower children to procure fungal species capable of causing hallucinations, just for the pleasure of experiencing alterations in the state of consciousness. In Europe, the use of hallucinogenic mushrooms for discretionary purposes is less frequent, although in recent years there have been reports of intoxications in young English people also in Italy, for imitation of British peers, there have been rare cases of intoxication. The species used for voluptuary purposes are Amanite muscaria and pantherina and the Psilocybe, Conocybe, Gymnopilus, Panaeolus and Stropharia group. The Poison Center in Milan received few requests for advice for poisoning due to abuse by hallucinogenic mushrooms: most of these poisonings presented clinical pictures of agitation, dyspnoea and tachycardia. states 2, for Psilocybe (not specified) 2, for hallucinogenic mushrooms not specified 1. Instead, there were, due to accidental ingestion, important clinical pictures with convulsions: 1 accidental intoxication from Amanita muscaria and 4 from Amanita pantherina.

11.30 A. Bernicchia: Psychotropic effects of Deadeleopsis tricolor
Ester Speroni, Annarosa Bernicchia and Vittorio Gemelli:
Basidiocarpi that have come down to us intact from past eras are truly rare, and if the findings date back to the Neolithic period they are undoubtedly considered more precious. The interest in the "man of the glacier" and his precious burden has not yet subsided, found on the Hauslabjoch glacier, a few meters from the Austrian border, in the province of Bolzano, in September 1991, which was trapped in the ice for about 5000 years.Until now, the "glacier man" mushrooms were by far the oldest, at least in the European continent, and could be considered an integral part of the life of man "who came from prehistoric times" but the findings made in the "Marmot Village, under Lake Bracciano are undoubtedly older, dating back to the Upper Neolithic, about 5700 years BC The samples found are 9, they were located in different areas of the Village and have come down to us in good condition, preserved by the layers of silt that The macrocropic examination, the set of microscopic characters and the DNA analysis made it possible to determine with certainty the fungal species. It is Daedaleopsis tricolor which most likely grew on oak or laurel poles, abundant in the area in that period.
The fairly high number of basidiomes, its presence in some sacred places and in the house of the "holy man" of the village have led to think of a "particular" use of the fungal species.
Some effects after oral administration of a D. tricolor extract have been investigated. The effects produced can be attributed to activities directed at the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. In fact, the experiments conducted on the mouse suggest the simultaneous modification of both behavior and physiological parameters. More specifically, there was a reduction in locomotor activity and the appearance of stereotypies mainly related to behavioral aspects, but also alterations in muscle tone and the presence of tremors related to the neurological aspect and also alterations of parameters such as piloerection, body temperature , the respiratory rhythm, linked instead to the autonomic aspect.
However, these results do not allow us to advance some hypotheses about the use of the mushroom among the population that resided in the environmental context in which the find was found. Some effects found, such as hypothermia following oral administration, could suggest a possible therapeutic use. This possible therapeutic use could be supported by some observations relating to the use of other fungal species that in ancient times it seems to have been used for this purpose. On the other hand, the toxicity found could also suggest a possible use as toxic. In any case, these considerations remain only hypotheses, but they can be equally advanced above all in analogy to what is reported about the finds of the man from Similau. Beyond the considerations on the therapeutic or toxic use, it should be emphasized that the aqueous extract of D. tricolor contains compounds capable of producing significant modifications of physiological and behavioral parameters.
In conclusion, the preliminary data obtained stimulate the interest in continuing more in-depth investigations both from a phytochemical point of view, as regards the content of active ingredients and their chemical structure, and from the neuropharmacological aspect, to better evaluate their possible effects.

12.00 D. Monteleone: Hallucinogenic mushrooms: Legislation

2.00 pm Beginning of the lectures - Coordinated by Prof. C. Papetti

2.00 pm G. Visentin & P. ​​Follesa: Hallucinogenic mushrooms and the Internet
The Internet allows you to travel in all senses, from scientific knowledge to the most trivial requests in the field of hard, light and hallucinogenic drugs. For some years now, sites have been created that allow us to obtain information on hallucinogenic mushrooms such as the following: "What are" magic "mushrooms? - What effect do hallucinogens have on the brain? - What are they used today? - What do we know about acute consequences and chronic of these psychoactive substances? - What should be the objectives of prevention? ".
Through the internet it is also possible to make purchases and messages such as the one reported are certainly a strong stimulus even for the most unlikely consumers: "Soon you will be able to buy them in London supermarkets. In fact, English law does not set limits in this sense: it only says that the mushrooms sold must be fresh. A company called Psyche Deli supplies famous mushrooms to the equally famous Portobello Road market in the mythical area of ​​Nothing Hill. But the trade has been such a success that the buzz mushrooms will soon land in others. 30 shops around the country. In short, in Great Britain, the hallucinogenic mushroom is not banned. According to the Misuse of Drugs Act of 1971, psylocin and psylocybin, the psychoactive substances contained in mushrooms, are in fact considered class A drugs However, at the time it was established that only mushrooms "altered by human hand", ie dried or frozen for later consumption, constituted they are actually a drug. So when Psyche Deli contacted the Ministry of the Interior to ensure they remain within the scope of the law, officials responded in a letter that "it is not illegal to sell or give away a fresh mushroom."

2.30 pm Free communications

- Sergio Morra: An emblematic case of A. pantherina intoxication.
This communication describes a case of Amanita pantherina intoxication which, in reality, was diagnosed very late, about 10 hours, from ingestion, the patient presented to the hospital with a clinical picture initially compatible with acute myocardial infarction, then excluding. For the appearance of paresthesia in the upper limbs, psychomotor agitation and vomiting, cerebral ischemia was hypothesized, all instrumental tests (CT, EEG, RNM, etc.) were performed in order to confirm the diagnosis. Agitation of the patient required sedation with valium, and due to persistent vomiting, intubation and mechanical ventilation were required. Given the negativity of the tests, the toxic nature of the clinical manifestation was suspected: from a more in-depth anamnesis with family members it was possible to trace a possible intoxication from uncontrolled mushrooms, collected by the patient himself, and consumed by him two hours before the onset of illness. Amanita pantherina was recognized for the analysis of cooked mushroom residues.
This case is emblematic of the difficulty often encountered in diagnosing mushroom poisoning: sometimes the clinical manifestations mimic other pathologies for which the diagnosis is misleading, with a consequent delay in specific intervention for fungal intoxication. An accurate medical history remains the main element in correctly addressing the diagnosis.

- Alfredo Vizzini: The coprinic syndrome: responsible species and new acquisitions
A critical examination is carried out of the species that in the world literature are cited as responsible for the coprine syndrome, also carrying out a taxonomic update of the taxa involved. Only for some of these species has the presence of coprin been highlighted: for others, with the exception of Ampulloclitocybe clavipes, the metabolites possibly involved still remain unknown.
- Mazza Riccardo: Mycological information: Contradictions and dangers
Some examples of mycological misinformation, often dangerous from a toxicological point of view, are proposed: As a consequence of this, it is considered appropriate to hypothesize the creation of an International Committee that rigorously evaluates publications (sectorial, popular, monographic, or entire series) before these enter the publishing circuit, in order to protect the user and prevent them - in total good faith - from disclosing data, concepts and anything else that could jeopardize the health and safety of others.


Amanita muscaria: Amanita has always been known as the hallucinogenic mushroom used in shamanic rites to cause hallucinations

Adapted from
"Psychedelic Heresies"
edited by Matteo Guarnaccia
Ed. Alternative Press
New Balance Necklace
1997 Rome

On the night between 29 and 30 June 1955, in a remote Indian village in Mexico, so far from the world that most of its inhabitants do not yet speak Spanish, my friend Allan Richardson and I took part in a "Holy Communion" ceremony. "with a family of Indian friends. During the rite, "divine" mushrooms were first worshiped and then consumed. In their religious practices, Indians combine Christian and pre-Christian elements, something which may seem disconcerting to Christians, but which is absolutely natural to them. The rite was led by two women, mother and daughter, both were curanderas, or shamans. The meeting was held in the Mixtec language. Mushrooms belonged to a species endowed with hallucinogenic powers, that is, capable of provoking visions in those who take them. We chewed and swallowed these sour-tasting mushrooms, had visions, and walked out of this experience in awe. We had come from afar to take part in some ritual connected with the mushroom but we never expected something so disconcerting as the virtuosity of the work of the curanderas and the extraordinary effects of the mushroom.

Richardson and I were the first two whites - no other recent historical record exists - to eat the divine mushrooms that for centuries have been a secret of certain Indian peoples in southern Mexico who have been cut off from the world. No anthropologist has ever described the scenes we have witnessed. My job is as a banker while Richardson is a photographer in New York, where he teaches visual education at the Brearley School. But it wasn't by chance that we found ourselves in the room of an Indian hut with mud walls and a thatched roof. For both of them it was yet another trip to Mexico in search of rituals related to the mushroom. For me and my wife (who would join us with our daughter the next day) it was the culmination of almost 30 years of studies and research on the strange role that "poisonous" mushrooms had played at the dawn of the cultural history of Europe and of 'Asia.

So that June evening we were in the deep south of Mexico, lying on mats with an Indian family in the heart of the Mixtec mountains, at an altitude of 1600 meters. We could only stay a week: we had no time to waste. I had gone to the town hall of the town, on the upper floor I found the mayor, sitting alone at a large table. He was a young Indian, around 35 and spoke Spanish well. His name was Filemтn. He seemed well disposed so I gave it a try. Leaning over his table, I asked him seriously and in a low voice if I could speak to him in confidence. He was instantly curious and begged me to go on. I did not hesitate: "Could you help me to discover the secrets of the divine mushroom?". For this word I used the Mixtec name, 'nti sheeto, pronouncing it correctly with glottal pause and tonal differentiation of the syllables. As soon as Filemтn recovered from his surprise he told me in a friendly tone that nothing would be easier. He made an appointment for me at his house, on the outskirts of the village, at siesta time.

Without letting us rest even for a moment, Filemтn made us go up to his house, towards some huts, to let us meet the curandera, the woman who would officiate the rite of the mushroom. She was a relative of hers, her name was Eva Mendez (aka Maria Sabina, Ed.) And she was a curandera de prнmera categorнa, endowed with exceptional powers, a Senora sin mancha, a woman without blemish.

We found her at her daughter's house, who practiced the same maternal art. Eva was resting after last night's session, lying on a mat. She was a middle-aged woman, short in stature like all Mixtecs, and we were immediately struck by the spirituality she emanated. He had a presence that did not leave indifferent. We showed the mushrooms we had collected to the two women. They shouted excitedly at the quality of our samples, they were fresh, beautiful and abundant. Aided by an interpreter we asked if it was possible for them to serve us that same night. They agreed. There were about twenty of us that evening at eight, gathered in the lower room of the Philemtn house. Allan and I were the only foreigners, the only ones who didn't speak Mixtec. Only our hosts, Filemтn and his wife, could speak to us in Spanish. We had never been so well received on Indian soil. Everyone was nice to us. They did not treat us with hostility, to them we were friends, not white men, they made us feel part of the group.

The Indians wore their most beautiful clothes, the women their traditional clothes, huipiles, the men white trousers tightened around the waist with ropes and their best serapes over the shirt. They gave us chocolate to drink, almost ceremonially, and I remembered that in the Chronicles of the Conquest, the Spaniards talked about the fact that chocolate was drunk before taking the mushrooms. I felt that this was the long-awaited moment: we were about to discover that the ancient rite of communion had survived and we would be witnesses of it. The mushrooms were still in their box, regarded by all with respect but without solemnity. Mushrooms for those people were sacred, they were not the object of vulgar jokes as often happens for the white man with alcohol. At about 10.30 pm, Eva Mendez cleaned the mushrooms from the earth then, praying, passed them through the smoke of an incense that was burning on the floor. Then he sat down on the mat in front of a simple little altar adorned with Christian images, the Infant Jesus and the Baptism in the Jordan. Then he divided the mushrooms among those present. She saved 13 pairs of mushrooms for herself and 13 pairs for her daughter. Mushrooms are always counted in pairs. I was anxiously waiting for my turn: he gave me six pairs in a cup. I couldn't be happier: it was the culmination of years of research. Allan also had six pairs. He was a little embarrassed. Mary, his wife, had agreed to let him on that trip as long as no ugly mushroom slipped between his lips. Now he was in a dilemma. I heard him whisper, "My God, what is Mary going to say?" So we ate our mushrooms, chewing them slowly, taking about half an hour. They had a bad, sour taste with a rancid smell that came back to the throat. Allan and I were determined to resist the effects that would occur, to better observe the progress of the evening. But our good intentions vanished in the face of the onslaught of the mushrooms.

Before midnight the Senora (as Eva Mendez was called) removed a flower from the bunch that adorned the altar and used it to extinguish the flame of the only candle still burning. He left us in darkness and we stayed in darkness until dawn. We waited in silence for half an hour. Allan was cold and wrapped himself in a blanket. A few minutes later he leaned towards me whispering "Gordon, I see things!" I told him not to worry, the same was happening to me. The visions had begun. They reached a high level of intensity towards the night and continued in the same way until 4 in the morning. We felt unstable on our legs and felt a little nauseous at first. We lay down on the mat they had prepared for us, but no one was going to sleep, except the children who had not been given the mushrooms. We were completely awake and the visions came to us both with our eyes open and with our eyes closed. They emerged from the center of the field of vision, opening as they arrived, now running, now slowly, at the speed we chose. They were made of vivid colors, always harmonious.

They started with artistic motifs, similar to carpet or fabric or wallpaper designs or architectural maps. Then they turned into palaces with courtyards, arcades, shining gardens, palaces covered with precious stones. Then I saw a mythological animal pulling a royal chariot. Later it seemed that the walls of our house had dissolved and my spirit had flown over, I was suspended in midair, watching mountain landscapes, with camel caravans slowly advancing along the slopes, the mountains rising row after line up to the sky. Three days later, when I repeated the same experience in the same room with the same curanderas, instead of the mountains I saw river estuaries, transparent waters flowing through an immeasurable extension of rushes to a sea beyond imagination, all illuminated by the pastel light of a horizontal sun. This other time a human figure appeared, a woman dressed in primitive clothes, standing still above the water, enigmatic, beautiful, almost like a sculpture if she hadn't breathed, she was wearing a colorful and hand-woven dress. It seemed that I was seeing a world that I was not a part of and with which I could not make contact. I was there, circling in space, an eye detached from the body, invisible, incorporeal, which could see but not be seen.

The visions were not blurred or uncertain. They were very detailed and clear, the outlines and colors were perfect, never in my life had I seen anything more real. I felt that at that moment I was seeing things right, while ordinary vision was limited and imperfect I was seeing the archetypes, the platonic ideas that are hidden behind everyday images. A thought occurred to me: was it possible that the divine mushroom was the secret hidden in the ancient Mysteries? Was it possible that the miraculous mobility I was enjoying was the explanation of the flying witches who had played such an important role in Northern European folklore and fairy tales? These reflections went through my head at the same moment I was witnessing the visions, because one of the effects of the mushroom is to lead to a separation of the spirit, a division of the person, a type of schizophrenia with the rational part continuing to reason while observe the sensations the other party is savoring. It is as if the mind remains attached to an elastic cord to the wandering senses.

Meanwhile Senora and her daughter did not remain idle. While our visions were still in the initial phase, we felt the Sefiora rhythmically wave her arms. A low, disjointed murmur began. Soon those sounds became articulated syllables, each syllable cutting the darkness sharply. Gradually they turned into a real song, an ancient music. It seemed like an income to God.At a certain point of the night the daughter joined the song. They sang well, never loud, with authority. What they sang was indescribably tender and moving, fresh, vibrant, rich. I never realized how poetic and sensitive the Mixtec language was. Perhaps the beauty of Senora's performance was partly due to the effect of the mushrooms, if so, the hallucinations are not only visual but also auditory. Not being a musicologist, I can't tell if the songs were indigenous or had European influences. Every now and then the song reached a climax and stopped abruptly, at that point from the mouth of the Senora spouted violent words' warm and lively words that cut the darkness like a knife. God's words, the Indians believe was the mushroom that spoke through her, that answered the questions posed by the participants in the rite. It was an Oracle. At intervals of about half an hour, there were short breaks, the Senora rested and someone smoked a cigarette. At a certain point, while her daughter was singing, the Senora stood up and began to dance in the dark in the space left free, with the sound of slaps and blows. We did not understand how it achieved these effects. The shots were clear and close. As far as we could tell, he didn't use any tools, just his hands. The hits had a particular tone, the rhythm was complex, their speed and volume varied subtly. We imagined that it moved along the four cardinal points, but we weren't sure. One thing is certain: the mysterious percussive emission was ventriloquist, every slap sound came from no one knows where, the direction and distance were impossible to indicate, now they were close to our ears, now distant, they came from above, from below, here and there, they were like the ghost of Hamlet hic et ubique. Allan and I were enchanted. We lay on our mat, scribbling notes in the dark and whispering comments, our bodies were inert and heavy as lead, while our senses floated free in space, feeling the breeze blowing out there, contemplating vast landscapes or exploring the parts. hidden in gardens of ineffable beauty. In the meantime we listened to the song of the daughter and the otherworldly sound of the slaps and the blows, delicately controlled by the invisible creatures that darted around us. The Indians who had taken the mushrooms took part in the vocal activity. In moments of tension they launched deep exclamations of wonder and adoration, not too loud, responding to the singers and harmonizing with them, spontaneously and artfully.

We fell asleep around 4 in the morning. Allan and I woke up at 6, rested and clear-headed, but deeply shaken by the experience we had lived through. Our friendly hosts served us bread and coffee. After that we went back to the Indian house where we had our bags about a mile away. From the experience of the mushroom celebrations (so far I have participated in nine of them) it is clear to me that, at least in the Mixtec area, the congregation is indispensable to the rite. The group of faithful must follow the tradition, so any outsider must be outnumbered by the Indians. This does not mean that the mushroom loses its potency if not consumed in communion with others. The day after the ceremony I described, my wife and 18-year-old daughter Masha joined us. On July 5th, lying on their sleeping bags, they ate the mushrooms with us, without the Indians being present. They saw the same bright colors my wife saw a dance in the palace of Versailles with people dressed in costumes dancing to the sound of a Mozart minuet. On August 12, 1955, six weeks after I had picked them in Mexico, I ate the mushrooms in my New York bedroom, finding that they had increased their hallucinogenic potency.

She had glimpsed wild mushrooms in the forest, and ran over the carpet of dry leaves, and then knelt in adoration before a cluster of those strange things.
As if in ecstasy he called them one by one by their affectionate Russian name. He caressed them and smelled their earthy scent. Like any good Anglo-Saxon, I knew nothing of the world of mushrooms and I felt that the less I knew of those putrid and treacherous growths the better. To her they were graceful things, infinitely seductive to the perceptive mind. He insisted on picking them up, laughing at my protests, mocking my horror. Using her skirt as a shopping bag she filled it with mushrooms and took them to the shed where we were staying. He cleaned them and cooked them. That evening she ate them all by herself. I thought that the next morning I would wake up a widower, we had been married so recently.

These dramatic circumstances, so enigmatic and painful to me, left a lasting impression on both of them. Since that day we have been looking for an explanation for our different cultural approach to this fact. Our method was to gather as much information on the attitude of the Indo-European peoples as regards mushrooms. We tried to determine the type of mushrooms that each population knew, the use they made of it and the name they gave it. We researched the etymology of these names to get to the metaphors hidden in their roots. We looked for traces of mushrooms in legends, myths, ballads, proverbs, writers who had found inspiration in folklore, in everyday idioms, in slang and in the revealing recesses of obscene vocabularies. We looked for them in the pages of history, in art, in the Holy Scriptures. We didn't care what people had learned from books, but what uneducated country people had passed down from father to son or heard in family fairy tales.

We were opening an absolutely virgin field of investigation. Our knowledge grew over the years, we had discovered an interesting fact: the Indo-European peoples are divided by cultural inheritance into mycophobes and mycophiles, either they know nothing about mushrooms and feel disgusted with them, or they know them surprisingly well and love them. Our evidence in support of this thesis is voluminous and often amusing, they fill many sections of our new book and it is our intention to offer them to the academic world (the book in question is Mushrooms Russia and History, Pantheon Books, New York - limi edition. limited of 500 copies sold out immediately despite the very high cost, 125 $ of 1957. The work has two illustrated volumes, Ed).

The Russians are by far the most mushroom-loving people, together with the Catalans who possess a mycological vocabulary of more than 200 terms. The ancient Greeks, Celts and Scandinavians were mycophobes, as were the Anglo-Saxons. Another fact caught our attention: wild mushrooms have been surrounded by a supernatural aura since the dawn of mankind, what anthropologists call mana. The very word "Toadstool" would originally have had the meaning of "Demonic stool" and is the specific name used for hallucinogenic mushrooms in Europe. In ancient Greece and Rome there was a belief that some types of mushrooms were generated by the fall of a fire. Although there is no scientific basis for this, the belief is shared by many different peoples: Bedouins of Arabia, people of India, Persia and Pamir, Tibetans and Chinese, Filipinos, Maori of New Zealand and even the Zapotecs of Mexico.

All these evidence put together prompted us several years ago to venture a bold hypothesis: Could it not be possible that, long ago, long before the beginning of written history, our ancestors had worshiped the divine mushroom?
This may explain why all mushrooms appear to be surrounded by an aura of supernaturality. We were the first to propose the hypothesis of the role played by the divine mushroom in the remote scenario of European populations, but this poses another problem: what kind of mushroom was revered and why? Our conjecture proved unsubstantiated. We have discovered that six primitive peoples live in Siberia, so primitive that anthropologists regard them as living museums. Peoples who use a hallucinogenic mushroom for their shamanic rituals. We have found that the Dayachi of Borneo and the natives of Mount Hagen of New Guinea resort to similar fungi. We have come across ancient Chinese and Japanese traditions that mention a divine mushroom of immortality, other traditions in India tell us that Buddha ate a plate of mushrooms before entering nirvana.

When Cortez conquered Mexico, some Spaniards reported that the Aztecs used certain mushrooms in their religious ceremonies, serving them in a "demonic holy communion" (according to the scandalized friars following the troops). teonanacatl "," Flesh of God ". (They were usually used only by priests, except on special occasions as happened for the coronation of Montezuma II, in 1503, when they were distributed to the whole population. Ed.) But none of them times took the trouble to study these ceremonies in detail, and until now anthropologists do not seem very interested. Our passion for mushrooms has prompted us to take the Mexican opportunity immediately, dedicating the few free moments from work to search for the divine mushroom in Central America We are sure to have found its traces in certain frescoes of the Valley of Mexico dating back to 400 AD and in the "mushroom stones" carved by the Maya of the highlands of Guatemala, dating back perhaps to 1000 BC. (The latest studies have established that the period of the mushroom stones is from 1500 BC to 500 AD.).

The day after our adventure, Allan and I did nothing but discuss our experience. We had participated in a shamanic ritual with song and dance with our Mixtec friends, something that no anthropologist had ever described in the New World, a ritual that had striking similarities with the shamanic practices of the Paleo-Siberian peoples. But did not the significance of what we have witnessed go beyond this? Hallucinogenic mushrooms are a natural product available practically in all parts of the world, including Europe and Asia.

In the evolutionary history of man, as he groped to get out of his miserable condition, there must have been a moment when the human being discovered the secret of hallucinogenic mushrooms. The effect they had on him, in my opinion, was very profound, a detonator for new ideas. Mushrooms have revealed to him worlds beyond known horizons, in space and time, even worlds placed on different planes of existence, a paradise and perhaps a hell. In the simple mind of a primitive man, mushrooms powerfully reinforced the idea of ​​the miraculous. There are many emotions that men share with the animal world, but awe, reverence and fear for divinity are human peculiarities. When we feel in our mind the blissful sense of amazement, ecstasy and caritas generated by the divine mushroom, it is natural to ask ourselves if the mushroom has not even put the very idea of ​​a god in the head of the primitive man.

It is perhaps no coincidence that the first answer of the Indians, when I asked him something about the effects of the mushroom, was: Le Llevan ahм donde Dios estа, "They take you where God is". A response that we have received on several occasions, from Indians from different cultural areas, as if it were a kind of catechism. In every age there have been rare souls, mystics and poets, who have had access, without the aid of drugs, to the visionary world of which mushrooms hold the key. William Blake possessed the secret: "He who cannot imagine in a stronger and better light than his perishable mortal eye allows, is totally incapable of imagining." But I can testify that mushrooms make these visions accessible to a greater number of men.

The visions we had certainly came from within us. But they didn't remember anything that could be connected to anything we might have seen with our own eyes. Somewhere within us there is a closet where these visions sleep until we call them. Is it possible that visions are the unconscious transmutation of all things read, seen and imagined, so transmuted that when they rise to the surface from the depths they are unrecognizable to us? Or that the visions go to move immobile depths, immeasurable depths, which are none other than the Unknown? On each of our subsequent trips to the Indian peoples of southern Mexico, as we increased our knowledge of the use of the divine mushroom, new and exciting questions arose.

We found five distinct cultural areas where Indians make use of mushrooms, each group using them differently from the other. There would be a need for a perceptive approach by anthropologists expert in each of these areas, assisted by expert mycologists. There are relatively few specialists worldwide: mushrooms are a neglected topic in the natural sciences. One of the best known mycologists is Professor Roger Heim.Not only is he a man with extensive experience on the subject, but he is also a personality in other fields, such as classical studies, and he is also the director of the National Museum of Natural History in Paris. . At the beginning of our research he gave us some advice, in 1956 our results convinced him to accompany us on a new field research journey. On this occasion we also had a chemist with us, prof. James A. Moore of the University of Delaware an anthropologist, Guy Stresser-Pian of the Sorbonne, as well as our faithful friend Allan Richardson as a photographer.

This time the most pressing problem was identifying the hallucinogenic mushroom and procuring a good amount of it for laboratory studies. To a layman this might seem easy, but it is not. Spanish writers documented the existence of the divine mushroom four centuries ago, and since then no anthropologist and no mycologist have shown the slightest interest in the subject. Until today.

Those who know these mushrooms are Indians very far from us culturally, closed in their mountains, far from any asphalted road, and also separated from us by the barrier of their language. Their trust must be won, their suspicion of whites must be overcome. Physical discomfort and the danger of contracting diseases in Indian villages during the rainy season, when mushrooms grow, must be addressed. Occasionally you can see whites around here, missionaries, archaeologists, anthropologists, botanists and geologists, but as soon as the rains begin these rare people vanish.

There are other difficulties. To date, I have seen seven curanderos take mushrooms, and only two, Eva Mendez and her daughter, are faithful followers. Some others were dubious characters. Once we saw a curandero take a token dose of mushrooms, another served us mushrooms that did not possess any hallucinogenic properties. If we had only come across this person, we would have come back disappointed and with the idea that the famous properties of the mushroom were just an auto-suggestion. Had we discovered an attempt at fraud or over time had the mushroom lost its unique properties? Or, even more interesting from the anthropological point of view, did the shamans replace the hallucinogenic species with inactive ones, in an attempt not to make something sacred public?

Even when we had managed to gain the confidence of a true professional like Eva, the atmosphere had to be right and a great abundance of mushrooms was needed. Sometimes, even during the rainy season, mushrooms were scarce, as we learned the hard way. We now know that there are seven types of hallucinogenic mushrooms in use in Mexico. But not all Indians know them, not even in the villages where they are sometimes worshiped in good faith or to please the visitors, the curanderos give the wrong mushrooms. The only test that works is to eat the mushrooms. We and Professor Heim claim the discovery of four species. The best thing to do at this point is to obtain multiple confirmations from unrelated research, possibly from different cultural areas. That's what we've done with several other species. We currently have security for four types, we are almost certain of two others, and inclined to accept the possibility of the existence of another these seven types belong to three different kinds. Of these seven at least six are unknown to science. Perhaps at the end of our investigation we will discover many other types. (Studies in this field are subject to continuous progress, the mushrooms referred to by Wasson are of the genus Psilocybe which has more than a dozen different species in Mesoamerica alone. Ed.)

Mushrooms are not used as therapeutic agents: they alone do not cure. Indians "consult" them when they are troubled by serious problems. If someone is sick, the fungus tells him where his illness comes from and whether he will live or die, and suggests what he can do to recover. If the response is fatal, the patient believes him and resigns himself: he loses his appetite and dies in a short time. His family begins preparations for the wake even before death occurs.

Others ask the mushroom for news of a stolen mule, receive in response the name of who took it and indications of where it is. If a loved one is around the world, the mushroom replaces the postal service, reports if they are well, if they are in trouble, if they are married. Indians believe that it holds the key to what we call extrasensory perception.

Gradually the properties of the mushroom are beginning to emerge. The Indians who use it are not drug addicts: when the rainy season ends and the mushroom disappears, they do not miss it, from a physical point of view they have no addiction.

Each type of mushroom has its own hallucinogenic strength, if they don't have enough of one species the Indians mix them with others by making a quick calculation of the required dosage.The curandero usually takes a very high dose and based on him the others decide what amount is right for them. The dose appears to remain fixed forever and should not be increased with use. Some people require more than others. Increasing the dose intensifies the effects but does not prolong the duration. Among other things, the mushroom sharpens the memory while completely disrupting the notion of time. In the night I have described to you, I lived for aeons. When it seemed to us that a sequence of visions had lasted for years, our watches told us that only a few seconds had passed. The pupils of our eyes were dilated, the pulsations slowed. We think that mushrooms have no cumulative effects on the human organism. Eva Mendez has taken them for 35 years, and when they grow abundant she takes them every day.

They present a chemical problem. What is the agent that causes the strange hallucinations? We are reasonably certain that this differs from familiar drugs such as cocaine, opium, mescaline, hashish, etc. But the chemist has a long way to go before he can isolate it, get to its molecular structure and synthesize it. The problem is of great interest in the field of pure science. Will it prove helpful in combating mental disorders?

My wife and I have traveled to faraway places and have discovered many things since that day 30 years ago in the Catskills, where we first sensed the strangeness of wild mushrooms. We are currently about to embark on our fifth expedition to the Indian villages of Mexico, again with the aim of increasing and defining our knowledge of the role played by mushrooms in the lives of these remote populations. But Mexico is only the beginning. All evidence relating to the early beginnings of our European culture must be analyzed to see if the hallucinogenic mushroom ever played some part in it, only to be neglected by posterity.


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