Broom (Cytisus) is a sprawling flowering shrub belonging to the Legume family. Wild plantings are found in western Siberia, Europe or Africa. The bushes are distinguished by early flowering and lush crown. Broomsticks have learned to grow in the garden and apartments.
According to the ancient legends of the Celts, the plant is a symbol of well-being and purification. They even dedicated a whole month to him so that people had the opportunity to get rid of their sins, addictions and cleanse their souls. Nowadays, the culture is considered a wonderful gardener for the garden, which has melliferous and medicinal properties.
Broom bushes or trees reach a height of 0.5-3 m if not pruned. The shoots are protected by a green layer of wood. There are species that have a short pile or a silvery pattern instead of a smooth bark. Young specimens have flexible branches. They tend to lean towards the ground due to the heaviness of the foliage and flowers.
The broom genus consists of a group of deciduous and evergreen species. The foliage sits in regular order on short stalks. The plates are three-lobed, painted in a rich green tone. At the top, the leaves often grow together into a single whole. The size of the plates is about 3-4 cm.
The plant blooms in early summer. Inflorescences remain on the bushes for one month. Varieties have also been developed that dissolve the bud heads shortly before the formation of leaves. Small cluster inflorescences originate from the axillary part of the foliage and are located along the entire shoot. Spongy buds smell good. The color of the flowers is predominantly white, cream, yellow or pink. The calyx, formed from delicate petals, looks like a bell or tube. The size of the flower is about 2-3 cm. A long stamen with an ovary sticks out in the center of the calyx.
When the pollination process ends, the bushes bear fruit in small-seeded pods filled with tiny beans. The walls of the pod burst, and many achenes spill out onto the ground.
Alkaloids are found in the tissues of the broom. This substance, when inhaled in large doses, has a negative effect on the body, so it is better to place the plant away from animals and children. After contact with leaves and flowers, be sure to rinse your hands.
Broom. Broom care.
Literary sources mention 50 types of shrubs.
Straight or curved branches of Russian broom grow up to 1.5 m long. They are covered with small oval, sometimes lanceolate leaves and are divided into several lobes. The foliage contains thorny thorns. Yellowish calyces peep out of the sinuses.
It belongs to the deciduous type and shows resistance to low temperatures. Thin shoots spread widely to the sides and reach a length of about 3 m. The stems of young bushes are covered with red, fleecy bark. Narrow buds about 2 cm in size are composed of pale yellow petals. Among the most common varieties of broom broom, it is worth highlighting:
This species grows in mountainous areas. Shoot height is less than that of other crops. The stems are adjacent to the ground and are able to take root. The structure of the shoots is ribbed. The coloring is presented in shades of green. The shape of the plates is oval, as well as lanceolate. The underside of the leaves is covered with dense pubescence. The inflorescences, hidden in the axils, gather in loose panicles. A small corolla, painted yellow, barely reaches the length of 1.5 cm. The broom blooms in early spring. At the beginning of summer, the beans ripen. The culture can withstand light frosts, but strong winters cause freezing of the bushes.
Curved shoots 1-1.5 m long form a spreading crown and in May are decorated with bright yellow flowers that exude a dizzying persistent aroma. Pale green lanceolate foliage grows 1-2 cm.
Due to its unique decorativeness, the Boskop Ruby variety, bred from the early broom deserves special attention. Spreading wide shoots turn over time into a large lush bush up to 1.5 m long. Delicate green foliage, elongated or lanceolate. The petals are ruby colored on the outside and pink on the inside.
Cultivated species of broom are bred by seed method, by rooting of cuttings, as well as by cuttings. Growing a crop with seeds allows you to get a good result. The bushes are able to sow independently. The collection of material is carried out in the fall, when the pods are fully ripe. In the spring, they are soaked in warm water for two days. Then you can sow in moist soil.
Gardeners recommend preliminarily stratifying the seeds for 2 months so that the seedlings are healthier and not sick. The seeds are immersed in the soil 1 cm at intervals of 4 to 6 cm. The seed containers are placed under diffused light at room temperature. Having acquired several leaves, the seedlings dive into separate pots.
The bushes will become much more luxuriant and more attractive if they are pinched in time. In June, the seedlings are transferred to a container one size larger. When the plants are three years old, they begin to transplant into open ground. If in the process the roots are accidentally damaged, the broom may not take root. That is why it is important to keep an earthen lump on the roots.
For the practice of cuttings, the summer months are chosen, when the flowering ends. Shoots are cut into pieces, keeping 2-3 leaves. The leaves need to be cut in half. The cuttings are dipped in peat mixed with sand, and the containers are stored indoors at a temperature not lower than + 18 ° C. Plants need diffused light. To preserve moisture, the seedlings are covered with a transparent film. It will take about 1-1.5 months for the roots to form. Then the film is removed. The cuttings continue to germinate at room temperature until spring comes.
For propagation of broom, adult healthy bushes are used by layering. The shoots located below are lowered to the ground and fixed in this position, pouring the soil on top. In the spring of next year, the rooting of the layer will occur. Then it is separated and carefully transplanted to a permanent place.
The broom reacts sharply to transplantation, so the slightest damage or overdrying of the root part is the reason for inhibition of growth and development. Perennials that have been in one place for a long time should not be touched. The soil is selected loose with nutritious content. We are talking about slightly acidic or neutral substrates. Peat, compost, turf or sand are perfect for these purposes. Digging up the site for planting broom, mineral fertilizers are simultaneously applied.
Drainage is laid in the holes: pebbles or broken brick. The seedlings are carefully deepened, without covering the root collar with earth. Group plantings are organized taking into account the short distance and variety preferences. As a rule, they keep a distance of 30 to 50 cm.
Caring for the Raktinik does not present any difficulties. The only condition is the correct landing site. Saplings need diffused light. The sun's rays should touch the leaves only in the morning and evening; on a hot afternoon, burns can form on the leaves. Pets are placed on windowsills facing east or west. Garden bushes will thrive when protected from drafts. Varieties that do not tolerate low temperatures poorly are grown in pots and rearranged in the garden in the summer. As soon as the season is over, the broom is transferred to verandas or other enclosed spaces, where the ambient temperature is from +10 to + 15 ° C.
The plant can withstand prolonged drought and slight waterlogging. In the wild, bushes are found near water bodies, so the roots are not afraid of spring floods. However, a constant excess of moisture is contraindicated for seedlings. The same goes for closely spaced groundwater. Watering is provided during periods of dry weather.
For the development of a lush crown and abundant flowering, regular feeding is done. It is recommended to use humus or top dressing with grass mass diluted with water. During the summer, 2-3 sessions are carried out.
The plant also knows how to resist diseases and pests. Rarely, the stems become infected with powdery mildew. Copper sulfate, which is sprinkled on the ground parts of the bushes, helps to stop the spread of the fungus. Leaves attract the ringworm moth. Pests are expelled by spraying with chlorophos.
Broom is planted in groups or singly. Cascades of fresh flowers will perfectly decorate a faded spring garden. It is recommended to plant conifers, heather, lilies of the valley or lavender next to the bushes. Dense broom thickets form a slender hedge.
Extraordinarily beautiful broom russian during flowering, when 3-5 large bright yellow flowers bloom in the axils of the foliage at once. The shoots bend from the abundance of flowers, creating additional splendor for the shrub. Its flowers are like moths. Broomstick blooms for about a month, during which willy-nilly you will admire this luxurious bright yellow plant.
Broom purple - undersized shrub, especially attractive during flowering. Before and after flowering, this plant will not attract significant attention to itself. But its bloom, which lasts about 3 weeks, is unforgettable. Large dark purple flowers adorn graceful thin glossy shoots. Fruits - black beans are tied after flowering, and when ripe, brown seeds appear inside. If in the Russian broom the fruits are densely pubescent, then in the purple broom they are naked.
The plant is capable of producing numerous underground shoots, gradually, as it were, moving away from the previous planting site. With these shoots, you can propagate the purple handsome. It propagates easily by seeds. You don't even have to bother yourself with unnecessary work on collecting, sowing seeds and germinating them. Ripe fruits not harvested in time will soon open, and the seeds will scatter next to the mother plant. If in the spring the soil near the shrub is not disturbed, at the beginning of June the observant gardener, to his joy, will find a lot of young seedlings.
What decorative flowering shrubs will delight you in the spring?
Chubushnik (jasmine) - June. White color.
Japanese spirea - June-July. The color is pink in all shades. There are varieties with yellow foliage.
Tamarix - blooms from July to September. Flowers of very delicate pink color are collected in cluster inflorescences.
Deytsia - blooms in early June. Color red, pink, white.
Weigela - early June. A range of shades: red, pink, cream and white. There are varieties with variegated foliage.
Syrian arboreal hibiscus - flowering end of July to October. The color is white, all shades of pink and lilac.
Cinquefoil (Kuril tea) - bloom June-July. Color pink, red, white, yellow.
Hydrangea - blooms from July to October. The color is white, pink, cream, blue, lilac, depending on the variety.
Buddleya David - bloom August-September. Flowers are collected in inflorescences and resemble lilac brushes. Hence, the second name is "autumn lilac". Color - white, pale lilac, violet.
How do plants exist in nature? They do not grow chaotically in a forest, meadow or swamp, but form certain communities, or so-called ecological groupings. The principle of their survival is due to the fact that this group of plants requires similar living conditions - moisture, light, quantity and quality of soil. The selected conditions in a given location are usually not suitable for all plants. Those that are "in the subject" feel great. The "superfluous" ones either drop out, or keeping them alive requires a lot of effort from us. For example, daffodils under an apple tree grow beautifully into a carpet, but a peony or a rose under a birch will never feel "at ease".
Therefore, when creating a composition, it is advisable to take into account the "principle of sociality" of the plants that we want to plant nearby.
Also in nature, these groups often form next to a large tree.
It is not only a tree that can become the center of a natural plant grouping. Large shrubs, a clump of cereals, even a group of stones - all this forms certain conditions around itself, which can be quite different from conditions in other parts of the garden. For example, near large stones, temperature changes, both seasonal and even daily, become sharper. And under the wall of a wooden house, especially on the south side or under the protection of large dense bushes, the microclimate softens - more thermophilic species can survive here.
Let's take a look at this topic - what and under what trees can be planted so that later all your life you will not be engaged in the “survival” of the planted material.
Under evergreen conifers, light conditions hardly change throughout the year. Under some conifers, such as the FIR, the deep shadow is further enhanced by the dryness of the soil. In addition, there is a dense layer of needles and an acidic reaction of the soil. Therefore, as for the spruce, sometimes it is so difficult to find beautiful flowers here that it is best to abandon this idea and use beautiful stones and driftwood.
There is much more light and water under the crown of the PINE. Therefore, it will be an ideal location for heathers, rhododendrons and some species of lilies. They all value good soil ventilation. It is only necessary to take into account that pine actively drains the soil, therefore, frequent watering is necessary in summer, but on the contrary, during autumn rains or spring floods, this is a plus.
Also, under the pine tree, the peony Maryin root will feel very well.
When planting plants near a pine that require organic-rich soil, do not plant close to the trunk, from such soil the root collar of the pine can rot. For the same reason, you should not mulch the near-trunk zone with humus, only coniferous litter is permissible. But along the periphery of the crown projection, on the contrary, it is useful to add organic matter, the pine will respond with active growth, lush branching and bright color of the needles.
It is good to plant light-loving heathers and erica under small conifers.
Under large conifers, you can also plant - orchids (lyubka, orchis, shoes), lingonberries, common heather, erika, marsh rosemary, narrow-leaved blueberries, marsh myrtle, white-leaved white-leaved.
Fruit trees, especially modern early-growing varieties on low-growing rootstocks, have a well-developed superficial root system.Therefore, it is better to plant here spring-flowering plants that do not require frequent uprooting and planting: daffodils, kandyks, spring anemones, corydalis, Greig's, Foster's and Kaufman's tulips.
In the summer, let there be ground cover grasses - they will retain moisture, and the fruits that have fallen will be easy to collect. Moreover, in the fall, fallen leaves and rotting fruits are usually removed under the crowns, since they serve as a source of infection. Therefore, it will be bad here for perennials with juicy underground organs, lilies, peonies and irises, their roots react to any infection.
It is better not to plant shrubs under the fruit trees at all - they will interfere with digging up the trunk circle (if, of course, you are going to do this).
Broad-leaved - "patrons" of ephemeroids, early flowering plants that spend most of the year underground and wake up only for a few weeks in the spring, while it is still light under the crowns. In addition, the root system of these trees is relatively deep, which makes it possible to weed and replant herbaceous plants under the maple, elm and linden.
Here you can plant daffodils, corydalis, Pushkinia, Chionodoxa, Galanthus, Scylla.
Also, ordinary bulbous plants that require annual digging are not prohibited here.
Summer here comes the time of large shade-tolerant forest plants - bells, aconites, buzulniks. Under the dense crowns, optimal humidity is maintained, especially if the fallen leaves have not been removed, which creates a layer of natural organic mulch and forms a natural microclimate.
Here it will be good for such large-sized owners as Rogers, Kupena and Lunar.
Of the shrubs, black elderberry, hazel, honeysuckle, those that require fertile soil are good.
There are some minor cons to consider. For example, because of the beautiful colored foliage that fell in autumn, plants that also turn bright colors in autumn will not look good here.
Also, the fallen leaves of some species have features that are not very pleasant for other plants. For example, oak foliage is rich in tannins, rotting slowly - this can interfere with the growth of ground cover grasses. And the carpet of fallen aspen leaves is so densely packed during the winter that it can prevent the growth of other plants and the flow of air into the soil.
Birch, like pine, is able to extract water and nutrition from the poorest soil. Unlike pine, it more easily tolerates soil compaction and oxygen depletion. Therefore, pampered garden plants usually cannot compete with birch, although we often want to plant flowers against the background of its white trunks.
Bells, dicenter, acidantera look great here.
There can be three options for solving the problem:
- constant soil enrichment and increased watering of the flower garden, to which the birch roots have access,
-container culture either
- selection of plants that are less demanding on soil fertility and moisture: perennial carnations, drought-resistant cereals.
Birch grows very quickly in a fertilized place. This, of course, is beautiful, but you must understand whether you are ready to make sacrifices for the sake of a white-barrel beauty!
Of the shrubs, spireas, euonymus, broom, chubushnik are compatible with birch - they are relatively drought-resistant.
GENERAL RULES FOR A FLOWER UNDER TREES.
-When preparing the soil under trees with a deep root system (oak, linden, maple), the soil can be dug up and freed from roots and weeds.
-Under a spruce, willow, cherry, where there are many superficial roots, deep digging is undesirable. It is especially important not to disturb the roots of conifers. In this case, the weeds can be removed with a roundup or by closing the trunk circle for the whole season with an opaque material, although, for example, this will not save you from sleepiness, only roundup helps from it.
-Since weeding under these trees will be difficult, in the future, prepare to possibly mulch the plantings every year.
GROW WELL UNDER ANY TREES:
SPRING FLOWERING - May lily of the valley, common primrose, spring primrose, European swimsuit, Asian swimsuit, liverwort.
SUMMER BEAUTIFUL - wrestler, aconite, toothed buzulnik, Przewalski's buzulnik, astilbe, broad-leaved bell.
FANS - ostrich, male duckweed, female kochedyzhnik.
SOIL COVER - yellow zelenchuk, ivy budra, European hoof, small periwinkle, creeping tenacious.
And of course, you can do container gardening under any trees.
The broom captivates with an abundance of bright flowers-moths, completely covering the branches of this shrub. The spring extravaganza of the broom in the garden, the riot of its colors and smells, is a real holiday after the annoying winter, presented to gardeners and pollinating insects by the broom, generous for flowers and nectar.
Broom (Cytisus, Chamaecytisus) is a genus of deciduous shrubs or short trees of the legume family. About 60 species of this genus are known, native to Europe, Asia and Africa. These are deciduous (most species), semi-evergreen or evergreen plants, sometimes with small thorns. Broomsticks are good honey plants. Many species of broom are poisonous. The height of the broom bush varies significantly, depending on the type and growth conditions: large bushes reach 4-5 m, medium - up to 2 m, low - up to half a meter, creeping - about 20 cm. In less favorable growth conditions, the size of the broom bush is much more modest.
The brooms have thin flexible branches and small leaves, single or triple. Some broom species bloom in early or late spring, others in summer. Beautiful broom flowers are similar in shape to pea flowers (with a large upper petal - "sail", two narrow elongated side petals - "wings", and two lower small petals fused into a "shuttle"), they are collected in axillary brushes or apical heads. Flowers adorn the broom for about a month; the duration of flowering is determined by the characteristics of the species and the weather (the coolness contributes to a longer flowering) The color of the broom flowers, depending on the species and hybrid, is varied: white, yellow, pink, red, lilac, there are also two-color varieties. The smell of flowers in different species is different - pleasant or not very, subtle or sharp. The flowering of brooms under favorable growth conditions is so abundant that the flowers completely hide the bush - this is a whole cascade of flowers!
Many species of broom plants are bred in the garden as wonderful ornamental plants. Also brooms are grown in containers, forming plants in the form of a lush bush or standard tree. Tall types of broom are suitable for a large rock garden. A large bush of brightly blooming broomstick looks great against the backdrop of a green lawn. Several simultaneously flowering brooms with flowers of different colors, planted side by side, create a colorful ensemble. Low-growing brooms are suitable for growing on an alpine slide, in a flower garden. Creeping brooms are good in rockeries, and they also look great on a retaining wall.
The most common species in Russia is broom russian (C. ruthenicus). It is a very unpretentious, small spherical shrub that looks like a golden ball with abundant summer bloom.
Very handsome and lush broom (C. scoparius) with erect, ribbed shoots and small trifoliate leaves that fall very early. The height and width of the bush are about 2 m. Rod-shaped broom blooms with yellow flowers in late May and early June. Its numerous hybrids have been bred with golden, pink, red, scarlet flowers with a yellow edge.
Early broom (C. praecox) of the same height and width, but with slightly curved, drooping branches. It blooms in the spring in the garden one of the first plants, already in April, illuminating the garden with its yellow fragrant flowers, there are varieties of other colors.
R. oblong (C. elongatus) is a medium-sized shrub (about 1.5 m) with golden yellow flowers and blooms in June.
Broom white (C. albus) grows into a small bush, blooms in spring with white flowers.
Emerian broom (Cytisus emeriflorus) is a short shrub (about 70 cm) with bright yellow flowers. Blooms in late May - early June.
Sessile broom (Cytisus sessiliflorus), crowded broom (Cytisus aggregatus) and blackened broom (Cytisus negricans) about half a meter in height bloom less abundantly, since flowers in these species are located at the ends of the shoots, and not along their entire length.
Broom cus (C. kewensis) grows like an elfin tree (height up to 0.5 m) and has yellow flowers. Even less of him purple broom (C. purpureus): This sprawling lilac-flowered bush is no more than 30 cm tall and blooms in May-June.
Regensburg broom (Chamaecytisus ratisbonensis) - one of the lowest species (10-30 cm tall), erect or lodging blooms in late spring and early summer. In this species, flowers are single or collected in several pieces in small inflorescences. The color of the flower has two shades of yellow (pale yellow and deep yellow) with reddish-brown inclusions.
The smallest of the species (about 10 cm) - creeping broom (C. decumbens) with leaves pubescent on all sides and golden-yellow flowers forms extensive carpets in the garden.
And the tallest species is broom Moroccan (C. battandieri) at home, it grows up to 5 meters. This species has larger leaves and yellow flowers with a pineapple smell collected in dense inflorescences.
This is how nature has created these related plants - "Lilliputian broom" and "giant broom".
Broomsticks grow well in the open, in the sun they bloom very abundantly and effectively. Broomsticks are undemanding to soils, they can grow on poor soils. Many broom species are drought tolerant. However, hybrid brooms are more demanding on soil fertility and moisture. Ordinary garden soil with the addition of sand, the presence of lime in the soil - good conditions for broom in the garden.
Long branches of the broom, on which there were flowers, after flowering, are annually cut off half the length of young wood, which contributes to their further tillering. You must not touch the old wood of the broom, the bush may die. Bare broom branches do not give new shoots, therefore it is impossible to "rejuvenate" an old ugly bush by cutting lignified branches - an elongated, bare broom bush is replaced with a young one.
Every gardener who has seen a broom in bloom dreams of acquiring this miracle and cannot resist buying his seedling. But it must be borne in mind that the broom is very difficult to tolerate damage to the root system, therefore, a plant with an open root system should not be bought, as well as a wild plant should not be dug out of nature - the probability of its rooting is very small.
Most species of broom are frost-resistant, but there are also relatively cold-resistant and thermophilic species. In regions with severe winters, frost-resistant broom species are grown as a container crop. From spring to autumn cold weather, such a plant is kept in the garden, and for the winter, the container with the broom is removed to a cold (about +5 degrees) frost-free room.
When buying a broom sapling, it is imperative to check with the seller: whether this species winters in your area without shelter. Wonderful broom hybrids with beautiful large flowers of various colors require a sheltered place in the garden and shelter for the winter. For reliable rooting before the autumn cold, it is necessary to plant such brooms in the garden in early spring, and not in autumn. It is advisable to buy a hybrid broom sapling that is already grown (2-4 years old), with lignified shoots in the lower part of the bush - this is a guarantee of its successful wintering.
In autumn, with the onset of stable cold weather, the base of the broom bush is spud (with earth, sand, peat), the ground around the bush is mulched to protect the roots from frost. The flexible branches of the broom are tied with a synthetic cord and pressed to the ground, and then they are fixed in this position with hairpins or wooden slats from above, covered with dry leaves, covered with spruce branches. Under a thick snow coat, the broom will overwinter well.
Broom broom (C. x racemosus) is an evergreen shrub with small leaves native to Madeira and the Canary Islands. It is grown as an early flowering (February-May) houseplant. Because of the dense inflorescences of numerous bright yellow flowers, this broom is called "golden rain". In summer, it is better to expose the pot with the plant to fresh air, in a warm, sunny place. The broom is watered very sparingly, in summer - more, in winter - limited. From March to August, the broom is fertilized weekly, and during the rest of the year - once a month.
Before the onset of autumn cold weather, the pot with evergreen broom is placed in a bright, cool room with a temperature of 8-10 degrees (for example, in an unheated winter garden). Such conditions are necessary for the normal wintering of the evergreen broom and so that buds can be set on it.
During flowering, the broom is recommended to provide a cool and very bright location, but without direct sunlight on the bush - this will greatly prolong its flowering. After flowering, the branches of the broom are pruned for lush branching, and then, if necessary, they are transferred into a larger pot (young plants are transferred annually).
Broomsticks propagate by seeds and vegetatively (cuttings, layering).
The fruit of the broom is an oblong flattened pod with one or more flat seeds. Species brooms can be propagated by sowing seeds in open ground in autumn (without preliminary preparation) or in spring (after two months of stratification). Pinch broom seedlings so that they form a dense bush.
Hybrid brooms propagate only vegetatively. Green broom cuttings are rooted in spring and summer, cuttings for rooting can be started from the bush immediately after its flowering.
For the propagation of broom, the lower branches of the bush are pinned to the ground by layering and sprinkled with earth, maintaining soil moisture. Creeping species of broom are easily propagated by layering twigs rooting near the mother bush.
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I note right away that the best neighbors for rhododendrons are ... rhododendrons. Almost all species and varieties look great and feel great in a joint planting, and by choosing bushes of different flowering periods, we can get a group that blooms for more than 3 months.
For example: Ledebour rhododendron (April), Canadian (early May), PJM group varieties (early May), Caucasian rhododendron varieties (mid-May), Yakushiman rhododendrons (late May), deciduous varieties from the Nap Hill groups, Nofern Laite (late May - early June), Katevbin rhododendrons or Finnish varieties - (first half - mid-June), glutinous rhododendron varieties (mid-late June), Weston-azaleas (July). And the group, which contains both deciduous and evergreen rhododendrons, in September and October will be no less elegant than during the flowering period, since most varieties of deciduous azaleas have remarkably bright and varied (from lemon yellow and orange-red to purple and purple) autumn foliage.
Neighborhood with decorative varieties of conifers is always good.
The most suitable varieties are mountain pine and dwarf cedar. They are photophilous, which means they are suitable for joint planting with deciduous rhododendrons and those of evergreens that tolerate light well (varieties of Yakushiman rhododendron). Thuja are very hardy, they will look good in a lit place and pretty well - in partial shade.For the neighborhood with rhododendrons, in my opinion, it is better to choose varieties with a clear crown shape, then outside the flowering of rhododendrons, the group will be interesting due to the contrasting shape of the crowns - a natural "free" rhododendron and a regular pyramid (Smaragd) or a ball, an egg (Danica, Golden Glob , Woodwardii).
For a semi-shady place in neighbors to evergreen large-leaved rhododendrons, you can invite chisel-shaped tuepisis, pea cypress varieties (Filifera, Squarrosa, Buleward), Canadian hemlock (Jeddeloh, Pendula, etc.), yew. When choosing and planting a coniferous neighbor, it should be borne in mind that thuja and cypress trees are transplanted quite easily, especially at a young age, and all the rest of the listed breeds of transplantation are painful. Therefore, it is worth carefully choosing the distances when landing. We can always transplant rhododendrons, but moving the paved path, on which our beloved mountain pine will eventually lie, is much more difficult. For the same reasons, inviting dwarf varieties of spruce, fir, larch into the composition, it is worth asking about the size of this dwarf at least at the age of 10.
Dwarf varieties of rhododendrons (Luisella, Ronny, Azurika, etc.) also over time grow into quite lush pillows with a diameter of 70-90 cm.The neighborhood with conifers will provide us with a late-autumn and winter decorative composition, the contrast of texture and color of needles, leaves, flowers, the contrast of the shape of the crowns will create a pleasant impression in summer, in addition, coniferous litter will be natural way to acidify and enrich the soil, which is beneficial for rhododendrons.
Of the deciduous shrubs, the classic neighbors of rhododendrons are hydrangeas. For planting in a bright place, varieties of panicle hydrangea are suitable, in a more shady one - tree hydrangea. That is, we plant panicle hydrangeas with deciduous azaleas, tree-like ones with large-leaved evergreen rhododendrons (Finnish varieties, varieties of rhododendrons Katevbinsky, Smirnov, etc.).
There is an exception - hydrangeas of the tree varieties Bella Anna and Pink Annabel should also be planted in the light, because in the shade they develop very thin shoots and require a garter. There is also an exception, on the contrary - a number of varieties of light-loving panicle hydrangea bloom quite well in partial shade:
Precox (Rhaesokh), Floribunda. Hydrangeas in a composition with rhododendrons fill the pause in the flowering of the composition in the second half of summer, and in terms of agrotechnical requirements, they completely coincide with them. Hydrangeas need annual pruning of shoots, therefore, when placing them in a composition, it is necessary to provide for the possibility of a convenient approach to the bushes for this purpose.
"Workhorses" will also come in handy - such unpretentious shrubs as Japanese spirea, incised Stephanandra, pressed broom, etc.
Often, our composition with rhododendrons needs a background against which it could show all its merits. From large shrubs that lend themselves well to forming (we must be able to cope with the background, if he decides to go beyond the desired boundaries), we can offer varieties of black elderberry, common hazel, black chokeberry, canadensis, etc. Elderberry in this role will also demonstrate expressive flowering and fruits, chokeberry and irga - a bright autumn color, against which evergreen large-leaved rhododendrons will look great.
When planning a composition with evergreen rhododendrons, it is difficult to do without ferns. Rather, in no case should you do without ferns!
Ferns are graceful and elegant, their lacy foliage will add air to the composition, emphasize the monumentality of large bushes and the luxury of their flowering. We plant in the foreground between and in front of the bushes of rhododendrons, varieties of shitnikov, female and nippon cochidian, maidenhair, and if the climate permits, then varieties of mnogoryadniki. In small compositions, woods, spikelet derbyanki and Japanese will be good.
Many shade-tolerant crops will come to a place in a shady composition with rhododendrons: liverwort, mountain goat weed, large-leaved brunnera varieties, smilacin, oak anemone varieties, etc.
Let's talk about perennialsthat bloom at the same time as rhododendrons. It would seem that the bloom of the latter is already so luxurious that it does not need to be supplemented. However, as an elegant gypsophila is appropriate in a bouquet of roses, so the flowering of suitable crops can successfully complement the lush "bouquet" of rhododendron. For partial shade, you can offer varieties of phlox spread wide and pressed, heycherella and hybrid tiarella, shadow saxifrage, forest anemone.
Tiarella cordifolia can also be used as a ground cover plant in the composition, it gracefully blooms with white sultans at the same time as rhododendrons in late May - early June. But here you have to make sure that the thiarella does not crawl under the bushes of rhododendrons, into the crust-uninhabited layer, and remove the excess in time. In partial shade and in the light, the Rhizome Corydalis hybrid of the Blue Panda, Craithon Blue, and Spinners varieties grows well. She will add a piercing blue sky color to the composition with rhododendrons.
In a lighted place, in the foreground of a group of deciduous azaleas, you can also plant subulate phlox bushes. Oddly enough, this mountain perennial successfully puts up with acidic soils, providing blooming azaleas with elegant "support" from below. The same applies to the eight-petal dryad, shaved, etc. On the trellis in the background, princes can be placed, most varieties bloom simultaneously with deciduous rhododendrons from the end of May.
For autumn flowering, decorated Chinese gentians and nevaya flippers (sun or partial shade) are suitable. Heather varieties will also decorate the composition in autumn (a lit place or very light shading).