The most important thing is the correct choice of the variety. Watermelon, by nature, is an extremely thermophilic culture. Therefore, it remains for us to choose only early maturing varieties that are relatively resistant to low temperatures.
I have been growing watermelons for a long time. And she wrote about her search for the least laborious ways that would allow getting watermelons without the prospect of earning a stroke with sciatica. But I wanted to simplify these methods even more.
Melon is demanding on light, at low illumination the interval between the beginning of flowering of male and pistillate flowers reaches 32 days, and under normal conditions - 3-5 days. In our climate, one should not rush to plant melon seeds.
The watermelon is grown on a vertical trellis. Twine is tied to each plant. At the same time, they are formed - the two lower lateral shoots are removed, the shoots on which a female flower has not formed up to the 6-7th node are removed.
This season we planted both crops both in open and protected ground. 8 cups of seedlings were planted in the open field, the end result is 47 watermelons. The maximum weight of the removed watermelon is 9.5 kg, the minimum is 3 kg.
We have selected two varieties of melons for outdoor use this year. The first is a mid-season Kolkhoznitsa variety with a period from germination to the first harvest of 75-95 days. The second grade Lada - medium early, ripens in 70-75 days.
When you get here, the desire to speak completely disappears. I just want to walk around the site, listen to the explanations of the owners and watch, watch ... Because in our climate they create miracles.
Greenhouse melon varieties must combine early maturity, yield, palatability and resistance to unfavorable greenhouse conditions. The most popular are three varieties of melon: Charente, Gaul, Augen, Canari.
The fruit was single, elongated and beautifully striped in color. He grew up by September. And when I cut it, its pulp had a light watermelon aroma without a hint of sugariness and had a very neutral taste.
It should be admitted that today there is already considerable experience in the cultivation of melons in the northern regions. Back in the 16th century. melons and gourds were grown not only in the south of the country, but also near Voronezh, Kursk and even near Vladimir.
The method is based on a layer of biofuel under a layer of humus-rich soil. In the spring, she removed the top layer of soil. She put cardboard, branches, hay at the bottom. Sprinkled with urea, poured hot water, added compost. The removed layer of soil was laid on this pillow.
The main requirement in the selection of a hybrid for our conditions is its early maturity and the ability to set fruit in the humid climate of our greenhouses. I have already spoken about the Sorento F1 hybrid, consider a few more successful hybrids.
I have never had the opportunity to grow melons and watermelons in a greenhouse. Therefore, for several years in a row I have been trying to cultivate this crop in the open field.
The ridge was prepared for watermelons in the fall. Due to the fact that we do not have enough, the place was chosen the most illuminated. Since watermelons are a very demanding crop for the soil, they began to cook a corresponding pillow in a box (6x1.5 m).
The preparation of the land for planting melons in the greenhouse began in the spring, but it is better if the ridge is at least 50% ready in the fall. In April, soil was chosen on the ridges to the clay. Our boxes for landing are 50 cm high from the clay. At the bottom, we laid a layer of sawdust 20 cm
Why do I want to pay special attention to the pollination of watermelons? The fact is that if it does not happen, and pollination inside the flower takes place in two stages, and at a strictly defined temperature, then you will not have watermelons ...
Every time you get to the site of this family, near Kolpino, you find something new there that has appeared in the current season or in the off-season, thanks to the skillful hands and tireless creative character of Boris Petrovich or the care of Galina Prokopyevna.
Recently, the number one object on my site has become melon in the open field. I grow melons and watermelons in a warm bed with black plastic. And my experience has proven the possibility of getting these "southerners" in our climate.
A very important parameter is the temperature of the soil for the roots of watermelon within + 30 ... 35 ° C, so the bed should be steam. And it is necessary to make such a bed taking into account that at a high concentration of CO2 in the soil, root growth is inhibited.
In my garden, I conducted an experiment: in early spring, I covered a third of the beds with transparent film, a third with black, and left the rest without film. Measured soil temperature at a depth of 20 cm. Transparent film won.
The Japanese grow watermelons on a rootstock, in which a horizontal cut is made, then splitting the stem lengthwise to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. A scion with the epidermis cut off from both sides is inserted into this split.
They took ordinary soil for seedlings, for flowers, added coconut substrate to it and filled cups of sour cream. On April 29th we had 12 cups of seedlings.
Biologically, gourd belongs to pumpkin crops. We can say that it is a melon of a special shape. Therefore, I am inclined to think that cucumber is a special form of a simple melon, because now there are no other varieties of melons.
For the fifth year now we have been receiving a stable harvest of these melons and gourds. But my husband has long wanted to use watermelons and melons to show their beauty. Last season, he made his dream come true.
Now we understand a lot deeper. Now it is clear to us that it is not enough to get a stunning harvest, no, we need to repeat it successfully several times, to “run in” it. Only then can you share your results with your readers.
The number of shoots on each melon plant was left as follows: the main stem plus the first 4 lateral shoots. I lay the main stem on the ground to a length of 70-80 cm and pin it, and the first 4 lateral shoots go up from it. I remove the rest of the shoots.
Melon is thermophilic, as well as light- and moisture-loving. We chose, of course, the earliest ripening varieties, because our summer is short, cannot be compared with the Central Asian one. They chose three varieties: Kolkhoznitsa, Altai and Jumbo.
Watermelon and melon are heat-demanding and are considered heat-resistant and drought-resistant. For growth and fruiting, they need an air temperature of 25 - 30 ° C during the day, and 18 - 20 ° C at night.
Soil temperature should be at least 22 - 25 ° С. Both of these crops need good lighting, so they are planted in one row, two plants per square meter. m and grown vertically.
Watermelon and melon are bee-pollinated plants, and each plant has both female and male flowers. But in a melon, female flowers are located on the lateral shoots of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd order, and the male flowers are mainly on the main stem, in groups. Therefore, attention should be paid to melon formation even in the seedling phase. In a watermelon, unlike cucumber and melon, male single and many female flowers are located on the main stem, and on the lateral ones there are much fewer of them, and they appear much later.
When forming a watermelon in film greenhouses, only three fruits are left on the main shoot. Lateral shoots after the 4th - 5th leaf can be left, but only without fruit, and pinch under the 3rd - 4th leaf. These empty shoots will feed the fruit on the main stem. As the fruits grow and fill, the lower shoots are gradually removed (Fig. 1a).
You can form a watermelon in one stem, that is, without any side shoots at all. Then the ovary from the ovary on the main stem should be located through 3-5 leaves (Fig. 16). In a melon, still in the seedling phase, pinch the main shoot above the 3rd - 5th leaf. This technique causes increased growth of lateral lashes. After pinching from the axils of the upper leaf on the main shoot, a lateral one begins to grow, you leave it and then lead it to the top of the trellis as the main one (II). Only 5-6 fruits are left on the melon plant. On the main, that is, the first lateral shoot (II), one fruit and one fruit on the lateral 2nd order (III) (see Fig. 2). Moreover, the fruits on the lateral shoots (III) are left through the shoot, that is, one shoot with the fruit, the next empty, which will feed the melon on the lower shoot. Leave 3-4 leaves over each fruit and pinch the shoot. It is better to leave the fruits on the upper shoots. There they are well lit, and although the melons ripen later, they will be sweeter. However, if the summer is not hot, it is better to leave the fruits at the bottom of the plant. The lower ovaries are larger than the upper ones, although less tasty.
For pollination, attract insects to the greenhouse by sprinkling watermelon and melon plants with sugar syrup. In prolonged cloudy weather, you will have to “work as a bee” yourself, manually pollinate the flowers from 6 to 11 am.
To keep the fruits on the plants, they are placed in nets and tied to a stretched horizontal wire at the top of the greenhouse. Watermelons and melons will begin to ripen by the end of July or August. This can be judged by the cracked skin at the base of the peduncle. Plants are watered abundantly with warm water (3 - 7 liters for each plant), but rarely - once every 7 - 10 days. Just try not to wet the root collar, especially on the melon. To do this, when planting seedlings, a tubercle is made and at the base of the tubercle - a groove for irrigation. Leaves do not like sprinkling. And further. Melon needs twice as much water as watermelon. This must be taken into account when watering. And the larger the fruits, the more moisture they need. It is better to water the plants in the middle of the day.
Melons do not tolerate humid air well, so it is better to grow them separately or in extreme cases with tomato, pepper, eggplant, but not with cucumber. The optimum soil moisture for watermelon and melon is 65 - 75%, air - 50 - 55%. Moisture condensation on the plastic wrap is unacceptable, therefore, before closing the greenhouse for the night, it is thoroughly ventilated.
Three root dressings per season are enough for watermelon and melon. Just do not get carried away with nitrogen fertilizers - plants fatten from them, they do not set fruits for a long time. A positive effect is given by phosphorus-potassium dressings with moderate doses of nitrogen (M: P: K 1: 3: 2). For 10 liters of water, take 2 tbsp. spoons of the mixture. Suitable for melons and Kemir-wagon. Ash can be used in one of the dressings (1 glass per 10 liters of water). In mid-July, feed the plants with magnesium sulfate (20 g per 10 L of water). If the plants are weakened and the weather is unfavorable for their growth, feed them additionally with kemira-lux, calcium nitrate (20 g per 10 l of water).
Loosening of the soil can be carried out after watering, and watermelon and melon plants are indifferent to hilling. That, perhaps, is the whole care.
It is believed that sweet, large watermelons and melons can only be grown in the south. But residents of regions with a harsh climate, having provided heat-loving plants with special conditions, observing all the rules of agricultural technology, will be able to enjoy delicious fruits! Let's see what points you need to pay special attention to.
Watermelon is a heat-loving and light-loving plant, drought and heat resistant. Therefore, the site for it needs to be selected sunny, protected from cold winds. The plant feels best on light sandy loam and sandy soil, so sand must be added to the beds when planting. In order for a watermelon to please with a good harvest in Siberia, it must be grown under film shelters and seedlings - this is the only way to extend the growing season and get a guaranteed result.
Many gardeners have had positive experiences with outdoor cultivation of this crop. Early varieties and hot summers make it possible to ripen a watermelon in our conditions, but the risk is still great, especially if you live in the Tomsk region, and not in the Altai Territory.
Seedlings in open ground are planted after June 10-12, at the age of 20-25 days. Fertilizer is introduced into the soil in advance (per 1 m2: 2–6 kg of manure (fresh manure is not used), 20–30 g of ammonium sulfate, 40–45 g of superphosphate, 15–25 g of potassium salt).
Watermelon loves space, so plants in open ground are planted at a distance of 1–1.4 m from each other, in a row - 0.4–0.7 m, and in greenhouses, you can use a 60x40 cm pattern.
Watermelons prefer a soil acidity (pH) between 6 and 6.8. And it is very important to maintain this indicator at exactly such a level that it will solve many problems with plant nutrition. Some gardeners successfully use ash infusion for this purpose.
After planting, the soil around the plants is also sprinkled with sand. Until they take root completely, they are shaded and watered daily with warm water. Then watering is reduced, and with the beginning of fruit ripening, they stop altogether. Watermelons are fed 3 times:
Watermelon pollinators can be up to 150 different types of insects. It turned out that ants visit watermelon flowers earlier than other insects - at the first moment of their disclosure, at about 6 o'clock in the morning. They help to get an early harvest. So don't kill the ants.
In Siberia, you should not chase a large number of fruits. As soon as 2-3 fruits are formed, pinch the main lash, and pinch the side lashes over 5-6 leaves. The rest of the ovaries are removed.
With high agricultural technology in the greenhouse, you can form plants on a trellis and pinch the main lash when it grows up to it. The lash must be twisted regularly, since the watermelon grows very quickly. Be sure to hang the fruits in the net.
Melon like a watermelon, in our climate it can only be guaranteed to ripen in a greenhouse. If this is not possible, then in the open field it is grown by seedlings, at the same time. However, melon is a more early ripening and cold-resistant crop, more demanding on soil fertility and aeration. 2-3 seeds are planted in a container, then the strongest plant is left. Layout on the beds: 70x70 cm, in greenhouses - 40x40 cm.
Melon care is the same as watermelon care.
The main whip of a melon in the open field is pinched over 3-4 leaves. When lateral shoots appear, the two most developed are left. Then they are pinched over 4–6 sheets.
The next pinching is carried out when the ovary is formed. The growing point above 3-4 leaves above the ovary is removed, the shoots without ovary and underdeveloped are cut out. In total, 5–6 fruits should remain on the plant, no more than 2 fruits on each shoot. Excess melons and ovaries are removed.
Melon grows well in a greenhouse. Here, like a watermelon, it is formed on a trellis. Blind 2 lower internodes. Starting from the third lash, 1-2 fruits are left. Stepsons and extra ovaries are removed, leaving no more than 8 fruits. The fruits are hung in nets.
Tatiana Steinert, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Igor Ovechkin, scientist-agronomist Vladimir Stepanov, Doctor of Biological Sciences
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Alexander Gorshenkov writes: and honey in the open field can be grown
Lydia K writes: Tatyana, thank you very much for the video, as always very useful)))
Dmitry Kotovsky writes: video does not match
Flowers vegetables and fruits writes: Hello, try salt or salty solution from ants ... it helped me to start seedlings from the garden soil at home ...
Alexey Rybak-Amateur writes: from the ants I sprinkle an ant .. and the anthill was gone ..
Install containers with seedlings on the windowsill. You should not place them very close to each other. Young plants should not come into contact with foliage. It is best to create a landing in the middle of April. This is one of the main criteria for the success of such an enterprise as growing melons in a polycarbonate greenhouse. Planting early also guarantees an early harvest.
The seedling method is just an excellent answer to the question of how to grow a melon in the Urals in a greenhouse, or even in Siberia. If in the European part of Russia seeds can still be planted under polycarbonate directly into the ground, then in cold regions it is better to use this particular technique. But, of course, good results can be achieved only with proper care of the seedlings.
In the middle lane, melon and watermelon are best grown through seedlings. Learn how to properly prepare and sow seeds for friendly seedlings.
Growing a watermelon or melon from seeds is no more difficult than, for example, cucumbers or zucchini. Try it and see for yourself! In our master class, we described each step in detail, so there should be no doubt that you will cope. Do not be alarmed - you will not have to use any supernatural devices for sowing seeds of "exotic" melons for our latitudes.
You will need: