When choosing seedlings, preference is given to strong specimens that could painlessly take root in a new place. Therefore, when growing seedlings on their own, gardeners use different techniques that have a beneficial effect on the development of young shoots. And the main means in achieving this goal are water and fertilizers. How and what to water tomato seedlings so that they grow strong, we will tell you later in the article.
The development of young shoots depends on the observance of the irrigation regime and the introduction of fertilizing. And the irrigation process itself has features, which will be discussed in this article.
After transferring seedlings to open ground, watering is not carried out very often. First, every 2 days during the first week, then about 1 time per week. Each seedling takes about 1.5-2.5 liters of water. Worse if the moisture is superficial. The root system can form underdeveloped, which will negatively affect the growth of the bush.
Seedlings transplanted to the garden can be damaged by both abundant and frequent watering and drying out of the soil. The risk of root decay is high from waterlogging, and dryness inhibits the development of culture.
For rooting seedlings, irrigation is carried out according to the following scheme:
For watering tomatoes, water at room temperature is used. Natural reservoirs and wells serve as a source of liquid. It is undesirable to use tap water, but in the absence of another, it must be defended for at least a day. The ideal option is to collect precipitation (melted snow, rain).
It is necessary to water the emerging seedlings 3-4 days after mass germination. The main assistant in this matter is the sprayer. It will help distribute the water evenly throughout the seedling container. An important point is the accuracy of the procedure, you need to try not to get on the greens. In the first month of seedling development, it is recommended to make one irrigation with a solution of water and organic fertilizer.
Moistening the soil for the last time before picking should be 2-3 days, and after the seedlings are planted, watering can be resumed only after 3-4 days. In the future, the mode is set: 1 time in 7-10 days.
The first time irrigation is carried out 10-12 days after transplanting tomato seedlings. Watering is carried out only under the root of the plant. At the same time, liquid should not get on the leaves. As the bush grows, its volume increases. At the first stage, the consumption rate is 1.5-2 liters per plant, then the displacement increases to 3-3.5 liters.
Of the existing irrigation systems, preference is given to drip and underground irrigation. Sprinkling can provoke the development of a fungus.
In order for young shoots to grow faster, water solutions with fertilizers are used for irrigation. Of the most popular recipes, you can safely use the following options:
Everyone knows the unique qualities of hydrogen peroxide when treating wounds, but few people know about the benefits of using a remedy for healing tomato seedlings so that they grow strong.
Even a simple sprinkling of water with the addition of peroxide stimulates the development of tomatoes. This technology has long been practiced in America and some European countries. High yields and increased plant resistance to diseases serve as an indicator of efficiency.
Hydrogen peroxide is a good aerator for soil. In loosened soil, the root system develops better, air exchange is regulated.
When using hydrogen peroxide for irrigation, some rules are followed:
Sometimes it happens that as a result of a sharp onset of cold weather, the seedlings freeze or get wet under the pouring (still spring-like cold) rain. The depressing appearance of the plants suggests that the work and time were wasted. But you still need to try to reanimate the seedlings, especially since there are always several effective methods in the arsenal of experienced gardeners.
A reverent attitude towards seedlings guarantees strong seedlings. And this is a good bookmark for the future harvest. The main thing is not to forget about the use of organic matter and peroxide. Process and feed vegetables in time with the right means.
Growing quality seedlings is painstaking and difficult work that takes a lot of time. If you do not follow all the recommendations and rules, then in the end you can get low-quality material for planting in open ground. With a lack of light, a certain temperature regime, watering and nutrients, the plant becomes sluggish, elongated, thin and brittle. When such crops are transplanted into open ground, their wilting and subsequent death or yield below the norm are observed.
Pulling is a popular problem among gardeners. This process is characterized by a large distance between nodes on the wellbore.
Most often it occurs as a result of such provoking factors:
These two factors coincide when growing seedlings at home. It is recommended to sow seeds at temperatures over +20 degrees. When the first shoots appear, the degrees drop to +17. It is problematic to create these conditions at home, but in greenhouse conditions (in the presence of heating) it is quite possible.
As for lighting, the house does not always have windows facing the sunny side. Cloudy weather is also observed in early spring when seedlings are grown. With a lack of light, the plant does not just stretch, it becomes thin, turns yellow and withers. At first, young sprouts need at least 16 hours of illumination, which cannot be achieved only naturally. Therefore, it is recommended to use special artificial lighting. The best option in this situation is considered to be fluorescent room lamps or LEDs.
A thickened planting, which is observed when sowing seeds in one container, can also provoke stretching. After germination, the plants are located too close to each other, and each tries to get a place in the sun. It can also provoke an uneven distribution of nutrients, the development of fungal, viral and bacterial diseases. Therefore, thinning or picking is carried out, after which intensive growth and development is observed.
The quality of seedlings is also influenced by the soil composition. To do this, you can purchase a special soil mixture or prepare it yourself. It must be etched in order to exclude the spread and development of diseases and pests.
Fertilizers containing a large amount of nitrogen, but little potassium and phosphorus are not suitable for tomatoes. Therefore, before using them (especially complex funds), you need to pay attention to the percentage composition.
If the seedlings are oversaturated with nutrients, problems also arise.
Signs to help establish oversaturation:
In this situation, pest and disease infestation should be excluded. If the reason is exactly oversaturation with fertilizers, then feeding is suspended.
Pulling seedlings also occurs with frequent over-watering. It is recommended to carry out it as needed, preferably in the morning. It is necessary to exclude stagnation of liquid in the container. Watering should be uniform and between rows, so the likelihood of damage to seedlings is excluded. Water is used separated or filtered, at room temperature. Before planting in the ground, watering is reduced, the seedlings are hardened, that is, the process of plant adaptation is carried out.
The question is far from idle and some gardeners are faced with a problem when tomato seedlings begin to break at the base and fall. The problem lies in the waterlogging of the soil.
Tomatoes are a drought-resistant crop. Its root can go up to 1.5 m deep into the soil, and naturally there is always moisture there. Therefore, tomato seedlings in the open field are rarely watered, but abundantly. The situation is somewhat different when grown at home.
Of course, soil structure plays an important role. From a light and loose substrate, moisture evaporates much faster, which means that watering should be more frequent.
How to determine if plants need irrigation? At the stage of seed germination, gardeners try to create optimal conditions for this. Stretch plastic wrap over the seedling boxes, cover with glass, or use purchased mini-greenhouses equipped with transparent plastic lids.
In such conditions, additional moisture is extremely rarely required. But in case of doubt, the surface is moistened with a spray bottle.
After the emergence of mass shoots, the shelters are removed, but watering is not carried out. In the thickness of the soil, moisture is still preserved, laid down when sowing seeds, and the roots will reach for it, gaining volume and strength. And after 3-5 days, the sprouts should be watered. Small containers are poured with a teaspoon, a syringe and even a pipette.
But when growing a large volume of seedlings, such methods are not suitable. A small watering can with a long spout works best.
It is good if the seedlings are grown in transparent containers, where the condition of the soil is visible.
For plastic and wooden seedling boxes, you can use a simple device:
In any case, all planting containers must be equipped with drainage holes. As soon as water begins to ooze from them, it means that the earth is saturated with moisture.
As the seedlings grow, the need for water increases. Seedlings ready for diving are watered a day or two before this procedure. It is necessary that the earth dries out a little and during work it can be easily separated from the roots without harming them.
Sprouts are also planted in moist soil, accompanied by slight watering. This is necessary so that the thin filaments of the root system are in close contact with the ground.
Correctly carried out diving of tomato sprouts will provide them with the necessary moisture level for the first 4-6 days. At this time, the boxes with seedlings are somewhat shaded so that rooting is more calm. Further watering is carried out at approximately the same frequency.
And 2 weeks after the dive, watering is combined with top dressing. The choice of fertilizer depends on the place where the seedlings are kept. It is unlikely that the gardener wants to breed an infusion of mullein or bird droppings in the apartment. Although this is the best option for the first feeding, it is still better to use it in greenhouses.
At home, you can use the infusion of wood ash (1 tablespoon per 1 liter of water). Tomatoes respond very well to this natural fertilizer.
Of industrial drugs used:
Specialized stores offer a very wide selection of mineral fertilizers for feeding tomato seedlings.
The gardener will take care of soil moisture in the seedling boxes for more than 2 months. At this age, tomato bushes will be ready for transplanting into open or protected ground.
Before planting in open ground, the seedlings are hardened for 2 weeks, and a few hours before the planned work, they are watered, but not to dirt. The next watering will be carried out at a permanent place: in an open-air garden bed or in a greenhouse.
While tomato seedlings are growing, every experienced gardener knows how often to water. Watering should be even and regular so that the leaves do not overheat. It is advisable to carry out mulching, and the stream of water should be directed to the center of the aisle so as not to damage the plant. It is worth watering before lunch, but there is no need to wait until the leaves begin to fade.
The best way to water tomato seedlings is a must for everyone who has decided to achieve good results and grow delicious tomatoes. The water should be settled, preferably filtered, it is necessary to heat it to room temperature.
10 days before transplanting tomatoes, you need to slightly limit watering and gradually accustom the sprouts to the rays of the sun. During the day, you can keep the container in the greenhouse, and in the dark, move it outside.
How to properly water tomato seedlings before planting - it depends on the weather. If it is very hot, it is necessary to ensure that the leaves receive enough vapor, then they will not dry out.
When the tomato seedlings reached up, then there is no need to blame the variety and look for excuses for this, the reason is banal - the gardener either overlooked or overdid it. Nature has created mechanisms thought out to the smallest detail. Naturally, if the plant has little light, it begins to reach for it. Therefore, it is necessary to plant in boxes with a distance of at least 10 cm from each other.
If the seedlings are still stretched out, plant the plant in the ground at an angle
No need to make a dense planting, the stems will be:
Healthy and strong bushes like free growth so that nothing gets in the way. Such seedlings will bear fruit perfectly, and frail, stunted sprouts that grow in crowded conditions will not please with a rich harvest. Yes, and one cannot but agree, it is better to care for 30 bushes that bear fruit than for 100 that give the same amount of fruit. As mentioned, excessive grooming can also harm the seedlings. After all, if watering is frequent, and fertilizers are abundant, young tomatoes will grow too quickly and begin to stretch upward. This will provoke thin, poorly yielding bushes.
It is important to understand the main thing: it is necessary to water and fertilize in a timely manner, there should be no excesses. It is still possible to correct the situation if the seedlings began to stretch.
How to prevent pulling is clear. And what to do if this has already happened, will be described below. There are several ways. When planting seedlings in the beds, you need to deepen the stems. But this does not mean that it is necessary to dig deep holes (the bottom soil may still be cold and not warmed up after the winter period), you should just land it "in a slope". To do this, you need to make grooves, the depth of which will be about 10 cm, add water to them and wait until it is completely absorbed.
Next, you need to spread the seedlings along the grooves in such a way that the upper part of one bush is no closer than 50 t cm to the other top.Experienced gardeners recommend: the root system should be laid in a southern direction, so the tomatoes will straighten, straightening towards the sun. There is another way to solve the problem. Severely overgrown tomato seedlings can be divided into 2 parts. To do this, everything that grows above 6 leaves must be cut off and put in a jar of water. After about 7 days, roots will appear on the cuts. When they grow to one and a half centimeters, you can transplant the seedlings into special boxes or pots. This method makes it possible to obtain additional seedlings, the new half of which will grow into one stem.
Now we should talk about what needs to be done with the bottom, from which the top was cut. When stepchildren appear on the trimmed seedlings, they need to grow up to 5 cm and, leave only 2 on top, all the lower ones must be trimmed. An important point! Pruning of stepchildren must be performed no earlier and no later than 25 days before planting in open ground so that the bushes do not stretch out.
Tomatoes are grown in almost every summer cottage. You can immediately sow seeds in the greenhouse, especially cold-resistant varieties, but with the seedling method, the harvest is obtained at an earlier date. Growing seedlings on a windowsill takes several months. Already matured plants with a thick stem, developed leaves and a powerful root are planted on the site. But sometimes summer residents are faced with a problem - the seedlings are pulled out.
It is possible to grow healthy tomato seedlings only by creating comfortable conditions for it:
And also the variety of tomatoes is of great importance.
For the normal growth of tomato seedlings, she needs comfortable conditions: light, air temperature, moderate watering
Tomato seedlings are pulled out as a result of improper care. The reasons may be as follows:
With a lack of potassium, tomato shoots are stretched
If the tomato seedlings are stretched out, you should not be upset. Experienced gardeners know how to help plants grow stronger, slow down their too rapid growth. And also how to properly plant elongated seedlings in a garden or greenhouse.
If the reason for the improper development of seedlings is poor lighting, the seedlings are taken out on a glazed balcony (preferably, the windows face the south side) or additional lighting is installed. Phytolamps are placed on top 6 cm from the plants.
For additional lighting of the seedlings, phytolamps are installed at a height of 6 cm from the plants
Lowering the air temperature to +16 ° C will help slow down the growth of seedlings. They need warmth only at first. After picking, too warm microclimate does not allow growing strong seedlings. The optimum temperature is 20–22 ° С during the day and 18 ° С at night. Then the temperature is lowered again a little during the day.
Weak seedlings exposed to a cool loggia become stronger
With a very dense planting, seedlings grow frail. If the seedlings are stretched out, you need to pick the plants into separate containers. In this case, the stem is buried in the ground more than usual. In order not to look for deep containers, the seedling can be buried in a semi-recumbent state, but its aboveground part should be as vertical as possible.
If the tomato seedlings are elongated, the stems must be deepened to the cotyledonous leaves.
If the seedlings are stretched out, already being in an individual pot, you can simply fill up the fertile soil so that its layer does not reach the cotyledon leaves by 2-3 cm. The rest of the stem should be underground. If the height of the pot is not enough, it can be increased by using cut-off plastic bottles or thick polyethylene.
If the height of the seedling pot is not enough, it can be increased by wrapping the container with thick plastic
If this is not possible, the situation can be corrected by transferring the plants with a clod of earth into new larger containers. The soil is poured into pots with elongated shoots to the desired height.
Seedling growth depends on watering. Water them regularly with warm water: at first once a week, grown up - once every 3 days. Watering with cold water often leads to root rot.
For seedlings, both rare and too frequent watering are destructive. You need to focus on the state of the earthen coma. If the soil is wet and the leaves are drooping, do not water the plants under any circumstances. It is necessary to put containers with seedlings in a place protected from direct sunlight and wait until the soil is completely dry. In the future, you should adjust the number of waterings.
Young tomato seedlings should be watered with warm water once a week, grown ones - once every 3 days
Thin, elongated seedlings must be fed. It is better not to use nitrogen-containing fertilizers. But phosphorus and potassium do not accelerate the growth of seedlings, but make them powerful. You can use ash (1 tablespoon per 200 ml of water).
Weak tomato seedlings are fed with complex fertilizer
You can treat elongated seedlings with a growth regulator, for example, an Athlete. Plants are treated 2 times: with regrowth of the fourth true leaflet and again after 2 weeks. The solution is applied at the root, as when spraying, spots may appear on the leaves.
If the seedlings are not only stretched out, but also have lost their color, have become pale, it is useful to feed them with urea (1 tbsp. L. Per 10 l) and put them in a cool place for several days (+ 10 ° С). As a result, it will acquire a bright green color and will slightly slow down its growth.
From the moment of picking and until planting in the garden, it is useful to spray the tomatoes weekly with a solution of whey (1 glass) with iodine (5 drops) per 1 liter of water. The seedlings will grow healthy and strong.
Pinching the cotyledon leaves will help to suspend the pulling of the seedlings. At the same time, the growth of the plant is inhibited, its stem is strengthened.
Some experts recommend removing the cotyledon leaves one by one: first one, a week later - the second. This way you injure the plant less. After another week, you can remove the two lower true leaves. This procedure is recommended only for early seedlings.
The method of removing cotyledon leaves from tomato seedlings is used only for early seedlings
When tomatoes are overgrown, their tops are cut and rooted. 5-6 leaves are left on the stem, and the cut off top is placed in water until the roots appear. As a rule, roots appear in 7-10 days. When their length reaches 1.5–2 cm, you can plant the plants in pots. This method will allow you to get additional seedlings.
If tomatoes are overgrown, their tops can be cut and rooted.
The part of the stem from which the top was cut will soon give new shoots at the cut. When the size of the shoots reaches 5 cm, it is necessary to leave the two upper stepsons on the stem, and remove the rest. Pruning of stepchildren is carried out strictly 20-25 days before planting plants in the ground.
You can avoid stretching seedlings if you correctly determine the planting date, use high-quality varietal seeds, choose a suitable substrate, maintain the required temperature and light conditions, and regularly water and feed.
If the rules of care are violated, tomato seedlings weaken and stretch
First of all, you need to decide on the sowing date. Different varieties - early, mid-season and late - have a growing season from 140 to 160 days. Therefore, sowing tomatoes for seedlings is carried out in late February and early March.
The soil should be loose, water and breathable. It is prepared from peat, humus, leafy earth (3: 2: 1) with the addition of ash. The preparation of the soil must be carried out in the fall, it is better to take the land from your summer cottage in the place where the nightshade did not grow.
If this is not possible, you can use ready-made soil mixtures for seedlings, which are sold in specialized stores.
A day before sowing the seeds, the earth is poured into a box or other container, compacted and spilled with a dark solution of potassium permanganate. Such a procedure will not only disinfect the soil, but also fill it with manganese and potassium compounds useful for tomatoes.
Before planting, tomato seeds are soaked in Epin, then germinated in a damp cloth. Sow in cassettes or boxes, burying 1–1.5 cm into the ground. The distance between seeds should be at least 2 cm.
Tomato seeds are sown in a prepared container to a depth of 1 cm with a distance of at least 2 cm
Water it, cover with foil or glass and put it in a warm place with a temperature of + 22 ... + 25 ° С. The first shoots should appear in 6-7 days.
With the appearance of the loops, the film is removed and the sprouts are provided with a lower temperature (+18 ° С during the day, +15 ° С at night). In a cool environment, the plants will get stronger, the stem will become plump. After 2-3 weeks, the air temperature is again raised to 23-25 ° C, so that the seedlings will start growing again.
Tomato seedlings are transferred for 2 weeks to a cooler room, where they will quickly get stronger
Seedlings grow at night, therefore, at elevated air temperatures, they stretch and become thinner. At a lower night temperature (+ 15 ° C), it will become strong and stocky.
Watering is carried out once a week, as the seedlings grow - once every 3 days with water at room temperature. The soil should be only slightly moistened. Excess moisture can cause root rot in plants. Experienced gardeners advise watering only when the leaves of the seedlings begin to fall. This indicates that the earthen lump is completely dry. Frequent watering and waterlogged soil can cause the seedlings to pull out.
To provide fast-growing seedlings with enough light and nutrition, after the development of two true leaves, they are dived. The containers are filled with a nutrient substrate. The root of the plant is slightly shortened and buried in the soil by 1.5 cm.
After the appearance of two real leaves, the first picking of tomato seedlings is carried out
With the appearance of the first two pairs of true leaves, they are transplanted again, deepening the seedlings to the cotyledonous leaves. For the third time, tomatoes dive after 3 weeks, covering them with earth until the first true leaves. Multiple picking contributes primarily to the development of the root system, and only then to the shoots.
With repeated picking, tomatoes develop a powerful root system
Seedlings will grow strong only on fertilized soil. But an excess of trace elements can provoke stretching of plants. The seedlings are fed with the growth of the first leaf with a solution of copper (1 g per 10 l) - this will save tomatoes from late blight. 10 days after the dive, urea is introduced, another week later - a solution of Nitrofoski (1 tbsp. L. Per 1 l). The last time the seedlings are fed 2-3 days before transplanting into the ground with superphosphate (1 tablespoon per 1 liter of water).
Strong seedlings will grow only on fertilized soil, however, an excess of trace elements can provoke its stretching
If the seedlings are stretched out, do not worry. Such seedlings also take root well. You just need to know the intricacies of their transplant.
Usually, tomato seedlings are transplanted at certain times:
2 days before transplanting into the ground, the lower leaves of tomatoes are removed
A week before planting, at a temperature in the greenhouse not lower than +20 ° С, and the soil - +15 ° С, tomatoes are hardened. They are taken out into the fresh air, first for 3 hours, gradually increasing the time spent in the air. 2 days before transplanting, the lower leaves are removed from the tomatoes. Prepared plants are planted in a garden bed or greenhouse.
Each hole before planting tomato seedlings is well spilled with warm water
Tomato seedlings are removed from the pot along with a lump of earth
An elongated tomato seedling is placed in a groove with the root system on the south side
To prevent tall tomatoes from falling and breaking from the wind, they are tied to stakes
The planted tomatoes can be fed with yeast (dilute 10 g of dry yeast in 10 liters of water, leave for a day), which promotes plant growth.
Tomato seedlings quickly take root and an increase in bushes is noticeable at the end of the first week. And soon the first tomatoes will appear.
Seedlings planted in the ground begin to develop rapidly, and soon the first fruits appear
A good harvest of tomatoes is the dream of any gardener. If you follow agricultural techniques and grow strong and healthy seedlings that ensure the rapid development of the bushes, you can get an abundance of beautiful and juicy tomatoes.
If tomato seedlings show characteristic signs of a deficiency of one or another element, it is possible to introduce unscheduled dressings.
Such solutions are prepared from improvised folk remedies or special preparations:
Of the synthetic fertilizers for tomatoes, the most commonly used are:
Important! Solutions are applied early in the morning or in the evening so that moisture does not evaporate too quickly. If feeding the tomato is carried out at the root, then they try not to hurt the leaves, especially in the morning. This can provoke their burns - both when exposed to chemicals and in the bright sun.