Among the decorative perennials, one of the main places belongs to bulbous plants. Every year they become more and more important both for industrial gardening and for amateur gardeners.
This has a simple explanation: after all, the bulbous group includes such wonderful crops as daffodils, tulips, hyacinths and, of course, lilies.
Lilies belong to the lily family. It is a perennial bulbous plant with a height of 60 to 180 cm. The bulbs consist of individual scales, which are quite close to each other.
The shape of lily flowers is very diverse: they can be tubular, cupped, bell-shaped, funnel-shaped, but they are all unusually beautiful and graceful. The color is varied: white, yellow, violet-brown, pink, orange with a brown tint or dark specks. Some lilies have a very pleasant scent.
Lilies are very demanding on the soil. Lilies grow in one place for several years, so the place for planting them must be prepared. In a heavy-textured soil, add 1 bucket of sand and peat each, in a light soil - 1 bucket of peat per 1 m2.
All lilies require protection from strong winds. But at the same time, the site must be well ventilated, otherwise the plants may become infected with gray rot. Planting sites should not be flooded with water, because the bulbs can rot and die from stagnant water.
The lighting requirements of the planting site depend on the group of lilies. For example, for snow-white lilies and Tubular hybrids, a sunny area should be selected, but Martagon lily and Oriental hybrids require placement in partial shade.
The best time for planting in central Russia is September - October; lilies are planted in the Northwest in August - first half of September.
The planting depth depends on the size of the bulbs and the presence of underbelly roots. The planting of bulbs that do not form stem roots is carried out to a depth of 7–8 cm, and of bulbs that form roots - at a depth of 15–20 cm, at a distance of 20–40 cm. Lilies are transplanted after 3-5 years, keeping the roots ... Before digging, the stalks of the lilies are cut off, then the nests are dug and the earth is shaken off. Dead scales and roots are removed, and the bulbs are washed under running water. Clean bulbs are etched for 20 minutes in a 0.2% solution of foundationol. Then they are slightly dried in the shade. The roots of the bulbs are shortened before planting, pruning to a length of 5-10 cm.
When buying lily bulbs, you should pay attention to the quality of the planting material. They must be dense, firm with living roots at least 5 cm long.
Before planting the bulbs, coarse sand should be poured on the bottom of the hole, then the bulbs should be spread on it and covered with sand, and then with earth. After planting, the area must be watered so that the lilies take root faster. After that, the soil is mulched. For Eastern and Asian hybrids, peat or sawdust (5 cm layer) is used as mulch, and snow-white lily, Martagon and Tubular hybrids are mulched with leaf humus with the addition of ash, since they do not tolerate acidic soils.
Subsequent care comes down to watering, which must be carried out in hot dry weather, especially in the first half of summer. Water lilies at the root only in the morning or afternoon. The soil around the stems is loosened very carefully, and mulching is used to retain moisture in it, for example, with cut grass.
The first feeding of lilies is carried out in the spring, in the snow. It is recommended to apply complex fertilizer at the rate of 30 g per m22... The same feeding is carried out during the budding period.
In the first year after planting, experts advise partially or completely removing the buds, since the plants are still weakened. And during flowering, tall stems can be tied to a support.
In order for lilies to delight your eye with abundant flowering in the summer, you need to take care of this in the fall. In August - September, it is necessary to feed the plants with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers: 30 g of potassium sulfate and 10 g of superphosphate per 1 m2... This will help your plants survive the rough winter. In September, the yellowed aerial parts of the lilies should be cut off at soil level. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that the fallen leaves also do not remain on the ground, since pathogens of various diseases can remain on them. Therefore, the cut stems and leaves must be burned.
Most lilies require annual shelter for the winter. For this, you can use fallen leaves, spruce branches or peat. Cover a flower garden with lilies after the first frost. The layer of foliage should be at least 10 cm. To prevent the foliage from being blown away by the wind, it is pressed with branches.
In spring, foliage and spruce branches must be removed, but peat can be left. It will serve as a source of additional nutrition and protection for the bulbs from overheating of the soil. However, you should be aware that when tubular hybrids are covered with peat, chalk or ash should be added to the soil in spring, since they need a slightly alkaline soil for normal development.
Lilies reproduce by seeds, dividing nests - bulbs, bulbs - children, buds - bulbs (bulbous varieties), scales and leafy cuttings.
The easiest way is seed propagation. This produces a large amount of healthy material. However, with seed propagation, not all species of lilies retain their qualities. When grown from seeds, full-fledged bulbs are formed in 3–6 years. Seeds and bulbs are sown in a box in the fall and grown there to the desired size. Bulbules can be planted in a permanent place.
It is possible to get offspring that retain all the features of the mother plant only with vegetative reproduction. The easiest way is to divide overgrown nests. Nest division and replanting should be done 3-4 years after planting lilies, when 4-6 bulbs are formed in the nest. The best time for this is early autumn.
In order to propagate a single bulb, you need to plant the scales in a box with soil for growing. To land on a permanent place in 2-3 years. This makes it possible to get from one bulb to 20-50 new plants. Scales are harvested in spring, summer and autumn.
Treatment of individual scales with growth regulators allows to significantly increase the multiplication factor (by more than 50%). Succinic acid (100 mg per liter of water) is suitable for this. The material is placed in a solution for 6 hours at a temperature of 20 ... 22 ° C.
In the conditions of central Russia, it is possible to successfully grow lilies of the following types: Chinese lily, white, tiger lily, Thunberg and others.
Lilies can be used both for single plantings and for group plantings. All their types and varieties give excellent cutting material. Lilies placed in water fully open all the buds and delight your eye with extraordinary beauty and grace.
candidate of agricultural sciences,
Researcher, GNU VNIIS im. I.V. Michurin.
Bellflower (Campanula lactiflora)
The plant is perennial, with a branched stem about 90 cm long, photophilous. The diameter of the flower is about 3 cm, the shade is milky or lilac, the inflorescence is pyramidal.
In nature, it grows on the slopes of the Carpathians, Central European limestone rocks. Decorative, unpretentious, long-flowering frost-resistant culture. The height of the bushes is about 40 cm, the stems are mostly erect, the shoots are covered with villi, branching. Leaf plastics are green in color, slightly hairy, with veins, rounded-heart-shaped. The flowers are large, single, cupped, about 5 cm in diameter, shade of blue, white or purple, formed on the tops of stems and branches.
The flowering phase begins in mid-summer and ends in autumn. Used in the design of rock gardens and balconies.
Campanula peach (Campanula persicifolia)
The plant is up to 95 cm high, the leaf plates are similar to peach leaves, the flowering phase lasts all summer, the flowers are blue or white.
Campanula nettle (Campanula trachelium)
The stem is branched, straight, its height is about 1 m. The flowers are large, white or light purple. Blooms profusely until the end of summer. The leaf blades are serrated, rough.
Pozharsky bell (Campanula poscharskyana)
The leaf blades are round, creeping shoots, long, small flowers, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, bright lilac in color. Cold-resistant and shade-tolerant plant.
Crowded bell (Campanula glomerata)
The plant is about 60 cm high, the stem is erect, rarely bristly. The root system is fibrous, the leaf plates are alternate, smooth on top, bristly on the back, elliptical in shape. The flowers are bell-shaped, blue in color, the inflorescence is spherical. The plant is undemanding to soil conditions, frost-resistant.
Broad-leaved bell (Campanula latifolia)
It can grow up to 120 cm, the root system is well developed, it grows up to 15 cm in length. The leaf blades are ovate, slightly pubescent. Flowers of a lilac shade.
Bell middle (Campanula medium)
Height up to 1 m, branching stem, basal leaf blades have a lanceolate shape, narrow sessile leaves are located on the stem. The flowers are large, up to 7 cm in diameter, located along the length of the stem. They bloom alternately, the flowering phase lasts 60 days. The shape of the flowers is bell-shaped or goblet.
The repairing variety Albion appeared in 2006 thanks to the work of Californian scientists. The strawberry was obtained by crossing Diamante and Cal 94.16-1 and intended for commercial cultivation. The new hybrid was originally named CN220.
Albion is a variety with neutral daylight hours. It is recommended for cultivation in the USA, Italy, and southern Canada. In the Russian Federation, the cultivation of this variety gives the best results in the southern regions (Crimea, Krasnodar Territory, Rostov Region). In the middle lane and northern regions, it cannot be grown in open ground, but it bears fruit perfectly in greenhouses, subject to high-quality lighting.
The variety blooms and forms ovaries continuously (in Russian conditions - from early May to October). When grown in greenhouses, you can harvest all year round. It starts bearing fruit in the second year after planting.
Before planting seedlings of the Rumba rose variety it is required to choose the right site for landing. The place where the Rumba rose will grow, should be well lit by the sun and protected from gusts of cold winds and drafts. In the shade or partial shade, the flowers of this variety will be more faded. And if this flowering shrub grows in a draft, it will become weaker and may be subject to disease or attack by pests.
The soil on the site should be loose and allow moisture and oxygen to pass well to the root system of the shrub. Before planting the Rumba rose, be sure to fertilize the soil by adding at least 5 kg of humus or compost to each square, as well as 30 g of superphosphate and the same amount of potassium salt. Lime is added to the acidified soil in the fall for digging.
It is ideal to plant seedlings of the climbing rose Rumba in the spring, and prepare the holes for planting it in the fall. But you can plant planting material in the fall no later than a month before the onset of cold weather. In this case, the landing site is prepared in the spring.
After planting the planting material, all plants need to be watered abundantly. And after a couple of days, carry out the first preventive treatment of the bushes against powdery mildew and black spot.
To minimize the occurrence of diseases, it is important to properly care for the indoor flower.
Bulb rot Is one of the most common diseases.
Excessive watering, high humidity and low air temperature become the culprit of the disease.
How to help the plant? If the lesion is not large, you can try to dig up the onion, rinse under warm water, remove the rot, treat the onion with a solution of potassium permanganate, treat the slices with charcoal.
Then leave to dry the onion for 2-3 days and plant in a new substrate. The container does not need to be replaced. Rinse and sterilize well enough. With a severe defeat, it will not be possible to save the plant.
Dangerous enemies for the Henry variety can be scale insects, spider mites and mealybug... They cause irreparable damage to indoor plants and, if untimely help, can lead to his death.
Treatment with special insecticides against insects helps from pests. You can try to remove the spider mite from the leaves and stems with a cotton swab moistened with soapy water. Then rinse the leaves under running water. Pay attention to the humidity of the air at home!
This gorgeous, fragrant flower is said to be of Asian origin. The perennial bulbous plant has more than 100 species. The stem height varies from 40 cm to 2 m, depending on the cultivar and variety. Beautiful green leaves are arranged in a spiral along the stem. Flowers are tubular, cup-shaped, turban-shaped. You can plant one at a time and plant large areas.
Lily hybrids appeared at the end of the 19th century, and since then, breeders have been constantly working on improving garden flowers, creating real masterpieces with a varied color palette and delicate aromas. Compared to their wild counterparts, they have many positive features: a pleasant aroma, resistance to climatic conditions, a variety of color shades. The most common representatives are LA-, OT-, OA-, LO-, LOO-.
Lily hybrids began to be created in the 19th century. Then experts suggested that lilies do not tolerate transplantation from natural conditions into gardens. It has been suggested that crossed lilies will be both more beautiful and hardier. Really new hybrids were highly decorative and acquired other qualities. Specialists are still working on the creation of new varieties and types. Today there are hybrids of simply amazing beauty with exotic colors and aromas.
All types of lilies are conventionally divided into several groups.
Asian hybrids (Asiatic hybrids). Of all types, they are the most unpretentious to soils. This is the largest group of lilies. They grow in almost any climatic conditions. They respond well to neutral or slightly acidic well-fertilized soils. This type of lily is distinguished by a variety of color and structure of flowers, as well as plant height and flowering time. Plant height - 0.5 -1.5 m.
Martagon hybrids (Martagon hybrids), or curly lilies. Hardy frost-resistant varieties, disease resistant. They are distinguished by abundant flowering. They do not like acidic soil. Therefore, the soil around them should not be mulched with sawdust. They love partial shade, but grow well in the sun. Many years can grow in one place. At the top of the peduncle there can be up to 25 drooping flowers of various colors with spots. Plant height - 1.2 - 1.8 m.
Oriental hybrids (Oriental hybrids). These are varieties of extraordinary beauty. They are distinguished by especially large, beautiful and fragrant flowers. They are considered aristocrats among lilies. However, they are very demanding on growing conditions and are susceptible to viral diseases. Only experienced gardeners can take up the cultivation of oriental hybrids of lilies. They love well-drained acidic fertile soil. The landing site is a sunny, wind-protected place. Shelter is needed for the winter. Plant height - 0.5 - 2.5 m.
Tubular and Orleans hybrids of lilies (Trumpet and Aurelian hybrids). They take their name from the shape of the flower - tubular or funnel-shaped. However, there are varieties with a cup-shaped, turban-shaped and star-shaped flower shape. Derived from hybrids of Asiatic lilies. They are distinguished by a strong, sometimes intoxicating aroma, a variety of shapes and colors of flowers, as well as long flowering. They love neutral, light, fertile soil. There are varieties that are resistant to cold and viral or fungal diseases.
American hybrids (American hybrids). Obtained from crossing Canadian, leopard and Colombian lilies. This type of hybrids prefers non-acidic soils. The seeds sprout the next year, they do not tolerate the transplant. They are distinguished by bright exotic flowers. Full flowering occurs a year or two after the autumn planting. They love non-acidic soil and light partial shade. Plant height - 1.2 - 2.1 m.
Candidum hybrids (СandidumHybrids). Obtained as a result of crossing the snow-white lily and the Halcendon lily. There are few varieties of this type of lily, but they all have a strong aroma and elegant flowers of white and yellow colors of various shades. Flower shape - tubular or funnel-shaped. Susceptible to fungal diseases. Seeds are not tied well. These garden forms grow in the southern regions. Plant height - 1.2 - 1.8 m.
Long-flowered hybrids. (Longiflorum hybrids) Very showy large bell-shaped flowers with curved tips. They can be up to 20 cm in length. These hybrids can be grown both indoors for forcing and at home in containers. They are very demanding on growing conditions. They are mainly used for high quality cuts. Plant height - 0.8 - 1.0 m.
LA - hybrids... A very sophisticated form of flowers. Obtained from crossing Asiatic lilies with Long-flowered lilies. Hardy, disease resistant. But they still require shelter for the winter with fallen leaves or spruce branches. They differ in a wide palette of shades - from white to dark red. Unlike the parents of "Asians", the flowers are larger and denser, the stems are stronger. The aroma is delicate. Recently, they have deservedly gained great popularity. They bloom much earlier than other lilies. Plant height - up to 1 m.
OT - hybrids... They are distinguished by high growth and large flowers. They appeared relatively recently as a result of crossing of two groups - Oriental and Trumpet lilies. They have a beautiful color. They have a bright aroma. Varieties of OT - hybrids stand out from the rest not only with truly royal flowers, but also with high resistance to diseases and good winter hardiness. Thanks to this, they are confidently gaining popularity.
LO - hybrids... They appeared quite recently by crossing Longiflorum (Longiflorum) and Oriental (Oriental) lilies. The flowers are large and very decorative. Well suited for high quality cuts. The hybrids of this group are distinguished by higher frost resistance and disease resistance than their parents. However, shelter is required for the winter. Plant height - 1.0 - 1.5 m.
OA - hybrids... They appeared as a result of crossing two groups of lilies - Orientals (Oriental) with Asian hybrids. There are still few varieties of this group. But their popularity is growing all the time due to the exquisite beauty of large and fragrant flowers. They love the sun or partial shade. They prefer slightly acidic soil.
Lily - a relatively unpretentious plant in terms of the amount of sunlight. It can grow equally well both outdoors and in partial shade. However, it is better not to plant it in damp lowlands and in areas with stagnant humid air. This can lead to gray mold damage. The site should be well ventilated, but not blown by strong winds. A capricious lily reacts sensitively to conditions unsuitable for her. Unfortunately, many gardeners have been disappointed with growing lilies. Therefore, when planting, it is necessary to obtain as much information as possible about the acquired variety and class of this plant.
In one place, the lily will grow from 3 to 5 years. Therefore, the soil under the lilies must be saturated with the necessary fertilizers. Lily loves loose, drained and nutritious soil. Clay, sandy and wetlands are not suitable for a royal flower. If you decide to grow a lily, two weeks before planting, the soil must be dug up to a depth of about 40 cm. 1 bucket of humus and peat is added to the dug soil at the rate of 1 square meter, as well as 4 glasses of wood ash, 100 g of superphosphate and potassium sulfate.
Fertilizer proportions may vary slightly depending on the variety purchased. Different varieties of lilies can relate differently to soil acidity. For example, oriental hybrids like acidic soils, while tubular hybrids do not tolerate acidic soils at all.
Choosing a place to plant lilies is a very important aspect of growing. The health of the plant and its flowering depend on the right place. Almost all varieties of lilies are fairly tall specimens. Strong gusts of wind can break the lily stem. Therefore, it is necessary to select an area protected from the wind. However, this should not be an area with stagnant air, as this can provoke the development of various diseases. Ideal conditions are low shrubs that do not block the sunlight. It is undesirable to plant lilies under the trees. Since there is a strong shade and the soil is almost always dry.
The process of planting lilies is quite simple. When buying bulbs, you must carefully examine them. A healthy bulb should be free of brown spots, rot, and mucus. It should be firm and smooth to the touch. If you plan to plant the bulb on a day other than the day of purchase, you can keep it in damp moss or a rag for several days. Before planting, the bulbs must be treated with a foundationol solution to protect and prevent fungal diseases.
Experienced gardeners prefer autumn planting (in the second half of September). Before the first frost, the bulbs will have time to take root well, especially if the autumn is warm. The optimal time for planting in the fall is chosen as follows - about a month after the flowers have faded.
Plant lilies it is possible in the spring. When planting in spring, care must be taken to ensure that the planting material overwinters safely. The bulbs dug up around October should be shaken off the ground, put in a plastic bag with holes and laid in layers in wet sawdust. You can store lily bulbs in this form in the refrigerator. In the spring, as soon as the soil warms up enough, it can be planted in open ground. The most favorable time for spring planting is mid-April. Some varieties of lilies are best planted in early summer.
Usually the bulb is planted at a depth of 3-4 times its height (diameter). Tall varieties with large stems are planted even deeper. Lilies with a rosette of ground leaves, such as terracotta, snow-white, are planted to a depth of two centimeters, so that the tops of the scales are located at the surface.
The planting depth of lilies also depends on the quality of the soil. The heavier the soil, the shallower the planting depth should be. Such parameters as humidity and optimal temperature in winter depend on the planting depth. The longer the underground part, the more baby bulbs and stem roots are formed on it.
A little sand mixed with ash is poured into the prepared pit. Then the roots should be trimmed a little. You need to plant a lily on a sandy pillow, evenly distributing the roots. Then it is necessary to sprinkle the bulb with a small amount of sand (this will help to avoid possible waterlogging), and cover it with earth on top and mulch with peat.
It is not recommended to keep lilies in one place for more than five years. As the planting becomes thickened, and the flowers become smaller. Therefore, periodically, the lily needs to be transplanted. The transplant process looks like this:
During the season, the lily must be fed several times.
Usually lilies grow well without transplanting in one place for 3-5 years. During this time, the plant is gaining strength, and nests of bulbs of different sizes are formed. Sometimes lilies are transplanted more often. In some cases this is due to the requirement of the variety, sometimes to the disease of the plant. For example, Asian hybrids require more frequent transplanting.
It is undesirable to transplant lilies to a new place during flowering. The best time to transplant lilies is in autumn. In different climatic zones of our country, it can be early or late autumn. The plant should gain its lost strength after flowering and get stronger.
Of course, there are general rules of agricultural technology that are suitable for all lilies. However, you need to know that each type of lily has its own characteristics. Considering them, you can achieve a better result.
Caring for lilies consists of regular watering, loosening, feeding and weeding. These flowers do not tolerate strong waterlogging, but they always need moderate watering.
Regular feeding (2-3 times per season) will ensure a beautiful and lush bloom. Also, care consists in anticipating the appearance of diseases and pests. Gray rot, aphids, lily beetle and fusarium are especially dangerous for lilies. Regular inspection and removal of damaged plants is required. At the end of the season, all plant residues must be burned. In early spring, lilies need to be treated with fungicides against fungal diseases.
In order for the planting not to thicken, the plants must be transplanted regularly (once every 3-4 years). Subject to all conditions, this royal flower will surely delight you with magnificent flowering and delicate aroma. Some varieties of lilies require special care.
There are many ways of breeding lilies. They reproduce by daughter bulbs, cuttings, bulbs, scales, leaf and stem cuttings, as well as seeds.
One of the methods - dividing the nest of the bulb... Small onions form at the bottom of the bulb. Despite the fact that they do not yet sprout, they are quite suitable for reproduction. To do this, in the fall, after flowering, the bulb is slightly dug out, the small bulbs are carefully separated and planted in a prepared place.
Reproduction by scales Is also a fairly common method. To do this, no more than a third of the scales are separated from the bulb, they are planted in a prepared place and sprinkled with sand or sawdust on top. With regular watering, after a few weeks, the scales will give petals.
Reproduction by children... This method consists in separating the bulbs that form on the root of the stem.
Propagation from stem bulbs - small bulbs that appear on the stem. Sometimes they fall off on their own, take root and germinate. Such bulbs can be collected and transplanted to a new location.
Propagation by cuttings... For this method, segments of the stem with a dormant bud and leaves with a piece of the stem are used. Cut the cuttings, remove the lower leaves from them and plant 2-3 cm in the ground. After 1-2 months, separate the formed bulbs and plant them in a container to a depth of 2-3 cm. After a while, the bulbs germinate.
Seed propagation... Seeds are sown in February-March in prepared containers. Seedlings appear in 2-3 weeks. When a real leaf appears, the seedlings dive. They are kept warm until winter, and in winter they are transferred to a basement with a temperature of + 4-6 degrees. And next spring they are planted in a permanent place. With this method of reproduction, lilies bloom only for 5-7 years.