Read the previous part. ← History of fuchsia, varieties and hybrids
- moderate temperature and high humidity;
- diffused lighting in spring and summer, shading on the south window, in winter - good lighting; partial shade in the garden and on the balcony; but there are already varieties, mostly red-flowered, capable of growing in the open sun and not suffering from burns (such plants can be seen in the park of Petrodvorets);
- protection from strong wind and rain in the air;
- the soil is light, neutral or slightly acidic, not too nutritious and sufficiently moist;
- strong spring pruning the main branches, and the weak ones completely;
- regular pinching of all shoots as they grow back in spring, to form a dense crown and abundant flowering;
- constant humidity of the earthen coma. It should not be allowed to dry out even in winter. Watering and spraying the crown is done with warm water settled during the day. The water from the pan is drained so that the roots do not rot and do not suffocate without oxygen. In autumn, as the air temperature decreases, they water less only when the earthen lump dries up;
- regular loosening of the top layer of soil in pots so that air penetrates to the roots in sufficient quantity, maintaining optimal gas exchange, increasing the resistance of fuchsia to pests and diseases.
Fuchsia in summer feels great in the partial shade of a balcony or garden. You can dig its pots into the boxes of the balcony or into the soil of the flower garden in the openwork shade of shrubs and trees. It is brought into the house in the fall, when the night temperatures drop to low positive ones (it does not tolerate frost). It is believed that in the fall, the shoots of the plant should be shortened, but at this time, as a rule, they are covered with buds, which will open for a long time and delight you with bright flowers.
Autumn pruning is sometimes required to control the whitefly infesting the underside of the leaves. This is the most unpleasant pest, since fuchsia is the host plant for the whitefly.
And we bring the whitefly into the house ourselves, often with the ground or with plants from the garden. In addition to regular showers, rinsing the crown with lukewarm water (with a pot covered with a film) and washing away small white insects, a new drug "Aktara" is used. It is bred exactly according to the recommendations on the leaflet, the crown is sprayed and the plants are watered at the root. The treatment is repeated several times after 7-10 days, and in the open air, not at home. Further, for prophylaxis, once a month the plants are watered with a solution of the drug "Aktara" at the root.
The emergence spider mite noticeable by the yellowing and distorted shape of fuchsia leaves, the presence of barely noticeable thin cobwebs on the underside of the leaves. If the simplest measures do not help, they use any of the drugs to process: Fitoverm, Actellik or Agrovertin according to the instructions, spraying in the air after 7-10 days. The tick loves dry hot air, therefore, it does not like humid and cool air.
It can be washed off with a stream of cold water from the inside of the leaves. You can do soap baths for 1-2 hours by dipping the fuchsia crown in a bucket of soapy water, after tightly tying the pot of earth into a plastic bag and placing it on two parallel sticks. After a soapy bath, the plant is allowed to dry, after which the crown is washed with clean water from the shower. When the leaves are dry again, you can put the flower in its permanent place.
Flowers wet, in drops of water, are never exposed to the sun to avoid burns. All procedures with fuchsia must be carried out very carefully, since it has very fragile stems and leaf stalks. But the twigs, which still break off, are used for reproduction: they are almost 100% rooted in water even without the use of root formation stimulants.
In late autumn and winter, due to lack of light and high air temperature, moreover, dry, fuchsia often sheds some or even all of the leaves.
In this case, it should be placed in a brighter and cooler place (with a temperature not higher than 18 ° C, which is the key to its successful flowering next season), increase the humidity and, if possible, provide additional lighting. Another option for wintering fuchsias is also possible: in a cool, dark place (basement with a temperature of 5–7 ° C), with an almost dry soil content. But few of the townspeople have access to this.
Pruning is required for fuchsia after a dormant period, in February - March. All dry, weak, elongated shoots growing inside the crown are cut off from the plant. Strong branches are shortened by half the length and even more, if necessary, adjust the shape of the crown. The type and degree of pruning depends on the form in which the fuchsia is grown.
There are forms and varieties with erect stems that form in the form of a bush or a standard tree (Checkerboard, Deutsche Perle, Mrs. Lovell Swisher and others). There are also forms with soft, drooping stems that are commonly grown as ampelous plants (Swingtime, Dark Eyes, Lady Patricia Mountbatten, Granada, and others). But even erect bushes without special support quite easily turn into ampelous cascades of flowering branches, if they are not pinched and not often cut off.
The most spectacular fuchsia crown shape is probably the standard one. An unforgettable picture comes to life from distant childhood: on one of the balconies in Gatchina for several summer seasons there was a luxurious specimen of a fuchsia tree with a high stem and a lush spherical crown densely covered with bright flowers. I never saw anything like this in real life, only in a photo in magazines of the last decade.
The formation of a standard form requires a certain amount of time and, of course, patience. But this is quite within the power of any florist who wants to get such a perfect creation as the fruit of his own labors, and not an expensive store copy.
Fuchsia is propagated usually cuttings (rarely - by seeds, mainly for breeding purposes). Cuttings are cut with a sharp, clean knife, 8-10 cm long or more, with three knots. In time, this is done from early spring to late autumn. Ripe, but not yet completely lignified cuttings root best of all.
For disinfection, owners of large collections are strongly advised to dip them in actellic or phytoverm solution, or at least rinse them in soapy water. Large leaves, as usual, are cut in half to reduce moisture evaporation, and the lower ones are removed altogether. Slices can be dipped in activated charcoal or rooting stimulant powder.
However, fuchsia takes root well in water without any additional manipulations, only the vessel should not be transparent in the zone of root formation. Water can be boiled or just filtered, at room temperature. If the cuttings are planted, it is easy to bring them "to their senses" by immersing them entirely in water and covering them with a plastic bag. As soon as the turgor is restored, the cuttings are placed for rooting either in a vessel with water or in a loose substrate from vermiculite, brown peat and sphagnum moss (3: 1: 2).
In such a substrate, even the green tops that remain after pinching are rooted. At the same time, holes are made with a peg in a wet substrate, short green cuttings are immersed in them, spreading the leaves over the surface of the substrate. Of course, you will need to frequently spray the cuttings and cover them with foil before rooting.
The container with the cuttings is placed in a transparent plastic bag, sprayed and the bag is closed, leaving a small hole for gas exchange. Perforated bags are often used. The place for grafting should be light and warm, but not in direct sunlight. After 7-10 days (in the substrate - after 10-20) roots appear. The cover with the film is often slightly opened, and then completely removed.
When the roots reach 2-3 cm in length and become branched, the cuttings can be planted one at a time in small pots (6-7 cm in diameter) with a light, breathable substrate (adding perlite, vermiculite, fibrous peat to the soil mixture, as well as a pinch of complex fertilizer granules long-acting AVA) and a drainage layer at the bottom. Instead of granules, it is convenient to use AVA-N capsules for potted plants with a full set of macro- and microelements that nourish the flower for 2-3 months, then the feeding is repeated.
Young roots are very fragile, so when planting, you should not strongly compact the substrate around them, after watering it will tightly bond with them. The substrate is kept moist, the plants are watered and sprayed with settled warm water. It is good if there is an opportunity for the first time to place young plants in a indoor greenhouse in a bright place. You need to air it several times a day. But you can also do with a pallet with wet expanded clay and a lutrasil or film cover in the first week after planting. Fuchsia varieties with erect stems, as well as to form a standard shape, are planted in a container one by one cuttings (and immediately pinch the top).
Standard tree begin to grow in the same way, choosing a suitable variety. The growing rooted stalk is tied to a support. While it grows to the height you need, the side shoots from below are regularly removed. When the height is reached, the top of the plant is pinched twice in a short period. With the beginning of the growth of lateral shoots, they are pinched simultaneously according to the same principle: every 2-3 pairs of leaves. With shoots of the following orders, they do the same. Finally, the spherical (or oval, pyramidal) crown of a standard tree is formed after a few years.
Ampel varieties planted in wide containers along their perimeter, several pieces in one vessel. The top of young plants is immediately pinched. When the lateral shoots grow into three pairs of leaves, the pinching is repeated on all shoots at the same time. This operation is repeated until the bush is in the shape you intended. Buds appear at the ends of the shoots 2–2.5 months after the last pinching.
The difference in these methods is that during transshipment they do not disturb the plant's lump, do not disturb its root system. In this case, it is possible to change the vessel to a larger one without complications, even in flowering plants. The transfer of fuchsias of any age is done when the roots are completely entwined with a ball and appear from the drainage holes at the bottom of the pot. It is better to do this in early spring, so as not to disturb the flowering later. The next dish is chosen 2–3 cm larger in diameter. Gradually, it comes to the tub culture. As with all potted plants, for fuchsia, a drainage layer of broken brick or expanded clay is required at the bottom of the pot with a layer of 3-5 cm.
For mature plants, the potting mix may consist of sod land, peat, humus and compost in a ratio of 2: 1: 1: 1; or otherwise - from leafy earth, peat and sand or perlite (3: 2: 1). You can do with any light garden soil with the addition of high peat, sand or perlite. A little clay is added to the sandy soil to create absorbent soil complexes that better retain nutrients.
Nutrition for the abundant flowering of fuchsia is provided with regular fertilizing: mineral - every week, organic - once a month. The choice of fertilizers, as always, is different for each specialist. It is known from the experience of many flower growers that fuchsias react very well to fertilizing with Pocon for geraniums, Effekton, Kemiru, Uniflor-bud and Unifor-growth, AVA fertilizers. Of the listed brands of fertilizers, only AVA has a long-lasting effect: granules work for 2-3 years, capsules for 2-3 months, powder - during the summer season, it is effective for seedlings, summer plants, vegetables. The use of AVA is effective for plants that receive everything they need from a scanty dose of fertilizers (0.5 tsp per container, 1-3 g of powder per 1 liter of soil mixture, 1-2 capsules per container with a diameter of up to 15 cm), and is pleasant for the gardener because this food option saves time, effort and money.
The first feeding of young plants with liquid complex fertilizer with a high nitrogen content (for active growth of shoots) is given about a month after planting, when the first leaves appear.
Granules or capsules of complex nitrogen-free and chlorine-free long-acting fertilizer AVA are placed in a pot of soil once during planting or during the season, if necessary, at the rate of 1-3 g per 1 liter of soil. Granules work in the soil for 2-3 years. In this case, in the first half of summer, it is necessary to periodically give nitrogen fertilizing with irrigation water.
Usually, the plants begin to feed with the beginning of the growth of fuchsia after spring pruning, and ends in August so that the plant tissues have time to mature enough by winter. At the same time, flowering continues until late autumn, especially if the plants are supplemented with a fluorescent lamp in the mornings and evenings.
Read the next part. Use of fuchsia for decorative purposes →
Catalpa can be seeded. However, the tree has a slow ability to spread through seed production on its own, so grown seedlings have a better chance of survival.
Catalpa seeds should be ripe before sowing and exposed to low temperatures. Catalpa pods turn brown in autumn and disintegrate, releasing ripe seeds. Collect the pods when they start to open. These seeds are ready for outdoor sowing after harvest, or you can store them in a cool, dry place for sowing in the spring. Three weeks before you plan to sow them, place the seeds in the refrigerator to expose the seeds to low temperatures, which leads to better germination.
Well-drained, moist soil is an essential element for planting catalpa seeds. All pots must have drainage holes. Place three or four seeds evenly spread over the surface and cover on top to the depth of the bud. Place the seed pots in a partially enclosed area outdoors and water the seeds when the soil surface is dry.
After about four to six weeks, when the tree saplings are 6-10 cm tall with two developed leaves, fill clean pots with fresh, well-drained potting soil. Make a hole in the soil with a chopstick or similar tool, and remove the seedlings from its previous pot by gently holding the leaf and loosening the soil around the seedlings with the stick. Place the seedlings in the hole in the new pot at its original growth depth and carefully fill the holes around its roots with potting soil. Repot the rest of the catalpa saplings in the same way and place them in a shade protected area from light. Water the pots when the soil surface is dry and plant the seedlings in the next size pots as their roots fill the pots. Grow catalpa seedlings in pots during the first winter, and plant them in the garden in the spring or summer of the following year. Fresh soil provides nutrients for the seedlings, so they do not require fertilization.
For successful cultivation of fuchsia, it is useful to familiarize yourself with the experience of other flower growers, which they share:
Natalya Ivanovna, amateur florist: “I have been breeding ampelous fuchsias for ten years already.My beauties have been pleasing me for more than one year with their large bells. I noticed that they are very fond of fresh air, so in the summer I try to take my pets to the veranda. The sun's rays practically do not get there: the nearby trees give good shade. When it's very hot outside, I spray them every day - morning and evening. They just flash with bright buds. "
Evgeniy, florist: “Many fuchsia lovers complain that after transplanting they shed their leaves, start to get sick and do not bloom for a long time. There may be several reasons for this: when removed from an old pot, the root system is damaged or the soil is not suitable for this representative of the Cyprus family. When transferring a plant, be sure to pay attention to the quality of the soil mixture, and also carefully remove the bush from the old flowerpot so as not to damage the roots. "
Blooming fuchsia is the pride of any florist and florist. For the plant to be healthy and happy with its bright bells, it is necessary to create the proper conditions for flowering. Then it will gladly thank its owners with extraordinary beauty.
A detailed post will give you basic knowledge about this amazing Fuchsia flower. Description, care and reproduction in two ways can be found here. Fuchsia is a very beautiful flower with unusual buds and abundant long flowering. It seemed to me that the care and reproduction of fuchsia is a very painstaking work, but everything turned out to be quite simple.
For some reason, fuchsia flowers remind me of little ballerinas on thin legs in lush multicolored ballet tutus. Swaying in the wind, little "ballerinas" dance and whirl easily.
Akalifa is a flowering plant that is called "Fox's tail" in everyday life. However, such a name can be fully attributed to only one of the varieties of the plant, namely the bristly-haired akalif. Only its elongated crimson inflorescences are a bit like a fox's tail. This type of flower is the most common among florists.
Another plant species commonly found on window sills is Akalif Wilkes or Wilkeza. Although the flowers of this plant species are not as attractive as those of the previous variety, the leaves are excellent in color. There are all the advantages for growing akalifa at home. She grows quickly and does not require special attention to herself. At first glance, various types of akalifa are the same in care.
The plant is thermophilic and has an extremely negative attitude towards drafts. If you plan to take out a flower in the summer on a balcony or on an open veranda, then you should protect it from blowing through. A draft can kill a plant. The acceptable air temperature in summer for akalifa is 20-25 degrees. In winter, a satisfactory temperature is not lower than +18 degrees. The ideal temperature conditions for a flower are indoor temperatures.
A lot of light and shade from the sun is exactly what the flower needs. In insufficient light, the plant will stretch out, and the leaves will fade. This will ruin the appearance of the Akalifa.
Akalifa is a moisture-loving plant. In summer, when the air temperature exceeds 20 degrees, it is recommended to water the plant a lot and often. In winter, watering should be reduced somewhat. But you must not allow the soil to dry out in the pot.
Does not like plants and dry air. In a hot period of time, the flower must be sprayed. In order for the air around the plant to always remain moist, the akalifa pot is placed on a pallet and pebbles or expanded clay are poured onto it. By moisturizing the litter tray, you humidify the air around the plant.
From spring to autumn, mineral fertilizers are applied to the plant pot, the concentration of which is 0.1-0.2%. The subcortex is done every 15 days. In winter, feeding is usually stopped.
If the plant is young, then it is transplanted annually. Subsequently, the transplant is done once every 3-4 years. But based on practice, a fast-growing plant over such a long period of time grows strongly and becomes not beautiful, therefore it will need to be transplanted, pruned and updated. It often makes sense to grow another plant, younger than replanting an old one that has lost its charm.
The plant is transplanted in the spring. There is one condition for the soil. It should be light, water and air permeable. Planting soil can be purchased at the store, or you can make it yourself. To do this, it is necessary to mix one part of the sod land, leaf land, humus, peat and sand.
If your plant is an adult, then a moment in time will come when it grows strongly and will need to be pruned. If your old plant is dear to you, or you do not want to grow a new one, then you need to cut the plant to a hemp state, about 20 centimeters in height. Although this measure will seem somewhat cruel, it must be done just like that.
Next, you can put plastic wrap on the stump and place it under a glass cover. Such measures will help the plant to sprout and survive the ruthless operation. The pruned plant must be frequently sprayed and ventilated, periodically removing the structure from the bag and jar. Good results for plant adaptation are obtained by spraying it with an aqueous solution of zircon at the rate of 2 drops of the drug per 1 liter of water.
In order to propagate a flower, you do not need any special skills. Akalifa can be propagated by either cuttings or seeds. For seeds, you can apply a mixture of sand and leafy earth, in a 1: 1 ratio. Seeds are sown in spring. For their successful germination, it is necessary to provide a temperature regime in the region of 20 degrees. To speed up the germination of seeds, you can build a small greenhouse above the container and provide it with bottom heating.
Reproduction of akalifa by cuttings is an even simpler process. For rooting, a soil of sand and peat mixed in equal proportions is suitable. For cuttings, woody shoots from the top of the plant are selected. It is believed that cuttings can be rooted all year round. But in the "Fox tail", cuttings take root better in spring. Before planting, the material is dipped in a root stimulator and covered with a film on top. After 2 months, the plant is pinched for greater bushiness.
Akalifa belongs to poisonous plants. Care should be taken when in contact with it, and gloves should be worn. Communication of the plant with children and pets should be limited.