"Lianas are a large group of plants of different species, genera belonging to different families. They are united by a certain commonality of structure, mainly of the stem - flexible, unable to stand upright on its own.
To climb up, the stem of the vine must have a support. Twisting around it, or clinging to it with the help of leaves, tendrils, thorns, roots and other devices, it can be held in the appropriate position. "
The above quotation from the book professionally defines this peculiar plant species.Lianas in the garden
solve both functional tasks and aesthetic ones. With the help of large vines, you can close the buildings on the site, decorate a high fence, make the bare wall of a high house less monotonous.
A trellis lattice, entwined with a liana, will help to highlight a part of the site, to separate one zone from another. A gazebo, a canopy, entwined with vines - a classic example of the use of these plants. As a rule, vines are plants on the edges of deciduous forests. Leafy humus is the best soil for them, but good garden soils are also acceptable.
Lianas are moisture-loving plants. They form a large vegetative mass and consume a lot of water, especially at the beginning of the season. Perennial vines in one place can grow for 30 or more years, so the planting pit should be large enough, the soil should be rich, neutral or slightly alkaline.
In winter, the upper part of the vine is subjected to severe tests of low temperatures, wind, snow and ice. The best place for these plants is the wall of the house, temporary huts. The wood wall is warmer. The eastern and western exposure is optimal, because in winter the northern and northwestern parts of the house are most often attacked by cold winds. The southern part of the house is a warm part, but in spring it heats up a lot, cools down at night, i.e. in the spring, the vine suffers from temperature extremes.
The maximum, more than 98%, the number of lianas species grows in the tropical and subtropical zones. On the territory of the former USSR, there are about 220 species; in the temperate climate zone, their number decreases to 70 species. In this article, we will consider the most resistant vines, which over the past 30 years have shown their good performance in our difficult climate on my site in the Sinyavinsky swamps.
, five-leafed (Parthenocissus quinquefolia). Liana number one for our conditions.
Originally from North America, therefore it has no pests. Absolutely stable. Forms a gradually woody liana up to 25 meters long. Annual growth is up to 1.5-2 meters. Suitable for decorating large volumes, walls not only on the west and east sides, but also on the northern part of buildings. Dark green foliage appears relatively late, at the beginning of June, so it does not suffer from frost; in autumn, red and orange colored leaves, dark blue fruits that attract birds are decorative. The plant reproduces very easily by cuttings from early spring to late summer, by layering and less often by seeds (autumn sowing, or sowing with stratification).
Liana forms a volume of green mass, which requires high-quality supports (metal wire with a diameter of 3-4 mm, thin pipes, gratings impregnated with an antiseptic). Caring for the plant consists in cleaning it after winter, in rare dressings on poorly nutritious soils. In nature, ten species of this plant are read. In amateur floriculture, grape maiden attached (Inserta) and Telman are rare. These species are less tall and require warmer locations. The stability of the Tricuspidata grape is questionable. However, I will be glad if my doubts are refuted.
True, conclusions on the sustainability of the culture should be made after 6-8 years of testing. There is no limit to the patience and idealism of amateur gardeners, so more and more often some of them try their hand at growing
... In nature, there are over 70 species of this genus. By the way, most of the species grows in North America. Of course, the ancient area of Southern Europe is closer to us.
You should start your search in this direction withAmur grape (Vitis amurensis)
... He has everything like a real grape - foliage, antennae, stem. The fruits are small but edible. The homeland of the plant is the Far East. The height of the vine is 20 meters. In our conditions, it reaches a smaller size and requires increased attention - a warm place, wind, wintering in a thick layer of snow. Photophilous. Garden soils with neutral or slightly alkaline reaction.
The best option is to plant in a glass greenhouse or winter garden. So far, this grape has not received wide distribution. Even less common are the varieties of real grapes, which have been successfully cultivated in Southern Europe for over 10 thousand years. but
, selection of varieties that tolerate low temperatures, shelter for the winter, competent pruning will allow you to get a small harvest. The grapes are propagated by cuttings-shanks, when new varieties are developed - by seeds. For garden design, these forms of grapes are not acceptable - exotic.
Actinidia... This plant came to us from the Far East. There are over 30 species in nature, most often they are found in tropical regions. In the Northwest zone, three species do relatively well.
Best knownActinidia kolomikta
(Actinidia colomicta). Large liana, up to 15 meters long, dioecious and monoecious plants. Male specimens are more decorative. They do not suffer much from winter frosts, but in spring they wake up very early, release leaves (this is usually the end of April). In case of frost, these leaves can be shed, which leads to a partial loss of decorativeness. This vine is very beautiful during flowering.
Small, 1-2 cm in size, bell-shaped white flowers smell nice. The fruits are edible, but small and fall off when ripe. Kiwi is the fruit of another actinidia - Chinese, which was introduced into the culture first in New Zealand, and then began to be cultivated already in Southern Europe.
Acute actinidia (Actinidia arguta) is a larger liana - up to 25 meters long. Distributed in the Primorsky Territory, Sakhalin, Korea. The plant is dioecious. The fruit is less tasty, but edible. Actinidia polygamus is less commonly used in amateur gardening. This is a low bushy plant up to 2-3 meters high. Reproduction of all these types of lianas - by cuttings, at the end of May-June. General tips for growing: rich garden soil, leaf humus, good moisture.
They feel better on the western and eastern sides of the house. These vines twist along wire, thin supports. Plants attract the attention of cats, which gnaw on young shoots. We have to put on a fence made of fine mesh (preferably metal) on the base of the bush, to a height of up to 1 meter. In culture, varietal forms of actinidia, which were bred by I.V. Michurin. This is Clara Zetkin, Dessertnaya, Pineapple. Varietal forms have larger fruits. Actinidia in general is a very ancient plant - it is a relic of the Tertiary period. It is actively used in pharmacology (actinidia tincture).
Woodlip... This is another vine native to North America and the Far East. In total, there are about 30 species of it in nature, most of them grow in the tropics. The name of this vine is justified. Twisting around a tree, the plant can really "strangle" a small mountain ash, a plum, which I observed in my garden. The climbing pliers (Celastrus scandens) have received the maximum distribution. Liana winds along already larger diameter supports, small trees, reaches a height of 10 meters. Flowering is not very decorative.
Long shoots, green foliage, good yellow autumn color of the plant, orange fruit color are beautiful. It reproduces very well by sowing seeds in autumn (spring - with stratification), dividing the bush, rarely by cuttings. Our inquisitive reader will find this liana in the Primorsky Victory Park, near the chess pavilion and on the Bolshaya Vaza square. By the way, you can also collect seeds there. In amateur gardens, the Far Eastern species, the round-leaved wood plier, is less common. With the help of this plant, you can close large buildings, high fences, walls of houses.
Another interesting culture is a liana from the Far East, Primorye - Chinese Schizandra (Schizandra chinensis). The plant is widely known for its medicinal properties. Unfortunately, this culture has not become widespread in our country. This liana is thermophilic, capricious, especially at a young age. It tolerates spring frosts very badly, because the climate in the Far East is qualitatively different. There is a lot of snow, in the thickness of which subtropical crops winter well.
This shrub vine, monoecious or dioecious, requires a warm location, good humus soils, good moisture, easy shelter for the winter, especially at a young age.
In our region, it is rather exotic, but some gardeners succeed in lemongrass. Seed reproduction is difficult, as the seeds quickly lose their germination. Therefore, it is propagated by dividing the bushes, layering, rarely by cuttings. I think that lemongrass has no prospects in landscape design in our conditions. Amateurs will ask to continue the experiments. Let's leave the Far Eastern region for a while and turn our eyes to the Mediterranean and the Caucasus.
Read the next part. The use of vines in the garden landscape →
This unfamiliar, amazing word came to us from England. It was there that they first began to surround parks with different types of ornamental plants. Mixborders are multi-row elongated flower beds. These complex colorful flower beds decorate the squares around the house, frame paths, and squares, fences and hedges.
Many amateur gardeners only dream of organizing a spectacular flower mix in their villa, since it is quite difficult to master this art: continuous care of the planted plants is necessary for more than one year. And only after 2-3 years of troublesome work, you will receive a work of art that you can be proud of.
How to decorate a garden with your own hands: mixborder
A well-lit, wind-free area is best suited. The characteristics of the soil are also taken into account: acidity, moisture, fertility. Much attention is paid to the viewpoints and the general background. Subject to these standards, the opportunity to get the conceived drawing increases significantly.
This is the most crucial moment. How you plan the placement of your plants will dictate how your mixborder will look.
A detailed plan and markup are prepared on paper or computer:
In the spring, they will give spectacularity:
Greater durability of the flower garden can be achieved thanks to echinacea, multi-grate, coreopsis. In summer, the mixborder will be decorated with daylilies, phloxes in combination with perennials and annuals. Making a garden with your own hands using flower mixes will give it a touch of aristocracy and fill life with unusually bright colors.
Vines are decorative and grow well at home. Less demanding plants to grow are hard to find. They transform the garden from 2D to 3D, add height, shade straight lines and accentuate curves, create depth and a sense of abundance. And if the area of the site is small and the walls of houses surround it on all sides, it is difficult to choose more suitable plants for additional decoration of the courtyard. Discover the most popular vines.
The full development of ampel flowers on the balcony is facilitated by the fulfillment of a number of conditions:
It is recommended to plant ampelous flowers in boxes with an interval of 8-10 cm. They are characterized by rapid development, more frequent planting will complicate the development of the root system. And the appearance of the balcony will not correspond to the expected result, since a lush flowering will not work.
Watering ampel flowers on the balcony is best organized in small portions, spraying is best done in the early or late hours so that the plants do not get sunburn. During the active growing season, ampelous flowers need feeding. For this, complex fertilizers are used, designed specifically for ampel varieties.
There is a large group of annual loaches, with which you can decorate fences and various buildings for one season. Some of them are distinguished by beautiful decorative leaves, while others are distinguished by flowers of various colors. All annual climbing plants are divided into two groups:
The following annuals can be sown directly into open ground:
Plants native to southern countries are grown only in seedlings in more northern regions. Sowing is usually done in late February - early March. Young plants are planted in the ground after the threat of the last frost. The most common ones are:
At the summer cottage, you can grow beautiful fruit bushes. Edible fruits are another find for a summer resident.
Honeysuckle is one of the most hardy plants. Its flowers can survive even at –7 ° C. For planting, you can choose any area of the site, the main thing is not to "seven winds", otherwise the berries will quickly crumble.
It grows quickly and begins to bear fruit in the third year. The berries are tasty, with a slight sourness. In order not to lose a single berry, the bushes must be planted at a distance of at least a meter from each other.
If you want to wrap around an arch or a gazebo, then choose honeysuckle "honeysuckle", in the form of a vine, which can grow up to 6 meters.
Brown's honeysuckle is considered the most exotic. Its extraordinary orange flowers are densely attached to the liana. It blooms for a long time, but requires shelter for the winter.
To delimit the site with neighbors, protect the territory from prying eyes, strengthen the slope - such tasks can be solved by thorny barberry bushes.
The advantage of barberry is that it is 5-10 times more durable than wooden fences, stronger and more reliable than a chain-link mesh. The multi-colored hedge will last almost 50 years.
Among the varieties there are evergreen, deciduous, thorny and frost-resistant. A hedge made of barberry - beautiful, prickly and unpretentious to care for - will grow in 2-3 years. Barberry can be with leaves of different colors, so the hedge is made as picturesque as possible, planting different varieties mixed.
Barberry berries have medicinal properties, therefore they are widely used in folk medicine.
The climbing plant blooms all summer with white or pale pink flowers, exuding a pleasant delicate aroma. On clusters in the form of a spikelet, red berries ripen by autumn, bitter in taste.
The fruits and leaves of lemongrass contain many medicinal substances. Traditional healers prepare drugs from them for the treatment of heart and other diseases.