Pruning currants in the spring is extremely important for a quality crop. With a large number of old and diseased branches, the berries become smaller, lose their juiciness and prematurely crumble from the bush. To prevent this from happening, you need to properly care for each plant and remove excess shoots in a timely manner.
If the removal is done irregularly, the currants will have weak growth. Young shoots will not be able to break through or will be weak enough for abundant fruiting. The thicker the thickets of branches, the greater the likelihood of infection with pathogens. These can be kidney mites, they can infect the microtails with the disease.
Before pruning currants, decide on the age of the plant. The shrub of the current year of planting can be processed for 1-2 buds on all shoots. In the second year of growth, the branches are left uncut.
Why cut currants in the spring? How to properly remove excess without damaging the seedling? Bushes are formed from the moment when a seedling is bought, usually an annual one. Such a seedling has 2-3 branches, no more. It reaches its highest productivity in the fifth year of growth. Older shoots cannot produce a full-fledged crop. That is, in the spring, before the growth phase, branches are removed from the first year of planting. As a result, a bush will form, in which there will be branches from one to five years old.
Pruning is carried out to replace the old growth with new shoots. With such care for currants, the growth of root seedlings occurs, which are stronger and are able to give a full and high-quality berry harvest. Lateral shoots also begin to grow actively, the plant becomes wider, the number of branches capable of producing a crop increases. Moreover, you need to strive to expand the area of the plant, and not grow it up. A tall bush becomes unstable, branches may break.
It is also necessary to cut off annual seedlings, leaving 2-4 buds. The procedure is also carried out on young seedlings that have just begun to bear fruit. They remove the so-called annual branches that grow from its underground part.
Pruning and shaping in the case of black currants is an important operation. Fruiting of this species is most abundant on parts of the last year's plant; berries on older plants begin to grow small and not so juicy. The main goal is to maintain a certain number of young shoots.
If you are interested in the technique of properly cutting currants, the video will help you figure it out. In the first year, the seedling is cut almost at the root, leaving a maximum of 5 centimeters from the rhizome. If the seedling is young and healthy, the removed branches can be rooted. This will make it possible to get additional black currant bushes on the site. After this procedure, you will receive about 4 new shoots from 45 centimeters in height.
A bush grown in this way is not cut off in the fall. In the second year of growth, the harvest will be on last year's branches. In addition, several more shoots will grow, growing from the root. In two years, some of the sprouts can weaken and become infected with diseases. They will have to be cut out before the winter of the second year. Currant pruning is done at the end of the growing season. Sick and old branches are cut off at the very root, leaving no stumps. In this case, you must be careful not to hook the rhizome itself.
Every year after winter, at least three old branches are removed, and monitor the number of root shoots. They also need to be thinned out, forming a wide bush. The care process should be carried out in such a way that about 12-15 branches of different ages remain. The number of annual shoots should always be higher than older ones.
Red currants do not require such frequent crown renewal as black currants. However, cropping is still needed. It should start a year after planting, when the bush is already large and sufficiently rooted. Most often it is grown to form a bush. In this option, you need to worry about the renewal of old shoots with young ones.
Before cutting the currants, zero shoots are removed, and then old and diseased branches. The shrub must be well ventilated, therefore, depending on the size and age, 3-5 branches are removed from the shrub per season. To get rid of zero shoots should be at the root, and when cutting out lignified parts, the cut site is processed with a pitch.
If currants are grown in the form of a cordon, when young branches are located on the main strong shoot in the form of a fan, pruning is done in late spring or early June. Lateral shoots are cut 10-15 centimeters. A good result will be obtained by truncating the tops of each of the shoots, which will greatly enhance their growth.
In the video, an expert gardener shares his experience in the field of cutting currants. The specialist will explain why this should be done and how.
To get good fruiting, you need to know how to properly prune raspberries in the spring. The optimal height of raspberry shoots is considered to be 1.2-1.5 m. This height was determined based on the fact that the bulk of the fruit buds are concentrated in the central part of the stem. Therefore, the high height of the shoots impairs the access of light to them. In this case, the shortening of the stems stimulates the direction of nutrients to the lateral branches.
You should know that there is a distinction between ordinary and remontant varieties. The main distinguishing feature of remontant varieties is several fruiting hairs, which are observed even in the first year after planting. Therefore, you need to know how to prune raspberries in the spring of regular and remontant varieties.
For common varieties, shoot shortening is carried out as follows:
As a result of this stepwise pruning, raspberries will ripen throughout the growing season. At first, branches cut off by 15 cm will enter fruiting. After that, the stems of the second, third and fourth parts will gradually be involved in this process. From such a bush, the last crop will be obtained at the end of August.
It should be noted that during the summer it is necessary to periodically remove young growth, which will draw off some of the nutrients, which reduces the overall level of yield from one bush. They need to be cut at the root, and not undermined or pulled out. This will avoid injury to the root system of the plant. Remember to keep only the tallest and strongest stems.
Recently, many gardeners prefer to prune raspberry bushes according to Sobolev. In this case, the shortening of the shoots occurs according to the following algorithm:
Pruning in this way allows you to get a second fruiting in a season, even in non-remontant varieties. In this case, the harvest will be much more abundant.
Pruning raspberries in springtime will never be easy for beginners. Therefore, here you need to consider the method of planting. For example, if the plant was planted by the bush method, then about 5-6 strong shoots should be left on one bush. If the trench method was used, 14-15 stems are left.
Do not forget that in the spring it is necessary to remove all branches damaged during the winter. Here you need to act according to the following scheme:
In addition, in the spring, it is imperative to look at the stems for the first symptoms of the disease and the larvae of insect pests. If affected areas and insects are identified, shoots must be removed immediately in order to avoid the spread of pests and pathogenic microflora to healthy bushes.
There are two main types of spring currant pruning: formative and rejuvenating... Let's consider each of them.
Formative pruning should be carried out annually in order to remove unnecessary branches on time and stimulate the growth of new growth.
Stage 1. After planting the seedling, cut off the shoot just above 4 buds.
Stage 2. After a year, we shorten the grown shoots by 30% of their length.
Stage 3. After another year, we saw off shoots that compete with stronger branches.
Stage 4. After another year, we pinch the shoots again.
Such filing is carried out on very old bushes, which, nevertheless, continue to bear fruit. If shrubs older than 10 years grow in your country house, they are cut very hard (3 cm above ground level). Immediately after cutting, the remaining hemp is scalded with very hot water.
For younger shrubs, rejuvenating pruning consists of removing shoots over 4 years old. Such branches should be removed every year, and the rest should be shortened by a quarter.
If you examine adult currant bushes, which are 4-6 years old. Then on them you can see how the tops turn green, that is, the tops grow. This young part is also cut off in August.
Pruning promotes the growth of shoots, which, like on young branches, are covered with fruit buds. But it also stimulates the appearance of fruit on the old part of the shoot. And this pruning also increases the yield.
The main, generally accepted way of forming currants is to grow it in the form of an ordinary bush. At the same time, the main thing that ensures the cultivation of red currants is care and pruning. Care includes watering, loosening and feeding. Pruning is done once or twice a year, or more often as needed. The main ways to prune red currants is to remove whole branches into a ring and prune branches to a strong lateral branch. If these procedures are carried out in a timely manner, then a moderately lush, medium-height bush is formed, consisting mainly of fruiting branches.
When deciding how to properly trim red currants to form a beautiful bush, you can pay attention to more sophisticated forms. This plant can be made to look like a pyramid or a vase. But the most common way of forming this plant is a standard culture. The stem is the lower part of the trunk of the plant from the soil to the lower branches. Distinguish between low stem, medium and high. A currant bush is usually formed on a low stem, the height of which is 20 - 25 cm. It is formed at the very first pruning after planting.
To obtain this shape, in the first pruning, the branches are cut in half to the bud facing outward. The next time, all root shoots and branches grown on the trunk are removed. A year after the first pruning, shoots are removed on the branches, which will be the main ones. All other branches are shortened to five centimeters, and in the summer of next year they are cut to 10 cm.The next spring they leave the length of the side shoots about 3 cm.The further formation of the bush consists in shortening the side shoots to 20-30 cm and pruning too thick branches.
Using this method, you can get a beautiful small tree with a neat crown. During the ripening of the berries, it will look especially impressive. The most suitable varieties for this variety are Dutch Red, Jonker Van Tets and Pervenets. When choosing this type of plant decoration, it should be borne in mind that this will shorten their lifespan. If the main goal is long-term harvesting from the red currant bush, then it is better to cut it in the usual way, just remove the excess length of branches, non-viable and non-fertile parts and adjust the density.
A timely procedure for removing excess parts of the plant, carried out correctly and on time, will significantly improve the condition of the red currant. A healthy, strong and yielding plant can become a decoration of the site and the pride of a gardener. Moreover, in relation to currants of this type, the pruning procedure is quite simple. The main thing is to choose the right time, as well as to be attentive and not to let the bush grow uncontrollably with shoots.
You can start pruning when all the leaves have fallen from the bush. Experienced gardeners believe that autumn is the best time for currant rejuvenation.
Currant. Illustration for this article is used under a standard license © ofazende.com
It is necessary to delete without regret:
The remaining branches can be cut by two or three quarters as needed.
REFERENCE! In cases where the planting is too neglected, it is better to stretch the rejuvenation for a couple of years. That is, in the first autumn, cut off all unnecessary shoots, then in the next autumn you can take up the lower branches and form a neat bush. A sharp loss of a large part of the crown for currants is stressful.
In order not to make an emergency rejuvenation of currants, follow the rules of care, feed and plant those varieties that are adapted for your region.