Patisson is especially popular with summer residents and gardeners. This herbaceous annual does not require pinching and does not form. Its fruits taste and medicinal qualities resemble zucchini, since both plants are a type of pumpkin. True, if we compare zucchini and squash, then the latter have denser fruits with additional useful substances. In addition, they are more thermophilic, and more fruits ripen. To get high yields, you need to know some secrets of growing squash.
In Russia, squash has been cultivated since the end of the 19th century. Experts consider squash a convenient vegetable: it is stewed, salted, canned. The taste of the fruit is very reminiscent of mushrooms.
Doctors believe that squash is a dietary food. They contain: vitamins, sugar, pectin. Alkaline compounds and water contained in fruits increase the quality of protein assimilation by the body, and create an alkaline reaction in the blood. Regular use of squash in food has a positive effect on the work of the intestines and kidneys. Their therapeutic effect on the urinary system is noted.
Different varieties of squash have different shapes: plate, disc, bowl, bell. The color shades are also different: white (traditional), green, yellow, speckled. Reproduction of squash occurs by seeds.
Squash can be grown outdoors. In this case, planting is carried out in late May - early June. And you can also sow the seeds of the squash in the greenhouse. Sowing seeds in the greenhouse should be carried out in April.
Landing patterns are of two types:
In the seeds of squash, the germination period lasts up to 9-10 years. True, the best germination is observed in two and three-year-olds. But good germination of the seeds of last year's harvest is not excluded if they were heat treated for 5-6 hours at 50-60 degrees or dried in the sun.
Several good quality fruits are selected from the harvested crop. Seeds are extracted from them, which must be dried in a warm, ventilated room.
To eliminate diseases, improve the quality of seedlings, seeds are soaked in various solutions, for example, in dissolved boric acid (20 mg per liter of water). Further, there is a rinsing and drying. In this simple way, the yield increases up to 20%.
Processing before planting in a solution of potassium permanganate: increases germination, accelerates the growth and development of the plant. In this case, the seeds are kept in the solution for 20 minutes, washed and dried.
One of the conditions for fast germination and high yields is hardening. For this, the seeds are put in a bag made of thin cloth, which is placed in the refrigerator. The first 6 hours, the seedlings are at a temperature of 18 to 20 degrees. The next 5-6 days, the planting material is kept at a temperature of 0 to 2 degrees.
The planting method is chosen in northern areas and for early sale on the market. The optimal planting time is April.
Seedlings are grown in peat or plastic cups. To speed up germination, they are filled with flower soil or a mixture of earth with additives. Fertilizers are applied diluted with water.
Planting is carried out in the following order: first, planting cups with a diameter of about 10 cm are buried 4 cm and sprinkled with earth. Further, a certain temperature is maintained, which will allow the sprouts to grow stronger and actively grow. Optimum temperature before germination: 23-25 degrees during the day and +18 degrees at night.
As soon as the first shoots appear, the temperature should be lowered: 18 degrees during the day and 16 degrees at night. Due to the low temperature, the sprouts will grow stronger and grow faster. After about a week, the temperature will need to be raised again to 22-25 degrees.
Already matured seedlings with two or three leaves are planted on the beds. It is recommended to spill the wells with warm water before planting. Planting is done with a well-compacted earthy clod.
IMPORTANT! The first shoots should be watered with a small amount of water and not often. It is also necessary to carry out regular ventilation.
The method of such planting is used when growing squash for personal needs. The optimal planting time is May - early June. The landing site is selected in a sunny and calm area. The soil is prepared in the fall so that it is not caked and fertile. First of all, it is dug up, and then fertilized. For moistening, when digging, clods of earth do not break, so they are saturated with moisture during the winter. In the spring, the clods break up and moisture enters the soil. The soil not fertilized in the fall is fertilized a week before planting. Liming is considered mandatory for acidic soils.
Frost protection is being prepared for early plantings. As protection, compost or manure is used, which is laid in the grooves for planting and sprinkled with soil. At the same time, fertilizing with liquid fertilizer is carried out.
Planting is carried out in the soil warmed up to 28-30 degrees. In order for moisture from the lower layers of the soil to enter the seeds, they are compacted during planting. Small holes are made for planting seeds. Their depth depends on the condition of the soil. When the soil is loose, a sufficient depth of the hole is 6 cm, for compacted and heavy soil - 4 cm.
Compliance with the general rules for caring for squash is a guarantee of a good harvest.
Watering is done so that the leaves remain dry. It is necessary to water at the root. The water should not be very cold. Plantings need a lot of moisture at different stages of development. The flowering stage is especially prominent.
The required water consumption for one square meter of planting is:
Top dressing is considered the optimal option with three feeding times. Usually, once on the eve of flowering, and twice during the formation and ripening stages. For feeding, an organic fertilizer made from diluted mullein is used.
Weeding the fight against thickets of weeds by weeding increases the yield of the crop. Together with weeding, the soil is not loosened, hilling is not performed. The roots exposed after watering are covered with peat or fertilized soil.
Thinning from overgrown parts, overgrown and unnecessary leaves must be removed. Excessive vegetation reduces yields. Removal is recommended to be repeated periodically with an interval of 4 days.
IMPORTANT! The crop is harvested weekly. Overgrown squash delays flowering and slows down the formation of fruits.
Artificial pollination of squash is carried out in a cross way. Pollen is carried by insects. For fruits in greenhouses, artificial pollination is mandatory. For soil plantings, such pollination is necessary when weather conditions interfere with natural pollination. It is very simple to artificially pollinate: a male flower is plucked, and its pollen is applied to a female flower.
IMPORTANT! To prevent pollination by related crops, it is not recommended to plant near pumpkins, cucumbers and zucchini.
The main pest for squash is aphid. Its action is imperceptible.
To combat aphids, such effective methods are:
Some pests are the same as zucchini, such as the whitefly. It affects the lower part of the leaf, and it dries up. Slugs are dangerous for fruits touching the ground. For protection, insulation with glass or a plate is used. You can destroy pests with chemicals, or wash off the larvae with a stream of water, and then loosen the soil.
Patissons are picked when the fruit is not fully ripe and seeds have not formed. Overripe fruits have a hard peel, so they are peeled before eating. It is better to leave such fruits for seeds.
The fruits of the squash are not designed for long-term storage, but you can preserve, stuff, make caviar.
Observing all the rules, the cultivation of squash is within the power of even not very experienced gardeners. The reward for the work will be the tasty and healthy fruits of the squash.
When choosing beautiful plants for the garden, you must give preference to those that will look harmonious both during the day and in the evening. A unique crop suitable for decorating flower beds will be the Mattiola bicorn flower. Simplicity of plant care, its original appearance will only simplify the process of growing a unique floristic specimen. We suggest that you familiarize yourself with this type of matthiola, as well as the rules for planting and caring for it.
Patissons are white, yellow, green and speckled. And they have a taste reminiscent of mushroom. They are applicable in canning, salting, and stewing. Therefore, squash is considered a universal vegetable.
In dietary nutrition, such squash is very valuable and practically irreplaceable. And now you can find a large number of video recipes on the net. The fruits of squash contain many vitamins, pectin and a fairly large amount of sugars. The assimilation of proteins by the body and the maintenance of an alkaline reaction in the blood is facilitated by the alkaline nature of the compound, as well as in the bound form water, the percentage of which in the fetus is about 90 - 94%.
At home, this plant is grown mainly in flowerpots or pots. At the same time, it is especially carefully protected from frost. It is best to grow a tree from a ready-made seedling, but you can use a cuttings and even plant and germinate the seed of a ripe fruit.
Planting a strawberry tree from seeds provides for a certain sequence of actions:
If the surrounding air is dry, it should be sprayed regularly during the growth of the seedlings. At the same time, you need to ensure that excess moisture does not get into the ground. It is best to cover it with polyethylene or in any other way during spraying.
A feature of the plant can be called its unpretentiousness to the quality of the soil. The strawberry tree grows well in both acidic and alkaline environments, loose or dense, but it is still better to provide adequate drainage. The soil from the store is perfect, with characteristics - universal.
Due to the unpretentiousness of the plant, it is also easy to care for it. For normal health, the tree is enough:
During the growing process, it is important to regularly feed the squash and ensure sufficient watering of the beds on which the vegetables grow. After 10 days from sowing the seeds, an aqueous infusion of mullein (1:10) and an infusion of superphosphate (diluted according to the instructions) are added. Before planting seedlings in the ground, they are fed with a solution of 50 g of nitrophoska per bucket of water.
At the beginning of growing, caring for squash includes regular abundant watering. The same is required at the stage of fruit formation. It is recommended to settle the water by heating it to 24 degrees. Water the ground every 6 days at the rate of 8 liters per 1 m2. At the stage of ovary formation, the rate is increased to 10 liters per 1 m2, and the watering itself is carried out every 4 days.
The choice of how to fertilize squash varies depending on the stage of the growing season. Before flowering, add 25 g of superphosphate, 30 g of ammonium sulfate and potassium sulfate per 1 m2. At the stage of fruit ripening, the soil is fertilized with a solution of 10 liters of water, 25 g of potassium sulfate, 50 g of superphosphate and 25 g of ammonium sulfate. Instead of the listed substances, you can use organic matter (chicken droppings and mullein) and folk remedies (such as yeast or ash solution). For large areas, it is more convenient to immediately dilute the entire volume of fertilizer in a barrel.
Side shoots often grow fleshy and powerful, taking away the nutrients necessary for the formation and development of fruits. Therefore, some old leaves can be removed without harm and even benefit for the plant and future harvest. The procedure is repeated every 3-4 days.
The culture is often attacked by the following pests:
It affects the green mass of plants and leads to their death.
It infects leaves, flowers and ovaries.
To combat these pests, insecticides are used.
The root and bark of Mahonia, which contain a significant amount of valuable components, including tannins with ascorbic acid, are used in folk medicine as a medicine that helps to maintain the body's tone and improve appetite. These parts of the plant contain a very large amount of biologically active components such as berberine, copper, manganese, zinc, sodium and silicon. The presence of these substances makes it possible to use the collected plant raw materials of the bark for homeopathic purposes, for example, for the treatment of many dry and scaly skin diseases, including even psoriasis.
Moreover, drugs obtained on the basis of magonia improve blood circulation and lymph drainage, as well as strengthen the walls of blood vessels or small capillaries.
The berries of this plant have a pronounced antibacterial and antiviral effect. They are recommended to be used in the form of tinctures for cholecystitis and hepatitis, blockage or inflammatory processes in the biliary tract, violation of the intestinal microflora.