After planting potatoes, a gardener may not appear in this field for a week, but then constant "potato weekdays" will begin, right up to the harvest of this crop.
Throughout the growing season, caring for potato plantings consists in constantly maintaining the soil of the site without weeds and in a loose state for better air flow to the root system. And also it is necessary to combat its pests, first of all with Colorado potato beetle and with diseases.
If you planted potatoes with poorly sprouted tubers at the optimal time, then its shoots appear, as a rule, after 3-3.5 weeks. When using tubers with good strong shoots and planting them in a sufficiently warm soil, the first shoots break through to the surface of the beds after 7-12 days (depending on the soil and planting depth).
6-7 days after planting, you need to loosen the soil with a rake - to make the so-called "blind harrowing". This method destroys the first wave of weeds (in the state of "strings") protruding from the ground tops invisible to the eye.
Harrowing is also very important if a good rain has passed and a soil crust forms on the surface of the earth under the sun. This serious agricultural practice must be repeated if non-verbalized seed was used. In addition, early harrowing reduces moisture evaporation. In order not to walk once again directly over the planted potatoes, sometimes with tubers sow beans (culture - "beacon"), rapidly germinating in 4-5 days.
When green cones of the first shoots appear (2-5 cm in size) with not yet opened leaves, you can cover them with soil with a layer of 3-5 cm, this leads to the stimulation of new shoots in tubers. By the way, this agricultural practice is also incorporated in the intensive Dutch technology. In the same way, by filling them completely, you can protect potato seedlings from late frosts. However, it must be remembered that this procedure can only be performed with seedlings with undeveloped leaves. Full seedlings and adult bushes covered up to save themselves from frost must be freed from the ground. The impact of frost on the tops of potatoes is also reduced by preliminary (and prolonged) sprinkling and abundant watering of the soil in the aisles.
Early shoots of potatoes are protected from negative temperatures by covering them with pieces of plastic wrap and other materials. This is especially true on plantings of early potatoes, since it is he who often falls under return frosts. In case of partial death of plants from the cold, their damaged parts are cut off, after which the growth of tops is more intensive. But in this case, of course, the harvest will be less than expected.
If, after some time after planting, the gardener gets the impression that the emergence of seedlings is late, he needs to carefully dig out 2-3 planted tubers to check their condition. The reason for the delay in seedling emergence may be damage to the sprouts by rhizoctonia (fungal disease). The causative agent of this disease infects tubers in autumn and hibernates on them in the form of sclerotia (bulging black scabs) tightly attached to their skin, which is sometimes mistaken for adhered soil (this form of the disease is called "black scab").
When it gets into moist soil, sclerotia begin to develop, form a mycelium, which affects the eyes and shoots of potatoes that form in the ground. More often this disease is observed when tubers are planted in cold, moist soil. It leads not only to a delay in germination or weakening of shoots, but to the death of tubers without the formation of shoots. The greatest harmfulness is noted on heavy, clay soils, especially in cold, lingering spring.
To reduce the negative effect of rhizoctoniosis on seedlings, it is recommended to carry out agrotechnical methods that contribute to the rapid development of seedlings: harrowing, destruction of the soil crust formed after rain. The most sensitive seedlings from tubers that have not passed high-quality vernalization before boarding. Thinning of seedlings due to black scab leads to a large shortage of potato yield, since instead of affected shoots, the mother tuber is forced to form new ones, and this takes a lot of nutrients and time.
When, when examining tubers that do not sprout for a long time, they reveal softening of some of its parts (from the side of the stolon or from the side), the disease is diagnosed as bacterial: "blackleg", or "soft rot". Symptoms of this bacterial disease on seedlings: the plants are usually single-stemmed, greatly retarded in growth, the leaves are small, tough, curl along the middle vein, yellowed. In a diseased bush, shoots are located at an acute angle to the stem and stretch upward. The lower part of the stem softens, becoming brown (to black) in color. Hence the name "black leg". Affected plants are easily pulled out of the soil (the root system remains in the ground).
If tubers with symptoms of soft rot are found under the affected bushes, it is better to dig up them whole (tubers and plants) and remove them from the site, since they represent a source of infection for neighboring potato bushes. It is usually not necessary to wait for the harvest from the shoots of potatoes affected by the "black leg": such plants die. In the same bushes, in which individual stems still survive and produce a crop, it usually consists of very small tubers carrying a latent bacterial infection, which can manifest itself, if not during storage, then under favorable conditions for it in the next growing season. ...
Before the budding phase of potatoes, it is advisable to carry out at least two hilling. Immediately before the first hilling (at a height of young plants of 15-20 cm), the plant is fed nitrogenous mineral or organic fertilizers (especially if they were not applied at planting). For this, you can use instant fertilizers, such as urea; very effective introduction of well-fermented slurry (1: 5) or poultry droppings (1:15). Mineral fertilizers are scattered dry 5-6 cm from the stems. At the same time, they rake the earth to the bushes and destroy the weeds.
Be sure to make sure that the leaves of the plants are not covered with earth and the stems are not injured. Experts recommend hilling after the rain, since the moist soil pinned to the stems contributes to the formation of adventitious roots in them.
The beginning of the formation of tubers coincides with the beginning of budding and flowering of plants. Hilling during flowering leads to a lengthening of the growing season of plants and the process of tuberization. It is not necessary to allow the plant to form buds, bloom and form seeds, as it intensively expends nutrients and energy for this, which could be used to create additional tubers or increase their total mass. It is necessary to remove the buds when their buds appear on the tops of the bush.
It is also worth recalling that for excess manure, introduced when planting tubers, there is an excessive build-up of tops by plants; this phenomenon ("fattening of potatoes") is associated with an excess amount of nitrogen and lack of potassium and phosphorus.
It is almost impossible to correct its consequences, since an excess of nitrogen leads, as a rule, to thickening of the plantings, strong elongation of the bushes and, as a result, to serious damage to the lower tiers of plant leaves late blight and to the softening of the stems lying on the ground under the weight of the vegetative mass. You can, of course, cut off the lower leaves so that there is some ventilation at the soil surface, however, in general, this procedure does not save the situation.
According to experts, the optimal soil temperature for the intensive growth of daughter tubers is 16 ... 19 ° C. A decrease in it to + 6 ° C or an increase to 23 ° C leads to a delay in tuberization. It is possible to soften the oppressed state of plants during high temperatures by watering the bushes at the root, it is especially advisable to do this on the seed plot and in relation to the varieties intended for reproduction.
Potatoes are a very demanding culture for a sufficient amount of moisture throughout the growing season, especially during active flowering - this is a period of intensive accumulation of tuberous mass.
If the summer is dry or there is a lack of moisture in the soil, watering (2-3 liters under the bush) is required. The water must enter the tuber formation zone. It is estimated that during the growing season, each plant needs at least 80-90 liters of water for normal development.
Sometimes it is recommended, after hilling to the bottom of the furrows, to fold the cut grass, which can simultaneously perform several tasks at once: to protect the bottom of the furrows from excessive moisture evaporation; overcooking, it emits heat, and after decaying it turns into the next season organic fertilizer... The grass lying in the aisles, letting rainwater flow to the bottom of the furrow, does not allow it to evaporate afterwards.
For this purpose, the aftertas of leguminous crops (clover, alfalfa, sweet clover and etc.). It is believed that the use of such a "green fertilizer" is equivalent to the use of the same weight amount of manure. You cannot take for this purpose stalks of cereal weeds with ripe seeds and easily rooted plants (sow thistle; pink thistle; small-flowered galensog, otherwise "American", etc.).
Read the next part. Caring for planting potatoes in the second half of the growing season →
A. Lazarev, candidate of biological sciences,
Senior Researcher, All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection
Planting can be compacted not only in the greenhouse, but also in the garden. By planting certain plants nearby, you can influence their yield and taste, as well as protect against diseases and pests. In addition, labor costs for planting care are reduced.
Summer cabbage, for example, is best planted next to celery, which protects it from the main pest - cabbage white. "Neighbor" is in no hurry to grow while the cabbage is forming heads of cabbage, because it has a later period of maturation. After harvesting it, the celery will still have enough time to ripen.
But the beds with strawberries are good to "dilute" with garlic and parsley, which not only do not interfere with its development, but also save it from snails, slugs and other pests. Garlic can be planted between bushes of garden strawberries (as shown in the diagram), and parsley and other greens can be planted in aisles.
Everyone probably knows about the mutually beneficial neighborhood of carrots and onions. Planted nearby, these crops scare off the most formidable pests. The onion fly does not like the smell of carrots, and the carrot fly dislikes the smell of onions.
Many flower and spice crops also have the ability to repel insects and pests. These are marigolds, chrysanthemums, nasturtium, calendula, lavender, sage, rosemary, mattiola, coriander, etc. It is enough to plant them in the aisles or around the beds, and natural protection of your plantings will be provided.
Some plants are not only able to scare away pests from the "neighbor", but also feed it. This primarily applies to legumes, which saturate the soil with nitrogen. Potatoes will be especially happy with such a companion. However, this neighborhood is mutually beneficial, tk. it protects "neighbors" from their pests.
Beans and beans can be planted around the perimeter of the potato rows as shown in the diagram. It is better to plant the beans at the ends of the furrows of the "second bread" so as not to damage them during the hilling of the crop.
In the beds, the crops of beets, carrots and parsley can be compacted with radishes or lettuce, after harvesting which there will be enough space for the growth and development of the main crops. In addition, these "compactors" can serve as benchmarks for rows so that small roots do not accidentally be removed during weeding.
Growing vegetables in dense plantings is not as difficult as it might seem at first glance. Here you need to monitor the timing of planting and harvesting crops, select them for compatibility and use protective equipment.
Such beds will also require a 1.5-fold increase in the amount of fertilizer per unit area, so that all plants have enough food for them.
Even in a small area or in a small greenhouse, with the correct selection and placement of the main and additional crops, using compact planting, you can get good yields, of course, without forgetting the rules of crop rotation and plant care.
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF
An annual herbaceous monoecious plant with a powerful root system. The stem shoot reaches a length of 4-5 m or more, it can be single-stem or branching, creeping or climbing.
The fruit - a false juicy berry - is formed within 30-50 days after fertilization and in most varieties reaches 4-10 kg (in large-fruited - over 100 kg).
Homeland pumpkin is Central and South America. Of the 20 species in culture, three are known: large-fruited, nutmeg and hard-barked. Large-fruited - very fruitful, late-ripening and less demanding on heat compared to other species, Muscat - late-ripening and the most thermophilic firm-bark - has smaller fruits, is distinguished by early maturity.
Varieties. For the climatic conditions of Belarus, the mid-season varieties Almond 35 and Mozoleevskaya 49 are recommended. The Institute of Vegetable Growing has created a new promising variety of large-fruited pumpkin - Zolotaya Korona. Forms fruits weighing 10-12 kg, the fruit bark is soft. In terms of the content of dry matter, carotene, sugars and pectin, it surpasses all known varieties of the hard-barked pumpkin species.
|NUTRITIONAL AND HEALING VALUE|
Fruits are valued for the high content of sugars, pectins and carotene in the pulp, vitamins B1, B2, C, E, PP, mineral salts (especially potassium and phosphorus). Pectins are known to promote better absorption of food and remove toxins from the body.
Pumpkin fruit are a valuable dietary product, are recommended for those suffering from renal diseases, obesity and decreased gallbladder function. Pumpkin seeds ("white seeds") are rich in protein and fat.
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROWING CONDITIONS
Pumpkin it is necessary to cultivate on light and medium-textured non-acidic soils (loam, sandy loam), rich in humus, well filled with fertilizers. The best predecessors are annual and perennial grasses, early potatoes, onions, legumes, early and medium cabbage varieties.
Pumpkin plants need a sufficient amount of water in the soil, especially in the first half of the growing season. On average, three to four waterings are enough (60-70 liters per 1 m 2). If it rains frequently, no irrigation is required.
Pumpkin - light-loving plant, does not tolerate shading or thickened sowing.
AGROTECHNICS OF GROWING
Sowing. In our zone, pumpkin seeds are sown directly into the ground. They germinate at temperatures not lower than 16-17 ° С, optimally 25-35 ° С.
Sowing (usually in a square-nesting method) is carried out during the period when the soil at a depth of 10-15 cm warms up to 14-16 ° C, usually in the second half of May. Seed preparation - like a cucumber.
Sowing scheme: 140 x 140-200 cm, 2-3 seeds per hole. Seeding depth is 3 cm, on lighter soils - 4 cm.If the topsoil is very dry or in dry warm weather on light soils, seeds should be sown at a greater depth than with a moist topsoil, in cold weather or on heavy soils. It is better to put seeds in holes at different depths.
For an earlier harvest pumpkin can be grown by seedlings.This process takes place in a greenhouse or greenhouse after planting early cabbage in pots or sod 8 x 8 cm. Sprinkle with warm water sparingly, but infrequently. Until shoots appear, the seedlings are kept at a temperature of 18-25 ° C during the day, 15-18 ° C at night, and after the emergence of shoots - 15-20 ° C during the day, 12-13 ° C at night, the seedlings are thinned out, leaving one plant in a pot the film must be removed, the seedlings should be watered occasionally, and kept in the light during the day. If necessary, seedlings are fed 1 - 2 times with a solution of mullein, slurry or bird droppings with the addition of mineral fertilizers.
CARE AND CLEANING
The main care is weed control and loosening. Recommended 2-3 inter-row treatments: one - when the first leaves appear to a depth of 8-10 cm, the other - with top dressing to a depth of 6-8 cm in the phase of 5-6 true leaves. When weeding and loosening, it is necessary to huddle the plants with adding soil under the cotyledon leaves.
Every 7-10 days, top dressing is carried out (mullein, slurry), the first being 20-25 days after sowing seeds in open ground or 7-10 days after planting seedlings. Composition: 1 bucket of mullein solution (1:10) with the addition of 30-40 g of superphosphate and 15-20 g of potassium chloride - for 7-9 plants.
Forming a bush is also an important, albeit time-consuming, care technique. The first time, the top of the plant is pinched in the phase of 5-6 true leaves (this gives an impetus to the formation of fruiting lateral shoots), the second is the growth points above the 5-7th leaf, starting from the ovary, on all shoots.
The fruits are harvested before the first autumn frosts - from late August to early September. Maturity is determined by tapping on the fruit: the sound should be the same as from a hollow object.
FOR HOME PHARMACY
Traditional medicine has accumulated a lot of effective advice. Peeled (not fried, but only dried!) White seeds are recommended, especially for children, against tape and sometimes round worms. A decoction of seeds is used for diseases of the heart, kidneys and liver, for stomach ulcers, during pregnancy and breastfeeding. For insomnia, before going to bed, drink a decoction of pumpkin pulp with honey. Pumpkin juice helps dissolve kidney and bladder stones, remove chloride salts from the body, and soothes inflammatory processes in the liver and prostate gland. Lotions with pumpkin pulp gruel help with burns, lichen and eczema.
TO YOUR TABLE
Various types of pumpkin used in boiled, baked, fried, stewed form, its pulp goes to the first and second courses, puddings, candied fruits, marmalade, molasses, jam.
Delicious (and rare) recipes
Pilaf with pumpkin and fruit. Fresh apples (if you get it, add quince to them, if not, pears will do), peel and seeds, cut into cubes and mix with washed raisins. Melt some of the butter in a saucepan, place the pumpkin slices (without peel and seeds) on top, on 1/3 of the dish on top, pour the washed rice, put a layer of fruit mixture, cover with rice, put the rest of the fruit and rice again. Pour the remaining oil over the whole and add salted water so that it covers the top layer of the rice. Cover the saucepan and cook pilaf for 1 hour over low heat.
For 500 g of pumpkin -1.5 cups of rice, 200 g of fresh apples, 100 g of quince (pears) and raisins, 1/2 cup of butter, salt.
Pumpkin and rhubarb marmalade. Wash and dry the pumpkin, cut into slices and peel from fibers with seeds (do not remove the peel). Bake the slices until soft and rub through a sieve.
Wash rhubarb, peel, chop and mix with pumpkin puree.
Simmer the mixture, stirring occasionally. As it thickens - add sugar. Cool the finished marmalade. For 600 g of pumpkin - 400 g of rhubarb, sugar to taste.
Pumpkin pancakes. Grind 0.5 kg of pumpkin and 2 apples, add 5 tbsp. tablespoons of flour, 1 egg, 2 tbsp. tablespoons of sugar, sour cream, soda and salt to taste.
You can replenish and diversify the collection of trees on your site with an amazing hybrid plant - Lancaster walnut.
The original, improved hybrid combines plants from two continents: North America and Japan. Bred artificially, with the help of cross-pollination of heart-shaped and gray walnut.
Lancaster winter-hardy walnut is ideal for the climate of central Russia, it is distinguished by abundant fruiting.
It is difficult to find a Lancaster hybrid in the wild, but in recent years this plant has fallen in love with a large number of gardeners. The main advantages of the view:
The main disadvantage of the species for planting in personal plots is the height of the plant. In adulthood, it can reach 10 m in height. It is necessary to carefully consider the choice of a place for this tree.
Lancaster walnut is a godsend for a Russian gardener. Having perfectly taken root in the middle zone of our country, the hybrid does not require complex care, is loyal to various types of soils, and is capable of breeding.
The stable immunity was inherited by the hybrid from his parents. But still, the plant has enemies - tinder fungi. Parasitizing on the trunk and branches of the victim, they are able to destroy a tree in several years. Lancaster walnut should not be planted next to old trees affected by these fungi.
If a nut has become infected with parasites, it is necessary to remove all dried and affected branches. It is recommended to burn them. Cover the cuts from the cut branches with garden pitch or a mixture of clay and sand. In case of abundant infection, pesticides are used.
Note: To prevent pests, it is recommended to coat tree trunks with lime mortar at a level of 1.5 meters from the ground.
The gardener receives the first fruits of his labor in the sixth year of the plant's life. With each subsequent year, the volume of the harvest increases rapidly. Ripe nuts fall to the ground on their own; you do not need to collect them from the tree.
Lancaster hybrid fruits can last all winter. After collection, sorting must be carried out, selecting contaminated and rotten fruits. It is recommended to store the crop in canvas bags in a dry, dark place.
During the winter, the nuts do not lose their useful properties, their taste does not deteriorate. In the spring, small roots may appear on the nuts. Such fruits can be planted in the ground and it is very likely that a new tree will grow from them.
Lancaster walnut is an exotic guest adapted to the climatic conditions of central Russia. The giant tree will become a decoration of the personal plot and will give the gardener a bountiful harvest of useful nuts.
The agricultural technology of currants is closely related to the climatic conditions of the region.
In the Volga region and in the Moscow region, caring for currants is similar to agricultural technology throughout central Russia. The varieties grown here, in most cases, do not require additional shelter for the winter. Work with planting planting material begins at the beginning of March. The first watering and pest control is also carried out in the spring.
In Central Russia, taking into account the amount of spring precipitation, currants should be watered no more than once every 10 days.
In the regions of Siberia, due to the danger of spring frosts, the timing of planting seedlings can be significantly shifted. The first thing you should pay attention to is the temperature regime. In this regard, the flowering of currants begins only at the end of May - at the beginning of June.
As in Siberia, due to late spring, the planting of seedlings is often transferred to autumn. Do not forget about a more thorough preparation of the bushes for wintering. In the Urals, they are often dug in, covered with a thick layer of peat and agrofibre.
Irbitsky potatoes are included in the state register of the Russian Federation for cultivation in the Volgo-Vyatka and West Siberian regions. The culture also spread in Ukraine and Moldova.
The plant is highly resistant to damage and tolerates drought well. The flowers of the plant are of medium size and bright color on the inside.
Potatoes are characterized by semi-erect bushes of medium height, which have an intermediate type of growth. The leaves are dark green, small in size with wavy edges.
Corolla of a medium-sized plant with a strong anthocyanin coloration on the inside.
Irbit potatoes are large round tubers with small eyes. The starch content in them is from 3 to 17%. Each tuber has a rounded shape, weighing up to 200 grams. The rind is reddish and the flesh is light yellow. The variety has an excellent taste, therefore, it has a table purpose.
Irbit potatoes are mid-season varieties. The ripening period of root crops is from 70 to 90 days. On average, from one bush, you can collect from 8 to 10 root crops.