Grapes as a culture have been known for over a thousand years, the name comes from the Latin word "vitilis" and means "climbing". This plant is long-lived: even without special care in natural conditions, healthy bushes could live up to 150 years! But since 1963, grape phylloxera, an insect pest that feeds on the roots of the plant, was brought to Europe from America. Later in the article, we will learn how to care for a vineyard in the fall. What to do in October and how to water and prune in winter.
Modern varieties, most of which are obtained by the selection method, resistant to many diseases and adapted to various climatic conditions and regions. But in order to get stable, high yields every year, to increase the immunity of grapes, to maintain the size of the berries and all their qualities, you need to work on preparing trees for winter:
Let's consider in more detail what each of these actions is, their benefits for the plant.
This is a necessary event that has a very beneficial effect on the development of the plant:
It is recommended to prune bushes in two stages: in mid-September and in October after the last harvest. Of course, these terms are approximate, because it is necessary to take into account the region and climatic conditions.
The first preliminary pruning takes place in September. The bushes are freed from dry, diseased branches, which must be burned in order to avoid the spread of diseases. Remove 10-15% of the growth of shoots grown on the main trunks (sleeves) above the upper wire (60 cm).
The main pruning is carried out no earlier than 2-3 weeks after the leaves fall from the bushes. This time is necessary for the vine to complete the active phase of photosynthesis and the transition of the plant to a dormant state. If you cut the branches too early, the bush will not have time to stock up on the necessary amount of nutrients for wintering and subsequent fruiting.
Closer to the root, in the place of branching, replacement bitches are formed annually: the growth part is left, the fruit bearing part is removed this year. Cut the strongest young vines closer to the root as follows:
If the variety gives not very large weighty bunches (up to 500g), then you can leave another 2-3 more buds.
After harvesting, the grapes are watered as needed so that the plant does not dry out. If the weather is humid, rainy, then the bushes do not need to be watered, with the exception of one plentiful moisture-charging irrigation before winter.
If the tissues of the vines are not sufficiently saturated with moisture, they can freeze in winter. At least 50 liters of water must be added under each bush!
The most convenient way is to dig in pipes while planting grapes in order to supply the plant with the necessary moisture and liquid fertilizers. But if you did not do this in advance, you need to make small holes or grooves around the bush so that the water does not spread, and the root is saturated with moisture as much as possible. After that, the soil must be loosened, saturated with oxygen. These activities will help the plant overwinter.
Grapes grown on light sandy soils should be watered often, but not abundantly, and on heavy clayey soils, rarely and abundantly.
Fruiting, of course, takes a lot of vitality from plants., therefore, autumn feeding is recommended during the preparation of the grapes for winter. This will guarantee a good harvest next year. It will be enough to add a little aqueous solution of potassium and phosphorus fertilizers under each bush: potassium nourishes the grape root, and phosphorus strengthens the immune system.
The soil must be loosened after watering and fertilizing. Organic liquid fertilizers should not be applied; it is best to mulch the soil around the grape trunk with rotted manure mixed with wood ash in winter.
Experienced growers recommend feeding the grapes with fertilizers once every 3 years. If, when planting, the bush was well fertilized, then at least 4 years it should not be fertilized.
Immediately after the last harvest, you need to start treating the grapes with chemical solutions. There is no need to delay with this, since pests and diseases can cause serious damage to the vines in a very short time. Processing of early varieties should be carried out without waiting for the end of the grape harvest from later varieties. Correct spraying is carried out in calm dry weather, when rain is not even expected.
Treatment with copper and iron vitriol is recognized as the most effective. If there are no traces of a fungal infection on the grapes, the spraying can be divided: in the fall, treat it with copper sulfate (dissolve 100 g of powder in half a liter of warm water, and then add the solution to 10 liters with cold water and spray from a spray bottle), and in early spring, before budding, process with iron sulfate.
ZhK is very effective in combating all types of fungal diseases and saturates the plant with all the necessary trace elements. Thus, the vine receives protection and foliar feeding at the same time. For the solution, it is necessary to dissolve 300 g of ferrous sulfate in 10 liters of water and abundantly spray the vine and soil around the trunk.
If traces of fungal infections in the bushes are found in the fall, the treatment with copper and iron sulfate is carried out simultaneously.
There is another option that experts recommend: the autumn processing on the leaves is carried out with a soda-salt solution - for 10 liters of water 5 tablespoons of salt + 5 tablespoons of soda. It is necessary to spray 3-4 times in the beginning - mid-October, very carefully processing each leaf, vine and soil around the plant. In this case, the treatment with copper and / or iron sulfate can be carried out immediately before the vine is sheltered for the winter.
Catarovka of grape roots is the removal of small roots located at a depth of 20-25 cm from the surface, such roots are also called dew roots... Since they are located close to the surface of the earth, they take moisture and food from the surface layer. With a prolonged absence of watering and precipitation, dew roots can dry out.
In winter, even with light frosts, when the soil freezes at least up to t -5about, there is a danger of their freezing. In addition, it is the dew roots that are most susceptible to infection with phylloxera (very small grape aphids that live and feed on the roots).
To avoid all these troubles, catarovka is carried out: small roots are removed and this contributes to the development and deepening of the calcaneal roots (deep). But this process is quite laborious and dangerous for grapes, so you need to cut the roots with great care. Catarovka of the roots of young plants is carried out 2 times a year - in June and August. If the bush is not young, in addition to small dew roots, it can also have rather thickened ones. Their cutting should be done with extreme care and gradually - over 2-3 years.
Technology: the soil around the trunk is dug to the desired depth. The roots are cut with a sharp pruner without leaving knots. Slices can be disinfected with 3% copper sulfate or 1% boric acid solution, dried and covered with soil again.
In order not to repeat this procedure every year, the cut part is wrapped with a film in 2-3 layers (weakly, with a margin of 3-5 cm), or a plastic corrugated hose cut along the length, tied with natural twine and only then covered with earth.
Catarovka is justified and relevant, mainly, for industrial plantations, large farm plantations, where it is impossible to water the plants and shelter them for the winter.
For such plantings, it is very important that the grapes have a developed, deeply rooted root. On personal plots, it is not necessary to carry out this event, since timely feeding, watering and sheltering the bushes for the winter is possible.
After harvesting, grape bushes are sheltered for the winter, especially if there is little snow in the area. To do this, the vine is removed from the supports, the branches are loosely tied and laid on the ground. It is best to cover the vines with spruce branches - branches of pines and firs. Such a shelter provides good air circulation, traps snow cover - creates ideal conditions for wintering.
You can cover the top with a film, leaving gaps for circulation.
All these measures are necessary to protect the grape culture, for long and abundant fruiting. Whether you are in Crimea, Krasnodar or any other region suitable for growing grapes. Although the vines are not very whimsical, good care helps to obtain stable yields for many years - after all, grapes can grow and bear fruit for more than 100 years!
Author: Natalia Category: Fruit and berry plants Published: 07 February 2019 Last revised: 02 November 2020
Grapes (Latin Vitis) - a genus of perennial shrub vines of the Grape family. The name of the genus comes from the word vitilis, which means "climbing". In nature, there are about 70 species of grapes, growing mainly in the subtropical and temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. The culture is cultivated cultural grapes (Vitis vinifera), a derived species from the forest grape growing in nature along the northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea up to the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. In the wild, cultivated grapes are not found.
One of the important stages of caring for grapes in the fall is pruning the vines for the winter. The procedure has the following positive aspects:
Leaving associated with pruning grapes begins after leaf fall. The vine goes into dormancy in the fall, and the removal of branches is painless. Before the leaves fall off, the branches cannot be cut off. Such withdrawal will only harm the culture. Until the bush has thrown off the foliage, the process of photosynthesis continues in the grapes. Early removal of leafy branches in the fall will weaken the vine. The grapes will not have time to accumulate nutrients that help to endure the winter easier.
It is also impossible to delay with leaving. Pruning too late with the first frost in the fall will cause unexpected damage to the vineyard. The vine becomes fragile in the cold. During pruning, the branch may crack in an unnecessary place.
Vine care begins with the removal of diseased, dry and damaged shoots. The branches are burned immediately after pruning, as they are infected with pest larvae and fungal spores. The next stage of care is the formation of the bush in the fall. In the vineyard, cut off the extra branches. The scheme for pruning a vineyard in the fall may differ for each variety, but in general terms, caring for a bush takes place according to the following principle:
The cut sites are treated with garden varnish, which protects the wood from infection.
The video shows the care of the vine in the fall:
In gardens, the vine is given a sunny warm place, moreover, somewhat sheltered from the wind. The sunny courtyards, slopes and southern walls are favorable. The main requirement for growing vines is a trellis or climbing device.
In professional cultivation, wire frames are pulled along which the shoots are guided. Some varieties develop leading shoots up to 100 meters in length. Another alternative is overgrown gazebos, gazebos, or carports.
The vines are soil tolerant. The most important factors are high permeability and depth. With age, the roots of the vine can penetrate into the ground to a depth of 15 meters. Therefore, there should be no restrictions due to impermeable rock layers in the depths.
Waterlogging is bad for grapes. Wet soils inhibit plant growth, damage the immune system, and are often the cause of fungal diseases. In addition, in the spring they hardly get warm.
Planted from early spring to early summer. The planting hole is dug a little more of the root ball and intensively loosened at the bottom. This allows the wine to sink deeper into its roots. The excavated soil is mixed with compost in sandy soils and sand in loamy soils.
When planting, the grapes are placed at an angle to the trellis. It is necessary to ensure that the third bud from the bottom is above the ground and under no circumstances is buried. Then the filled planting hole is pressed tightly and watered abundantly.
Planting distance depends entirely on available space or trellis size. One vine can easily grow on a 5 meter wide trellis. Many grapes today are self-pollinating, so re-pollination is not required.
The wide variety of varieties can be confusing for budding winegrowers. The choice of grapes for cultivation should be based on their own preferences, needs and climatic conditions of the growing area.
Residents of the harsh northern and central regions of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus are better off giving preference to frost-resistant varieties with a short ripening period. This will allow the vineyard to quickly form crops in short summers and low temperatures. Also, high resistance to frost will provide reliable protection against adverse environmental factors.
Lilia, Isabella, Arcadia, Victoria, Augustine varieties will serve as a good option for uncovered grapes.
One of the important factors in the choice of grapes is its purpose. If you want to produce wine for personal use or for sale, give preference to technical varieties.
Lovers of white wine can choose Aligote, Feteasca Albă, Bianca. Connoisseurs of rosé wines will be delighted with Rose Muscat, Traminer. The rich taste of black will be presented by Cabernet - Sauvignon, Saperavi, Regent. Do not forget about one of the most common varieties - Isabella.
Lovers of fresh fruits, jams, compotes and juices can opt for table grape varieties. Furor, Libya, Victor, Arcadia, Julian and all types of raisins will be able to decorate your table.
The description of any grape variety includes the need for an annual haircut. Pruning of grapes is done at the beginning of spring to rejuvenate the bush, prevent the spread of diseases and parasites. In the next season, such a bush will give young shoots, in which the juice flows better, which increases the ripening rate of the berries. After pruning, the bush is more resistant to frost, easier to withstand low temperatures. It must be pruned after the harvest has been harvested and the leaves have fallen.
It is necessary to prune at the optimal time interval, because if you do it too early, then there will not be enough nutrients in the bush and the shrub may not survive the winter. If you overexpose the plant and hold out until the onset of negative air temperatures, then the vine becomes too fragile, which can lead to injury and the appearance of fractures in inappropriate places. A neglected shrub whose branches have not been cut will produce a poor harvest with small berries.
With the help of a sharp, sterile pruner, first of all, diseased branches, dry vine are cut off. To prevent the spread of grape disease, the cut branches are folded in one place and burned. After this, the formation of the bush is carried out. When cutting off excess branches, you must leave the main shoots, branches. In the photo and video, in which you can see how this procedure is performed. After all the extra branches have been removed from the bush, the cut site is smeared with garden varnish. As soon as spring comes, the shape of the bush is adjusted.
The most pressing issue this month is harvesting.
If you see that not all bunches have time to ripen before frost, remove the weakest of them, this will help the rest to ripen.
At the beginning of autumn, fertilizing with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers is still relevant. But it is better to postpone the use of nitrogen fertilizers until the spring.
The beginning of the month is the right time for the autumn planting of grape seedlings. For information on how to do this correctly, read our material Planting grapes in the fall: when and how to carry it out.
Late October - early November is a great time for autumn pruning of already growing grapes and cutting cuttings for winter rooting.
Older vines need help to prepare for winter. A couple of weeks after the foliage has fallen off, you should cut off all the unripe parts of the shoots and dig up the soil under the bushes to prevent the spread of infectious diseases.
Plants can be treated with a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate. This will help protect the grapes from fungal diseases. Some experienced growers argue that, among other things, shrubs treated with iron sulfate are less attractive to rodents.
Ripe vines must be bent to the ground and sprinkled with peat or sawdust, or covered with spruce branches or spunbond. But before that, it is important to water the plants, because dehydrated grapes endure the winter worse. It is also advisable to bent the shoots of non-covering varieties to the ground, and mulch the soil under the bushes.
In December, you can finally relax and enjoy the fruits of your labor. The only thing a dormant vineyard needs during the winter season is frost protection. Therefore, if you are not sure that the vines are securely covered, you can throw fresh fluffy snow on them. But if at some point you get bored without the traditional hassle and care of green pets, you can always organize a small home garden. And in February - again remember the grapes and start rooting cuttings harvested since autumn at home.