Pomegranate is an unpretentious fruit plant, for the cultivation of which only a mild subtropical climate is needed. Where the pomegranate grows, there should always be a lot of sunlight and warmth, and then the tree will thank you with long flowering and sweet fruits. In the temperate climate of the middle zone, as well as in the northern regions, it is possible to grow a pomegranate tree only at home. How to grow pomegranates at home, and what kind of pomegranate care is needed at home, will be discussed in this article.
Today, several hundred varieties of pomegranate are known, of which more than a hundred are cultivated varieties, and are widely cultivated on an industrial scale. Pomegranate varieties are distinguished by the hardness of the seeds. There are fruits that have hard and soft bones.
Of course, in every country where this culture is cultivated, there is its own beloved pomegranate variety, but there are also well-known, very productive garden varieties, which include:
It should also be noted the excellent taste of Iranian pomegranates "Ahmar", "Nar-Shirin", Indian and Israeli varieties (Dholka, Mangulati), which are not cultivated in the CIS, but can be grown in the conditions of the Central Asian zone.
From the video you will learn how to grow pomegranates.
Home pomegranate is an amazingly beautiful ornamental plant with bright flowers and small exotic fruits. Those who have dreamed for a long time, but do not know how to grow pomegranates at home, should know that there is nothing difficult about this, the main thing is to choose the right variety.
There are several low-growing varieties of indoor pomegranate that are highly decorative and intended for growing in a pot:
The most common breeding methods for pomegranates are cuttings and seed material (seeds or seeds). It should be clarified right away that for planting in the garden it is easier to purchase ready-made seedlings in nurseries, since they are already grafted with varieties that guarantee abundant fruiting and high taste characteristics. If you want to grow a garden plant with your own hands, then the most acceptable way would be cuttings, since the seed method does not allow you to preserve the taste of the variety.
If the main goal is to grow a decorative pomegranate form, then you can plant a pomegranate tree at home using seeds or seeds.
The question may arise here: what is the difference between seeds and seeds? The seeds form in a pomegranate flower when it fades. They can be collected and planted in the soil. Of course, pomegranate grown from seeds grows more slowly, and the percentage of germination is lower than when grown from seed.
The seeds can be taken from fresh fruit seeds. If the planting will be done immediately, then you do not need to cleanse the bones from the pulp. If later, then the material must be separated from the pulp, rinsed and dried a little to prevent decay. The dried seeds, before planting the pomegranate in a pot at home, will need to be soaked in a solution that stimulates root formation. Then, sow seeds into the prepared substrate, spreading them evenly over the surface and sprinkling them with a 1.5-2 centimeter layer of soil. Until the seeds have germinated, the soil must be kept moist. When the sprouts reach a height of 3-4 cm, they can be dived into separate pots.
Now, in detail about how to plant a pomegranate from a cutting at home:
Cuttings should be planted in warm soil, the temperature of which is not lower than + 12 ° C. If all the conditions have been met, after about a month the cuttings will begin to take root - this will become noticeable by the growth of the bud, and in another month the seedlings can be transplanted.
Pomegranate is a southern plant, so growing it in the garden only makes sense if you live in a region with a subtropical climate, on the seaside or in the steppe area. Of course, there are relatively winter-hardy varieties that can grow and bear fruit not only in the subtropics, but all the same, if the winter temperature has indicators with a minus sign, then the pomegranate growing in the garden will require maximum efforts and worries from the gardener.
The pomegranate tree is not demanding on the composition of the soil. In nature, it grows successfully on stones, poor, even saline sandy soil. In addition, an adult plant is very drought tolerant.
To make the pomegranate planted in the garden feel comfortable, you need to try to create conditions close to natural ones: prepare loose soil with good drainage, plant it in a sunny place, water it from time to time. Sun exposure is essential for large and sweet fruits.
A planting hole for a pomegranate is dug and prepared in the same way as for other fruit trees. The average size of the pit is 60x70 cm with a depth of at least 50 cm. But these parameters are individual for each tree, since they depend on the size of the seedling rhizome. A layer of fertilizers (humus, compost) is laid at the bottom of the pit (about a quarter), sprinkled with a layer of earth. Next, a seedling is placed in the pit, the roots are straightened, and carefully covered with earth, slightly shaking the tree so that voids do not form in the soil. In conclusion, the seedling is well watered, if desired, the trunk circle is mulched.
As already mentioned, the main thing for a grenade is good illumination and warmth. The tree begins to dissolve its leaves in the spring at a temperature of + 12 ° C, and at the same temperature in the fall it begins to shed them and prepare for rest. Flowering begins at a temperature of + 18 ° C, and the fruits ripen within 5-6 months, depending on the variety, by the end of October - mid-November. You need to understand that if snow already falls in your region in November, then you should not experiment, since the pomegranate grown in such conditions will still not bear fruit.
Growing in dry climates, the tree needs watering, especially during the period of flowering and ovary formation. If the blooming pomegranate does not have enough moisture, the flowers may crumble. The same thing happens with the ovary. During the ripening of the fruits, watering is reduced, since excess moisture can lead to cracking of the peel. As for low temperatures, spring frosts are not terrible for the pomegranate tree, since the pomegranate blooms rather late, but the autumn frosts can cause significant harm to the culture, therefore, in our latitudes, pomegranates need to be thoroughly covered for the winter, and not only the roots, but also the crown of the tree ...
An adult fruiting pomegranate, the care of which involves the application of fertilizers, is responsive to mineral and organic fertilizing. At the beginning of summer, the tree should be fed with a complex mineral mixture, and during the summer it is recommended to apply liquid chicken droppings by watering every two weeks. In the fall, before wintering, potash and phosphorus fertilizers (superphosphate, potassium salt) are scattered around the tree, and the trunk circle is covered with a layer of humus.
Crown formation is a mandatory step in caring for both home and garden pomegranates. Scheduled pruning is carried out once in the spring, or after harvesting. First of all, damaged, dried branches, as well as small ones, leading to thickening of the tree, are completely cut out. Then you should remove all root shoots, shoots formed on the trunk.
For good fruiting, it is recommended to leave 5-6 main shoots on the tree. With this shape, the bush is easier to cover for the winter. Like any fruit tree, pomegranate ages, so every 20-25 years it needs a thorough rejuvenating pruning.
Growing a pomegranate at home is a very pleasant process in all respects. Observing how a rapidly growing bush is densely covered with bright orange-red flowers, from which miniature fruits are then formed, gives pleasure not only to the grower, but also to all household members. In addition, taking care of an indoor pomegranate is not difficult at all.
Its main requirement is good illumination and a temperature not lower than + 20 ° C, therefore it is better to put a pot with a tree on the windowsill on the south side. And the rest of home care consists of the following activities:
Pomegranate is not very susceptible to diseases or pests, but since the neighborhood with other fruit crops always carries the threat of infection, then every spring, in order to prevent it, it should be treated with a solution of a complex insecticide, for example, Bordeaux liquid. This drug will protect pomegranate from fungal diseases (gray rot, leaf spot), and will also serve as a prophylaxis against aphids and spider mites.
If these pests still attacked the tree, then you can get rid of them with the help of tobacco dust or a decoction of tobacco (400 g / 10 L of water, insist 2 days), as well as a decoction of walnut leaves (50 g of leaves / 1 L of water, insist for a day ). The most dangerous enemy of the pomegranate is the pomegranate moth. These are caterpillars, crawling inside the fruit and eating unripe seeds, which leads to the dropping of the ovary and the death of the crop. To avoid the spread of moths, you need to regularly inspect the tree, immediately remove and burn diseased parts of the plant.
From the video you will learn how to care for a pomegranate.
Many southern plants that produce tasty fruits can be successfully grown indoors. These include the pomegranate cultivated in subtropical and tropical areas. The dwarf tree will serve as a decoration for the house during flowering and will give unusually healthy fruits.
The cultivation of fruit plants of southern origin requires special preparation. For many years, flower growers have been distributing Dwarf, Ordinary pomegranates of various varieties. Homemade specimens take root well, delight with fragrant delicate flowers, small fruits. Growing a plant will require patience, knowledge in this difficult process.
This plant is simple and not demanding to care for, and feels good in our apartments. Every florist who loves indoor plants (dwarf pomegranate) with pleasure will take care of the pomegranate. I offer my tips for caring for this plant.
Secrets of indoor pomegranate care
Since this plant is not capricious, in the summer it can be transplanted temporarily into a garden, a flower garden, as a decoration. The plant loves shaded areas, direct sunlight can harm the plants. Burns may appear on the leaves. A good place for indoor pomegranate is the west side of the garden under the trees.
The plant loves abundant watering and spraying, and of course light fertilization (nitrogen fertilization), in the spring. This is due to the fact that the plant, after winter, begins to grow, so that the foliage is thicker and brighter, abundant flowering, fertilizer can be picked up in flower shops for indoor plants. In the summer, the plant needs phosphorus fertilizers in order for the bud ovary to form and the plant to start blooming.
If the indoor pomegranate rarely and weakly blooms, this may be due to unfavorable conditions and improper care. It is necessary to immediately change the care regimen and provide the plant with an optimal location, reduce watering or increase air humidity. In the autumn period, it is necessary to feed the plant with potassium to prepare the plant for winter. Also, in between, I feed with a complex mineral fertilizer.
If you cannot plant a plant in a garden or front garden, then you need to create conditions close to garden ones for the indoor pomegranate: fresh air, heat from the sun, abundant watering and spraying - this can be a balcony or loggia. Indoor pomegranate, preparing for winter, changes its appearance and sheds foliage. This is normal and should not be scared.
For the wintering of the plant, it is necessary to choose a cool place, since the pomegranate is very fond of fresh air, a loggia or balcony is suitable for this, but drafts and low freezing temperatures must be avoided. In winter, reduce the number of waterings to a minimum of once every 10 days after. Many gardeners advise watering the pomegranate at least once a month. This tip is only suitable for mature plants, and young pomegranates should be watered more frequently.
To form a beautiful bush, you need to properly prune it. Florists cut off the branches that grow inside the bush, dry and fattening shoots. The best times to prune bushes are during spring and autumn.
Do you need a transplant?
To get a beautiful full-fledged indoor pomegranate bush, you do not need to touch it for 3 years. Young shoots can be replanted every year in spring. During the year, the soil in pots becomes poorer in minerals, for this it is necessary to replace the soil. The soil is chernozemic, soddy. Do not forget about drainage, its presence saves plants from root rot.
Breeding secrets of indoor pomegranate
You can grow pomegranates by cuttings and seeds, but it is best to grow from seeds, for this you must follow a number of rules. First: fresh seeds, best taken from the pomegranate fruit. These are small grains, not seeds. Soak the seeds in a solution of stimulants, then sow the seeds in pots, cover with foil. As soon as you notice the first shoots, remove the plastic and place the pot in a warm, sunny place. We plant young sprouts in separate pots.
If you decide to propagate the pomegranate by cuttings, then the cuttings should be taken only from the fruiting branch. Otherwise, the plant will actively bloom, but do not set the fruit.
But there is another secret of this plant that few people know about. The pomegranate has two types of flowers: male and female. They can be easily guessed. Male flowers are "thin" at the base and quickly fall off after flowering. Females at the base are more thickened and after flowering begin to round up. Please note that usually the fruits are tied on the longest branches.
Indoor pomegranate is a very common plant used for bonsai. Pomegranate is easy to form a bush and legends in any shape. If you do not want to use it for bonsai, to grow the perfect shrub, pruning and pinching at an early stage of development is a must. Florists believe that the plant blooms only after a year, but this is not so - with good care, pomegranates bloom in the first year.
Small pomegranate sprouts need to provide a temperature within + 20 ... + 25 degrees and daylight hours for at least ten full hours. It is best to additionally illuminate the plants with a phytolamp, then they will develop faster.
Keep an eye on the humidity in the room where the plants are, use a humidifier. Remember to spray your seedlings at least once every two days. Watering young shoots sparingly, as the soil dries
Future trees are planted when two or three pairs of leaves appear on them. At the same time, all weak and small plants are removed. A month after picking, the tops of the pomegranates are shortened by ⅓ of the length. As a result of this event, the roots grow better and more actively capture the space of the pot.
Pomegranate takes root in almost any land, but for the plant to be strong and develop quickly, one of three options should be used. The easiest way is to buy a special substrate designed for indoor flowers. It contains many nutrients, is quite loose and breathable.
The second version of the soil is prepared from peat and coarse river sand, which is pre-calcined or doused with boiling water in order to disinfect. Take the components in equal proportions, mix thoroughly and fill the pot with the mixture.
If peat is not at hand, it is replaced with turf soil and humus. Combine the ingredients and insist for several days, and add river sand before planting the pomegranate seeds. The last component will make the soil looser and softer, and humus will become a source of minerals.
Regardless of the composition of the substrate, you need to put a drainage layer in the pot. If it is absent, water constantly stagnates at the bottom of the container, the roots of the tree rot, and it suffers from a fungus. Expanded clay or small pebbles, pieces of polystyrene or crushed clay shards are suitable.
Tip: If the soil dries out quickly or compresses too much, it should be replaced with new soil, to which pine or other sawdust is added.
Forming a pomegranate at home is much easier. Indoor varieties are smaller and easier to work with. Pruning, like a garden pomegranate, has the same goals: formative and sanitary.
For a stationary grenade, trimming timing does not play a special role. The plant is in a constant temperature regime. The event can be held before budding or after harvesting the fruits. In winter, the biological cycle slows down, the pomegranate is not touched, if the plant is sick or pests have appeared, sanitary pruning is carried out without meeting the deadlines.
Indoor pomegranate without crown formation grows with one trunk, stretches up to 1.5 meters in height and has no decorative appearance. Fruits on such a tree will have to wait for more than one year, and there is no guarantee that the culture will bloom.
Homemade pomegranate pruning is carried out as follows:
The advice of professional gardeners will help you grow an exotic pomegranate tree yourself at home.
The tree will bloom only when its root system is fully formed. Excessive root growth inhibits the flowering process.
The pomegranate is very beautiful. On it you can see unblown buds, flowers and ripening fruits at the same time. In order to grow a tree from a cutting, it is necessary to prepare the soil for planting, prepare the seedling and root the seedling, provide it with the conditions: warmth, moderate humidity, good lighting, additional nutrition.