Gardeners appreciate gooseberries for their abundant harvests, easy care, undemanding soil fertility and warmth, delicious dietary berries.
For its high content of vitamins and minerals, it is called the northern grape. With proper care, the shrub bears fruit up to fifteen, in especially favorable conditions - up to thirty years. The yield reaches twenty-five kilograms per plant.
In this article, we will just talk about how to care for gooseberries in August and September, and also learn how to grow bushes in the country.
Caring for the prickly berry during the season includes:
Work should be started by choosing a landing site. Sunny, sheltered areas are preferred. Gooseberries are not picky about soil fertility. Does not tolerate waterlogged lowlands. You should choose places where groundwater does not come closer than one, or better - one and a half meters to the surface.
Excessively light, heavy, acidified soils will have to be cultivated first. When planting, it is necessary to fertilize, remove dry and damaged roots, shorten the shoots on the seedling. Deepen the root collar about three to five centimeters lower than the bush grew in the nursery. It is better to plant in the fall before the onset of frost. Autumn plantings take root better than spring plantings.
When planting, the distance between the bushes should be at least 1.4 - 2 meters, between the rows - up to 2.5.
The first pruning is done immediately after planting the seedling. The shoots are shortened, two or three buds are kept on each. A year later, several strong one-year-olds ready for wintering are formed from them.
Sanitary trimming is done regularly. Broken, diseased, damaged creeping, intertwined shoots are removed. In the fall, shaping pruning is carried out.
Some varieties of gooseberries, as well as specimens growing in particularly favorable conditions, give abundant root growth. There is a risk of thickening. In these cases, the excess shoots are carefully removed.
Pinching annual shoots helps to bring the beginning of fruiting, increase the number of berries and accelerate ripening. This will increase the frost resistance of the buds and branches.
Gooseberries do not tolerate stagnant moisture in the soil. Therefore, it cannot be planted in lowlands, where spring lingers for a long time, or groundwater is high. At the same time, the berry needs regular and abundant watering. In the first year of plant life, such a measure ensures the active growth of strong shoots.
In the future, a sufficient amount of moisture contributes to a larger yield of large tasty berries. Under young bushes, you need to pour ten to twenty liters of water weekly, under adults - twice as much.
If it is not possible to water the gooseberries every few days, you can use a different scheme. Shed abundantly after flowering during the period of growth of berries and shoots, then - when the ovary appears, in the fall, perform water-charging watering to create conditions for the growth of the root system and prepare the plants for overwintering. Pour at least five buckets of water under the bush each time.
To avoid erosion of the soil and stagnation of liquid at the root collar, a groove is arranged along the perimeter of the crown. The drip method has proven itself well: the liquid consumption decreases, the efficiency increases. Mulch helps to significantly reduce the frequency of watering.
Gooseberries tolerate short dry periods well. But prolonged drying will lead to a decrease in the number of berries, it happens, for more than one season. Therefore, it is important to maintain a soil moisture level of at least 70 percent.
Water should be watered evenly and regularly during fruit ripening. Otherwise, the berries may crack.
The absence of weeds is an important condition for the cultivation of gooseberries. You need to remove all the grass under the bushes and in the aisles, preferably by hand, especially carefully - creeping wheatgrass. The task is complicated by the thorniness of most varieties and the fact that the fibrous root growing in breadth shallow from the surface of the earth is easily damaged.
Mulching, among others, helps to solve this problem. Some gardeners use roofing rings made of roofing material or industrially made from modern materials. Such shelters do not allow light to pass through, and the growth of grass under them is inhibited.
It is not recommended to use herbicides on personal plots to combat weeds in berry plantings. There is a danger of the accumulation of the chemical in the soil under the berry bushes with regular treatment over several years.
During the growing season, gooseberries should be carefully inspected regularly (ideally daily) to notice the first signs of pests or diseases. If detected, it is required to immediately take measures to suppress the lesion.
Chemical treatments are excluded during the flowering of the plant and the ripening of the berries. Prophylaxis of problems should be carried out in a timely manner, in the spring before the buds open, or in the fall after leaf fall.
More often than other harmful insects, gooseberries are inhabited by:
To combat them, apply:
Folk remedies are used:
It is useful to add a small amount of soap solution to the indicated preparations and to the ash infusion.
If, despite the measures taken, the pests have not disappeared, you can repeat the treatment after flowering (except for boiling water).
Among some gardeners, there is an opinion that diseased bushes need to be uprooted and replaced with new ones, choosing modern, disease-resistant varieties.
Spheroteka (powdery mildew). Fungus. Processing should begin immediately after the first signs of white bloom are found. Apply: Bordeaux mixture, sodium bicarbonate solution (5 g per 1 l of water), ash infusion or soda ash solution (50 g per 10 l of water). To prevent the problem, in the spring and closer to autumn, spray with the drug "Karatan" or analogs. Immediately after flowering, twice, with an interval of eight to ten days, are treated with infusion of cow dung.
Septoria (white spot). Brown plaques appear first. The affected leaves must be removed and burned immediately. Treat the bushes with a boric acid solution. For prevention, loosen, add copper sulfate to the soil.
Goblet rust. The first symptoms are orange spots on the leaves. For treatment, treat after flowering with Bordeaux liquid. For prevention in the spring, shed the soil with a solution of potassium permanganate.
Gooseberry anthracnose. Brown-brown tubercles on the leaves. Treatment: spray the bush with a solution of copper sulfate, the ground under it - with a solution of boric acid, Bordeaux or zinc liquid.
For mechanical protection, trunks made of roofing material, for example, have proven themselves well. Placed under a bush, they prevent pests from entering the soil.
The berry is responsive to systematic, but not excessive feeding. In early spring, nitrogen fertilizers are applied in the form of a solution: 50 grams of ammonium nitrate or urea at the rate of 20-30g per square meter of planting (about 60g under a bush).
They practice scattering granules under bushes in the snow at the very beginning of melting: nutrients, gradually dissolving, are delivered to the roots by melt water.
Potash, phosphorus and organic fertilizers are left for the fall.
Some gardeners recommend adding organic matter in the spring or early summer. However, scientists - agronomists believe that feeding gooseberries with organic fertilizers is advisable in the fall once every two years.
The surface of the earth must be kept loose. Under the crown, periodically gently loosen to a depth of three to five cm, if necessary, simultaneously covering fertilizers and removing weeds.
Mature compost, humus, dry fallen leaves and grass, rotted peat are used as mulch. Cover the space under the bush with a layer of at least 5 cm. Mulch retains moisture, structures the soil well, stimulates an increase in the amount of organic matter, slows down the growth of weeds.
Late summer and fall lays the foundation for plant health and the next harvest. You should start immediately after picking the berries, and before the onset of frost you should have time:
Immediately after removing the fruits, the gooseberries are carefully weeded, removing grass, weed roots, accumulated sticks, twigs and other debris from under it. Fallen leaves are immediately burned to avoid overwintering of pathogens in them.
About a month before the arrival of frost, it is important to carry out the so-called water-charging irrigation. Each bush will require at least 50-60 liters of water, you can pour it in two or three stages. The supply of liquid will allow the gooseberry to endure cold weather, resist diseases, and form fruit and vegetative buds.
At the end of the harvest, the gooseberries are fed with superphosphate (up to 50g) and potassium chloride (up to 30g). One liter of ash can be added as potash fertilizer. Phosphate fertilizers increase yields. Potash plants provide drought resistance, frost resistance, increase immunity to fungal diseases.
In the fall, each bush is "fed" with organic fertilizers:
On acidic soils, additional lime, chalk or dolomite flour is required.
Reference. Fertilizer rates should be increased if the soil on the site is neutral or slightly alkaline.
Every year, at the end of autumn (before the first frost), formative and rejuvenating pruning is carried out. An annual plant leaves three to five strong, developed shoots. Choose well-positioned ones to lay the correct bottom of the shrub. The rest are cut flush with the soil surface. The next three to four years also leave some of the most successful gains, the rest are removed. A properly formed adult plant consists of five to six stems of each age (annuals, biennials, and so on).
The largest number of fruits, as a rule, ripens on two to four year old branches. Anything older than five or six years old does not make sense to leave. It is not difficult to distinguish the "oldies", they are the darkest and largest. Preserve four to five of the strongest annual basal shoots, remove about the same number of old frame branches and all diseased ones. Pruning is done as close to the ground as possible. Powerful, developed branches on old branches can be preserved by cutting off only the unusable parts.
Gooseberry bushes thin out if necessary. Thickened ones are less productive: too little light penetrates inside, there are no ovaries, a fungus settles. Fruit buds are actively forming and developing on well-lit branches.
The old curtain can be rejuvenated. For this, in late autumn, in the ninth or tenth year of life, all branches are cut off, except for strong zero growth. The land is thoroughly fertilized, loosening is performed. Gooseberries tolerate this procedure well.
Before sub-zero temperatures are established, the soil around the gooseberries should be carefully but carefully loosened. Depending on the density of the soil, it is "fluffed" with a pitchfork or dug with a shovel. Over the entire area of the berry, the soil is dug up by 18 - 20 cm, under the crowns - by 5-6 cm. At the same time, autumn fertilizers are covered. Small lumps of earth do not need to be broken.
Pre-winter digging should not be neglected also because it makes it difficult for pests and pathogens of berry sores to winter in the soil. And growing gooseberries outdoors for the next year becomes easier.
When there are no berries left on the bushes, you can take intensive measures to save diseased plants, treat them with appropriate fungicides and insecticides. If the lesions have become irreversible, the bush will have to be sacrificed, dug up and burned. This loss will probably save the rest of the copies.
In the fall, they must carry out preventive procedures to prevent diseases and the spread of pests. For this, the shrub and the soil under it are carefully treated with Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate and a solution of the Inta-vir preparation.
As a rule, adult berry growers tolerate winter well. Young, weakened plants, representatives of heat-loving varieties and gooseberries, "living" in cold climatic zones, need help.
After carrying out all the autumn planting work, the planting should be mulched: cover the surface of the earth under the bushes and in the aisles with a 10-centimeter layer of natural protective material - rotted manure, ripened humus, peat, sawdust, small branches. In winter, warmth is kept under such a litter, and organic processes continue. In the northern regions, you can additionally add dry soil to the base of the bush, cover the embankment with agrospan. With the onset of positive temperatures, it is necessary to remove the entire insulating layer so that the soil warms up in time and the bush comes out of dormancy.
In areas of severe winter (in the North in Siberia, in the Urals), as well as in gardens with southern varieties and cold winters with little snow, gooseberry branches are neatly bent to the ground, fixed with flyers or planks. From above, they are covered with pine or fir spruce branches, additionally covered with snow. The needles not only trap snow, create an additional "fur coat", but also serve as an antiseptic, scaring off rodents and pests. A cover of snow will reliably cover and protect from the cold.
For additional snow retention and protection from cold winds, hedges and barriers are created.
Gooseberry is a popular, high-yielding and highly responsive crop. It is not that difficult to grow her. The factors of a bountiful harvest are correctly selected zoned varieties resistant to damage, their varied assortment in the garden, competent year-round care. Timely and correctly carried out work will save the efforts of the gardener and extend the life of the berry shrub.
The garden long-liver - gooseberry - will delight lovers of delicious berries for decades.
Early gooseberries ripen in early June, mid-ripening - in mid or late July, late - in August. To keep the plant healthy and productive, summer residents take care of it not only before picking berries, but also after. Care procedures - watering, pruning, weeding, protection from diseases and pests - make the shrub stronger and prepare it for winter. If you neglect them, next year the yield will decrease, the shoots will grow more slowly. Let's consider in detail what to do with gooseberries after picking berries and what agrotechnical procedures to pay special attention to.
When the gooseberry has been picked, the bush is pruned. It is in the fall that this procedure is easiest to perform, since the harvest has already been harvested and the leaves have all fallen off.
You can give the plant the desired shape in several steps. Such preparation of the gooseberry for winter will rejuvenate the bush and rid it of old shoots. Plants at the age of 4–6 years have the highest productivity.
By removing unnecessary branches, thickening of the bush is prevented. After cutting the shoots, the cut sites are processed with garden pitch.
You need to cut the bush in the first year after planting. At this time, the shortening of the shoots is performed. Further, within 4–5 years, formative pruning is carried out.
The bush should consist of 4-5 of the healthiest and strongest shoots. All others are deleted. The remaining branches need to be shortened, since the unripe tops can freeze slightly in winter. This is the sin of shoots at the age of 4–5 years. Also, old branches are removed, which acquire a dark color and are characterized by a large number of forks and branches.
If you cut the gooseberries correctly in the fall, then the next season the plant will receive enough heat, light and nutrients to form tasty and large berries. Manicured bushes are easier to harvest than overgrown ones.
The gooseberry is one of the most drought-resistant berry bushes, however, in dry summers, the gooseberry growing on light soils needs watering, and not only during the ripening of the berries, but also after harvest, when the plants begin to prepare for winter and lay the buds for the next fruiting.
In order to saturate the soil with moisture and prepare the bush for winter, from the end of September to mid-October, water-charging irrigation is carried out in two or three doses. The rate of water consumption is from 40 to 60 liters for each bush. The depth of soaking of the soil should be at least 50 cm - it is at this depth that the roots of the gooseberry lie. The methods of watering gooseberries are the same as for currants.
Gooseberry care involves the regular introduction of mineral and organic fertilizers into the soil. Fertilization of the gooseberry with nitrogen and organic matter after the fruiting of the gooseberry is completed is not carried out, and phosphorus and potash fertilizers are applied to the soil once every two years in the fall - this increases the winter hardiness of the plant. The approximate fertilizer rate for each square meter of the plot is 50 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium, which can be replaced with 100 g of ash.
If the soil on the site is sandy or sandy loam, the dose of potassium should be increased by a quarter of the norm. Fertilizers are scattered over the site and, after watering, are embedded in the soil to a depth of 10-12 cm.
Gooseberry cultivation is complicated by the fact that it produces a huge number of young thorny shoots every year, making it difficult to pick berries and care for gooseberries after harvest. Therefore, in the spring, and especially in the fall, it is so important to prune the bushes, freeing them from unnecessary, sick, dried and broken shoots. Moreover, not only prickly, but also thornless gooseberry varieties are cut off, since strong thickening harms any shrub, and too many shoots weakens the plant and leads to disease or damage to the bush by insect pests. Autumn pruning allows you to thin out the gooseberries so that the sunlight necessary for the plant penetrates into the very depths of the bush.
You need to prune gooseberries in the middle of autumn, because with earlier pruning during the autumn thaws, shoots that do not have time to woody before winter can grow. Thin twigs are cut almost to the base, since there will be no fruit on them, and they only waste food from well-bearing shoots. Remove old, darkened branches that are unlikely to bear fruit next year due to age. If there are too many such branches on the bush, remove only a third of them, and cut the rest after a year or two.
Before the very frost, cut off those branches that interfere with the growth of others, leaving younger ones on the bush, and also remove the lower branches lying on the ground. Treat slices thicker than 7 mm with garden pitch. When pruning branches, try not to leave stumps.
In October, it is time for gooseberry propagation by layering. On a healthy five to six-year-old bush, select a few low-growing, well-developed branches, shorten the annual growth by about a third of the length on them - this measure promotes more intensive germination of lateral buds, which in turn stimulates good root development and shoot growth. Bend the prepared layers to the ground, lay them in the pre-dug grooves and pin them with wire or wooden hooks. Then cover the layers with earth, water and mulch the soil around. You can, of course, propagate gooseberries by layering in the spring, but you need to start early, before bud break.
In autumn, gooseberries can be propagated by cuttings. Lignified cuttings 20 cm long are cut from the top of the overgrown or basal shoots - they root better. Gooseberry cuttings are planted in the beds at an angle of 45 º, leaving one or two buds above the surface, compact the soil around them, mulch the bed with peat or sawdust and cover with foil.
Gooseberry pests and diseases can jeopardize both the quality and quantity of the future berry harvest. It is customary to deal with these problems as soon as they appear, but it is better to avoid the emergence of these problems. That is why it is necessary to treat gooseberry bushes with fungicides and insecticides several times during the growing season for preventive purposes.
In the fall, after harvesting and digging the site, as well as trimming the gooseberry, remove and burn all plant residues, and then process the bushes and the soil under them with one percent Bordeaux liquid or preparations of a similar action - copper chloride, captan.
After picking the berries, the gooseberries must be fed so that they can form healthy and strong buds for the next season. In contrast to early spring, when gooseberries are fertilized with organic matter, mineral compositions with a high phosphorus content are used after harvest. Plants are watered with a superphosphate solution at the rate of one tablespoon of the substance per bucket of water. If necessary, add wood ash, which helps fight aphids and reduces the acidity of the soil.
How to care for gooseberries to get a rich harvest? The necessary care consists not only in agricultural technology, but also in the fight against diseases and pests.
For good development of gooseberries, obtaining a bountiful harvest, it is necessary to carry out the basic care procedures:
Gooseberry care begins with soil preparation. The shrub loves well-dug, loosened soil. If the soil is dense, then digging with a shovel is necessary. It is enough to fluff loose soil with a pitchfork. Due to the close location of the roots to the soil surface, loosening is carried out to a depth of about 7 cm. Outside the crown perimeter, deeper loosening can be carried out.
The elimination of weeds is of great importance, since they provoke the formation of dampness, the occurrence of diseases. The soil layer is dug up in autumn, spring and 3-4 loosening is carried out during the summer.
Top dressing of gooseberries is done in accordance with the fertility of the soil. Poor soils require annual fertilization, cultivated ones - it is enough to fertilize once every two years. Fertile soils are enough once every three years.
Top dressing must be done correctly: immediately after fruiting, it is necessary to add about 20 g of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus under each of the bushes, you can add 200 g of ash. This is done once a season. Fertilizers with nitrogen are applied in the first year after planting, about 15–20 g per square meter, with a subsequent increase in the dose to 25 g.
Potash, phosphorus fertilizers are applied in spring, as well as after harvest. One bush requires up to 30 g of potassium sulfate, up to 80 g of superphosphate. Potash fertilizers should be given special attention. Ash also helps protect shrubs from pests and powdery mildew.
From August to September, phosphorus and potassium are introduced into the soil, and chalk and dolomite flour are added for acidic soils. Sulfur and chlorine must be used with caution, as gooseberries can shed their foliage.
Therefore, you should not use them also when destroying pests. In the second decade of August, it is necessary to stop using nitrogen fertilizers in order to avoid a decrease in the plant's resistance to frost.
How to feed gooseberries in the summer? It is good to use organic fertilizers. Bird droppings or mullein are placed in a container, filling it by a quarter, and added with water. After three days of infusion, you can start feeding. The resulting mullein solution should be diluted with water 4 or 5 times, and bird droppings - 10 times. Fertilize the space between the bushes, as well as around them. A bucket will be enough for each bush.
Gooseberries tolerate insufficient moisture more easily than other berry crops. Normal soil moisture for it is up to 75%. Watering should be done in grooves and furrows up to 15 cm deep.
If it is a dry period, the first watering should be carried out immediately after flowering, around the first decade of May. The time of the second watering is the second decade of June, when the berries ripen. The next watering should be done as needed.
Gooseberry care in the fall includes mandatory watering from late September to mid-October. In this case, it is recommended to apply mineral fertilizers of 150 g and 5 kg of compost. On average, about 5 or more irrigations are done during the growing season. In this case, the water consumption is up to 50 liters per one bush.
Pruning is done before bud break or after foliage has fallen. During the first years, with the help of pruning, the base of the bushes is formed. Skeletal branches are cut in half, cutting off most of the root growth.
The bulk of the crop is concentrated on three- and six-year-old shoots. Therefore, in the fourth year, you can safely rid the bushes of older branches.
It is necessary to thin out the thickening by cutting off diseased, dried out branches.
It is necessary to carry out pest and disease control in a timely manner. Many of them can not only destroy the crop, but also destroy the bush itself. The most dangerous enemies of the gooseberry:
The bush must be thinned out if it has grown a lot. Better to do this in the fall. But sometimes, it's not even about pruning. Gooseberries are very strongly affected by powdery mildew: the berries are covered with a black film. This makes the fruits of the next year's harvest small. To avoid this, spray the bushes in the fall with a Bordeaux mixture and feed the gooseberries with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. Then no fungal diseases are afraid of him. Remember that it is impossible to deeply loosen the plant's near-stem circle, as thin roots are damaged. If this happens, the bush may partially, and sometimes completely, dry out.
In the summer, immediately after harvesting, a second pruning is carried out - old branches are removed, on which there were either no berries at all, or very few. Of the shoots that have grown at the base of the bush, 4–5 of the strongest are left, and the rest are cut out so as not to thicken the plant. The ends affected by powdery mildew are cut off to a healthy kidney. And for the future. Every summer, in late July - early August, it is necessary to pinch annual growths. This simple operation significantly increases the yield and the berries grow larger!
No gooseberry manure, I experimented for 3 years in a row, the slightest organic matter and hello MR, only mineral fertilizing!
The gooseberries must be trimmed. Pruning is one of the main steps in caring for this shrub and ensuring you always get a good harvest. Cut the gooseberries in the fall. Also, from the second year, phosphorus, potash and organic fertilizers should be applied.
Cuttings take root better if they are covered with a five-liter bottle with a cut-off bottom and without a lid or with a 1.5 liter plastic bottle. Better yet, stick it in a pot with fertile soil, cover with a bottle and into the shade. And it is better to do this in spring or early summer.
Timely and competent agrotechnical care measures carried out after picking berries will help to preserve the healthy and blooming appearance of gooseberry bushes, as well as to ensure their full-fledged abundant fruiting in the next season.