Euro-Premium® - complete regular and functional dry food of the super-premium class of the Belgian company Beduco, founded in 1983 and having representatives in more than 60 countries of the world. Beduco is part of the Depre Group, which has been producing feed since 1947. Perfect quality Euro • Premium® is based on many years of experience and cooperation of veterinarians and nutritionists with the Royal Veterinary University of Ghent (Belgium).
Advanced production in one of the most modern factories in the world with the latest generation of high-tech equipment ensures optimal heat treatment of feed while retaining all the necessary nutrients. Euro • Premium ® feeds are developed taking into account the ratio of OVN (Optimum Vitamine Nutrition) - an index of concentration and balance of vitamins, minerals, oligoelements, optimally adapted to the physiology of the animal, the level of its activity, as well as to specific needs.
Two lines of Euro-Premium® feed:
Regular feed Original - meeting the daily needs of dogs of all breeds and ages.
Functional foods Functional - solution and prevention of various problems, meeting specific needs.
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Euro-Premium ® Functional - functional food that meets the daily needs of dogs of all breeds and ages, helping to prevent or solve the most common problems such as sensitive digestion and gastrointestinal diseases, allergies and coat and skin problems, overweight in aging and / or spayed dogs, providing healthy functioning of all body systems.
The feed line includes rations with exclusive protein sources (venison, salmon). 100% natural ingredients of the highest quality without GMOs, chemical dyes and flavors in the feed. The optimal vitamin composition, prebiotics and selenium as an antioxidant strengthen the immune system, maintain an optimal metabolism for proper growth and development, and maintaining shape.
Fructo-oligosaccharides and natural fiber ensure stable functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and maximize feed absorption. Mannanoligosaccharides contribute to the maintenance of beneficial microflora, preventing the attachment of pathogenic microorganisms to the intestinal mucosa, stimulating the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Fatty acids Omega-3 and Omega-6 in the right ratio provide the animal with healthy skin and coat, effective brain and nervous system functioning, and prevent cardiovascular diseases. Natural antioxidants slow down the aging process, increase endurance, and protect the body from harmful environmental influences.
Wheat gluten-free diets reduce the risk of allergic reactions, gastrointestinal and central nervous system disorders.
Medium puppy Medium puppy
Balanced energy levels for optimal development and growth of puppies and meeting the energy needs of pregnant and lactating bitches.
The right balance of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids ensures healthy skin and a shiny coat. Optimal balance of calcium and phosphorus for proper development and growth. Soy Free, Wheat Free, Gluten Free.
Medium puppy digestion + / Medium puppy digestion plus
Complete high quality super premium food specially formulated for puppies with sensitive digestion and allergies
The unique combination of high quality ingredients - deer meat and rice - significantly reduces the risk of digestive problems and food intolerances.
Medium puppy derma + / Medium puppy derma plus
Complete high quality super premium food specially formulated for puppies with sensitive skin and coat
Based on a unique combination of salmon and potatoes, which significantly reduces the risk of allergic reactions.
Medium adult Medium adult
Thanks to the content of fructo- and mannanoligosaccharides, it supports healthy digestion. Green tea extract, rosemary and beta-carotene strengthen the immune system. An ideal balance of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids with optimal levels of zinc and biotin supports skin health, coat shine and immunity. Soy Free, Wheat Free, Gluten Free.
Medium adult digestion + / Medium adult digestion plus
Complete high quality super premium food specially formulated for dogs with sensitive digestion and allergies
The combination of high quality ingredients - deer meat and rice - significantly reduces the risk of digestive problems and food intolerances.
Medium adult derma + / Medium adult derma plus
Complete high quality super premium food specially formulated for dogs with sensitive skin
Using salmon and potatoes as main ingredients significantly reduces the risk of allergic reactions.
Medium adult no grain / Medium adult no grain
Complete high quality super premium food for adult dogs with cereal intolerance
Based on chicken meat. Soy & Grain Free - Eliminates the risk of allergic reactions in gluten sensitive dogs. Optimally selected natural high-quality ingredients ensure optimal digestion and superior taste.
Medium adult light
Complete high quality super premium food for sedentary and obese dogs
Based on chicken meat. The lightweight formula has an excellent taste due to carefully selected high quality ingredients. Faster feeling of fullness. An easily digestible formula fortified with L-Carnitine helps your dog maintain ideal weight.
Medium adult sterilized
Complete high quality super premium food for neutered / neutered dogs
Based on chicken meat. Contains fewer calories due to reduced fat content. Enriched with dietary fiber, which easily binds to water, providing a quick feeling of fullness and helping to regulate the activity of the gastrointestinal tract.
For best results, it is not recommended to mix this feed with other feed or food.
Large adult high energy / Large adult high energy
Complete high-quality super-premium food for adult dogs with an active lifestyle, pregnant and lactating bitches, as well as dogs in postoperative recovery.
Sources of energy - chicken and rice - keep the dog in top shape at all times. Chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine to support joint health. The correct balance of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids contributes to the maintenance of healthy skin and coat. Increased content of vitamins C and E to strengthen the immune system.
Small puppy digestion + / Small puppy digestion plus
A complete, high quality super premium food specially formulated for puppies with sensitive digestion and allergies.
High energy levels for optimal development and growth of puppies and meeting the energy needs of pregnant and lactating bitches. The unique combination of high quality ingredients - deer meat and rice - significantly reduces the risk of digestive problems and food intolerances. Optimum sized pellets are easily chewed by small dogs. The perfect balance of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids guarantees healthy skin and a shiny coat.
Small adult derma + / Small adult derma plus
Complete high quality super premium food specially formulated for small breed dogs with sensitive skin and coat
Using salmon and potatoes as main ingredients significantly reduces the risk of allergic reactions. An ideal balance of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids with optimal levels of zinc and biotin supports healthy skin and coat. Soy Free, Wheat Free, Gluten Free.
Adult dog weight <10 kg
Small adult digestion + / Small adult digestion plus
Complete high quality super premium food specially formulated for small breed dogs with sensitive digestion and allergies
The combination of high quality ingredients - deer meat and rice - significantly reduces the risk of digestive problems and food intolerances. Soy Free, Wheat Free, Gluten Free.
Small adult light
Complete high quality super premium food specially formulated for overweight small breed dogs
Based on chicken meat. The formula enriched with L-carnitine allows the animal to maintain an ideal weight. Contains fructo-oligosaccharides for better digestion. The right balance of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids ensures healthy skin and a shiny coat. Contains fewer calories to keep fit during periods of reduced physical activity.
The Belgian Malinois Shepherd is the most sought after of all Belgian Shepherds. This animal stands out for its excellent intellectual abilities and great working capacity. Representatives of the breed "on the shoulder" any business: they will master the profession of a guide and rescuer, become watchmen, guards and police assistants.
Malinois breed of dogs - "perpetual motion machines". For them, sitting on the couch is an unacceptable pastime.
The domestication of a dog dates back to the prehistoric era; naturally, our modern knowledge in this matter is not very complete.
A great contribution to the study of the origin of domestic animals, and in particular dogs, was made by Russian scientists: A. A. Inostrantsev, L. D. Anuchin, E. A. Bogdanov, A. A. Brauner, S. N. Bogolyubsky, N. A. Smirnov and others.
The dog is the first domestic animal domesticated by man at a time when people did not yet know agriculture and cattle breeding and the main means of human existence was hunting. This happened in the first period (Paleolithic), or, as it is also called, the ancient stone age of the Quaternary era.
The ancient stone age of the Quaternary era is characterized by the use of fire, the appearance of the first products of human labor, expressed in the simplest products made of stone and bone, and the domestication of the first domestic animal - a dog - that did not part with a person for 30-40 thousand years and was constantly improving under the influence of labor of many human generations.
The ancestors of all domestic animals, including dogs, are wild animals. This is proved by the similarity of certain species of wild and domestic animals, which is especially noticeable in those breeds that have changed little under the influence of artificial selection. For example, riding huskies of Chukotka, Kolyma, Yenisei in appearance strongly resemble wolves, primitive types of German shepherds differed in similarity to wolves.
At the end of the 17th century, the Russian scientist Kol, describing the dogs of the Novorossiysk Territory, emphasized the amazing similarity of the local shepherd dog to the wolf.
Among the commercial huskies and other small breeds, you can find dogs that are very similar in appearance to jackals. This is confirmed by comparing the bones of wild animals with ancient fossils and modern dogs.
Thus, the work of Professor AA Brauner, who studied modern (1915–1918) dogs of the Kirov region, showed that the skulls of these dogs are very close to the skulls of jackals from Transcaucasia and even from Morocco. Proof of the origin of domestic animals from wild is also their fertility when crossed with each other. Animals that are close to each other in their origin (originating from common or close ancestors) and physiological characteristics of the organism, when crossed with each other, give birth to offspring. A dog and a wolf, a dog and a jackal, when crossed with each other, give normally developing and, in turn, fertile crosses. At the same time, as a result of crossing a dog and a fox, there are no offspring.
All these methods, complementary to each other, allow one to draw certain conclusions that establish the relationship between wild and domestic animals.
Convincing evidence that domestic animals are the descendants of wild animals is the fact that the domestication of wild animals is still being carried out as the need to use their products appears (breeding in nurseries of foxes, polar foxes, raccoon dogs, etc.) ). At the same time, another ability of domestic animals has been noticed - to play wild, that is, to return to a primitive wild state with a prolonged cessation of communication with humans.
The domestication of domestic animals took place in different parts of the world not in the same way, but depending on the form of economic and social relations of human society.
In human history, the domestication of animals is of great importance. Domestic animals greatly facilitated the work of primitive man, helping him on the hunt (dog) or gave a person the opportunity, without spending much effort, to get food such as milk, meat (meat and dairy cattle). Man tamed and raised accidentally caught adult animals or their young, but he raised and improved only those species that were beneficial to him. This is what explains the taming of a dog by a man - a wandering hunter - as his first domestic animal, which helped him on a hunt.
Man's assimilation of more complex tools of production led to a settled life, cattle-breeding and agriculture. During this period, the number of domestic animals increases - sheep, pigs, cattle, horses appear. During this period, the dog improves significantly and helps a person not only in hunting, but also in protecting his home and livestock.
Zoological analysis of the canid family (canids), which unites a significant number of species, shows that wolves and jackals are closest to dogs. Foxes, arctic foxes, hyenas, Brazilian dogs and other animals of this family, despite the similarity in appearance, are not the ancestors of domestic dogs. The latter sharply differ in many anatomical and physiological characteristics and do not produce offspring when mated with the listed animals.
According to archaeological excavations, scientists have established that in the Stone Age in Europe and Asia, there were three types of dogs. The first type is called the "peat dog" (its skull was often found in peat deposits). The skulls and individual skeletal remains of these dogs were found in various regions of Siberia, the European part of the USSR and Western Europe. A description of such finds, found in the Krasnoyarsk region, was given by I.T.Savinkov, and in the Gomel region - V.I.Gromov.
The peat dog had a jackal as its ancestor, as indicated by the similarity of the shape of the skulls and their sizes. Of modern animals, the Nenets Laika and Spitz are obviously the closest to the peat dog. The skulls of these breeds of dogs and peat have much in common and are characterized by a small size (140 mm), a steep line of transition of the cerebral part of the skull into a short and sharp facial one. The occipital protuberance is poorly expressed.
Later, in the pile buildings belonging to people with a more developed culture, the somewhat modified and large skulls of peat dogs found in the area of Lake Ladoga by Professor A.A. Inostrantsev and in the area of Lake Lacha (Northern Territory) by Professor V.E.Koshelev were described. These changes could be due to selection and possibly crossing. In other places, on the contrary, smaller skulls were found, reminiscent of the skulls of modern pinschers and terriers, which can be explained, obviously, by a weakening of the constitution and degeneration.
The descendants of the peat dog are the Nenets, Russian-Finnish and other commercial Laika breeds, as well as Chow-Chow, Spitz, Pinschers and Terriers.
The second type of dog of the Stone Age - "Inostrantsev's dog", the remains of which were found in the area of Lake Ladoga and described by Professor DP Anuchin. The bones of the skeleton of these dogs were also unearthed during the excavation of Mount Afontova near the city of Krasnoyarsk, along with the skulls of mammoths, cave bears and other animals. Skulls close to the Inostrantsev dog type were found on the banks of the Amzf, in the tributaries of the Abakan (Minusinsk region), in Western Kazakhstan, Crimea, Moscow and Smolensk regions.
Professor M.V. Pavlova described the Hunnic dogs of the beginning of our era, found in Transbaikalia and Mongolia. According to the author's definition, these dogs are very close to modern Mongolian shepherds. Various species of large European and Asian wolves are considered the ancestors of the Huns' dog. Inostrantsev's dog is larger than a peat dog, its skull with a flatter forehead and a less pronounced transition to the muzzle, the zygomatic arches and the occipital ridge are well developed. The muzzle is short, wide, with strongly developed jaws and large, wolf-like teeth. Skull length 177 mm. Its domestication is attributed to the end of the Ice Age, that is, approximately 20-30 thousand years ago.
Dog Inostrantsev laid the foundation for large and strong dogs, widespread in Europe and Asia. These dogs were used to guard herds, to hunt large animals and predatory animals, and later as fighting dogs. The descendants of these large dogs are considered Tibetan, Central Asian, Caucasian, Mongolian shepherd dogs, St. Bernards, Newfoundlands, mastiffs, Great Danes, north-eastern sled dogs and some other breeds.
The skull of the third type of Stone Age dogs - "Putyatin's dog" - was found in a single copy in the former Novgorod province and described by Putyatin. The presence of only one skull does not allow any solid conclusions to be drawn. The skull of the Putyatin dog is, in general outline, similar to the skulls of Inostrantsev's dogs, but shorter (169 mm) and narrower in the skull and with a longer muzzle. It is assumed that the ancestor of this dog was a European wolf. The descendants of Putyatin's dogs include modern dingoes and oriental dogs - pariahs, it is possible that some breeds of Laikas are their descendants.
During the Bronze Age, characterized by the emergence of metalwork, pottery, land cultivation and the expansion of animal husbandry, several new types of domestic dogs appeared in Europe. One of them was described in 1872 under the name "bronze dog". The skulls of bronze dogs were found in the burials of the Andronovo and Karasuk cultures in Siberia and in the south of the USSR. It is interesting to note that the data of archaeological excavations indicate the simultaneous appearance in this period of a new, more advanced type of sheep and the further development of sheep breeding. It can be assumed that it was from this time that the dog was used by man to guard herds.
Professor E. A. Bogdanov and other scientists consider the ancestor of the bronze dog of the Indian wolf, found in India and Iran, whose skull is anatomically similar to the skull of a bronze dog. The Indian wolf lives in open places, avoids forests, hunts in a flock, driving antelopes and wild goats to a place convenient for encirclement and catching. This instinct in the distant past may have been used by an ancient man in the process of taming the Indian wolf to breed herding dogs.
The skulls of bronze dogs are characterized by a flat forehead with a slight transition to a long and narrow muzzle. When viewed from above, the skull looks like a narrow wedge, the occipital crest is well defined. The length of the skull exceeds that of the dogs of Inostrantsev and Putyatin and ranges from 165–190 mm.
The descendants of the bronze dog are shepherds of European origin - German, Belgian, Dutch, French, collie, the side branch is the South Russian Shepherd, and according to some authors, some groups of our huskies.
The second type of dogs of the Bronze Age is the so-called "ash" or "ash" dog, so named because its skulls were found in the ash remains of sacrificial foci. Obviously, the ash dog was a hunting dog, and it was sacrificed as the most expensive value owned by a primitive hunter who asked his deity for a successful hunt. Studying the skulls of ash dogs, scientists have established some common features for the previously known peat and bronze dogs and the presence of intermediate types between them. Obviously, the ash dog appeared as a result of crossing a peat dog with a bronze one.
The skulls of ash dogs have been found in large numbers on the territory of the USSR, which indicates its significant distribution.
Skulls approaching ash dogs were described by Professor A. A. Brauner during excavations on the Amur. He also described the skulls of ash dogs found during excavations of the Elizabethan settlement of the Sarmatian tribe near the city of Krasnodar.
In the ash-pans of the Scythian Belsky settlement, various skulls of ash dogs were found.
The skulls of ash dogs are rather broad in the medulla, with a flat forehead, with a well-defined transition to a relatively blunt and short muzzle. The length of the skulls ranges from 174 to 184 mm.
All hunting dogs are considered the descendants of ash dogs - hounds, cops, spaniels and dachshunds.
Until now, the origin of greyhounds remains unclear. Initially, scientists, including Charles Darwin, considered the Abyssinian jackal, which has a light greyhound structure, to be the ancestor of this breed. Later it was found that the Abyssinian jackal is closer to the fox and therefore cannot be the ancestor of the dog.
The homeland of greyhounds is Africa. The first images of greyhounds with obvious traces of their domestication appeared on the monuments of the ancient Egyptians. In Europe in this historical era, man possessed only a peat dog. According to ancient Greek descriptions, hunting with greyhounds has long been unknown to the peoples of Europe.
Under the influence of domestication and artificial selection carried out by man, the nature of the use of dogs changed. Along with this, the type of nervous activity of the dog also changed: a number of unnecessary instincts were replaced by new ones, inherited. The skeleton, musculature and external forms of the dog received a new development.
Constitutional types of dogs
The constitutional type of an animal is formed (in a number of generations) as a result of the organism's adaptation to the environment, the conditions of existence and the nature of the use of the animal.
All this is reflected in the change in the external forms of the animal and its behavior. Therefore, in practice, the constitutional type is usually determined by the exterior and behavior of the animal.
The doctrine of Academician I.P. Pavlov about the types of higher nervous activity in dogs is closely related to the characteristics of constitutional types.
In the practice of dog breeding, a number of examples illustrate the close relationship of the type of higher nervous activity with the type of constitution of the dog. For example, the cultivation of a light and weakened type of Doberman Pinscher led to the appearance of extremely excitable individuals with a weak inhibitory process and differentiation. Practitioners-dog breeders have always preferred drier dogs among Caucasian and Central Asian shepherd dogs and noted that large, heavy and raw dogs in most cases are inactive in work. Sled huskies, heavy and damp with long hair, are also inactive and unbearable. It has been noticed that dog breeds, which are characterized by a raw type of constitution, are always sluggish and inactive in comparison with breeds with a strong and dry type of constitution.
"The strength of the constitution is the basis of all productivity" - this zootechnical principle, put forward by Academician MF Ivanov, is fully applicable in dog breeding. High excitability, mobility, endurance, correct shape and harmony of constitution, as the main indicators of the performance of a dog, are achieved by selection and struggle for a drier and stronger type of dog's constitution.
When using dogs with features of a raw, coarse type of constitution, rough, sedentary, with low productivity, but an original appearance of the dog were created. So from a strong, mobile dog like our Central Asian and Caucasian Shepherd Dogs, a modern heavy and loose St. Bernard was bred by changing the keeping regime, by means of enhanced feeding and selection.
The "amateur" interest in dog breeding, along with the improvement of dog breeds, contributed to the development of new, weak in vitality, but original in shape, dog breeds for decorative purposes by using signs of a weakened constitution.
Thus, constitutionally weakened breeds of Italian greyhounds, naked Mexican dogs, etc. were bred from strong greyhounds. Dwarf forms of toy terriers were bred from strong and hardy, with great vitality of terriers. The same is true for the Pinschers close to them. The primitive Spanish cops, who gave all the breeds of cops with further culture, were the ancestors of dwarf breeds, such as the Toy Spaniel, King Charles. Poodles, Spitz, Schnauzers, along with strong and strong types, also have dwarf forms of a weakened constitution.
The constitution is inherited and finally formed under the influence of the environment, acting on the animal's body and changing its metabolism. Consequently, the type of constitution is not something constant, not changing throughout the life of the animal, but each age has its own specificity of interaction with the environment and its own specific type of constitution.
Long-term (for several generations) cultivation of dogs in changed conditions of climate, keeping, feeding and use changes the constitution of dogs. An example is the above-mentioned St. Bernards, as well as the formation of a special type of dog in the steppe regions adjacent to the Caucasus mountains, where, under the influence of a drier, warmer climate and the nature of use, a "steppe" type of the Caucasian Shepherd Dog was formed.
The variety of dog breeds that have developed under the influence of different reasons (descent from different ancestors, breeding and distribution in different climatic conditions, feeding and keeping, wide specialization of dogs for many types of service, hunting, sports and amateur purposes), led to the formation of narrowly specialized breeds, differing from each other in the types of constitution.
Suffice it to compare two types of dogs: the huge Saint Bernard, which has a massive and coarse skeleton, with a light greyhound with a refined and light skeleton and other sharply different characteristics. Between these extreme types there are intermediate ones, which have less differences and, finally, transitional types. The same constitutional differences exist within each breed.
Intra-breed types, as it were, repeat the systematics of constitutional types, but the differences between them are, as it were, smoothed out by a long careful selection, however, without violating the general principle of structure, these differences among animals fit into a certain "quiet and" proportions "inherent in a given breed.
So in each breed you can find animals both relatively light, mobile, dry and thin constitution, and heavy, raw, rough constitution with a sluggish and phlegmatic temperament.
The works of Russian scientists-zootechnicians were of great importance in the creation of the doctrine of the constitution of animals.
Professor P.N.Kuleshov developed a classification of constitutional types of animals on the basis of differences in the development and functions of individual parts of the body and established four constitutional types (loose, rough, dense, tender).
Academician MF Ivanov, in his works on the constitution of farm animals, introduced a fifth "strong" type of constitution to the four types of constitution.
Professor E. A. Bogdanov also attached great importance to the constitution in his works.
With regard to the above, in dog breeding, five types of constitution have been established, which fit the whole variety of dog breeds and their intra-breed groups.
Loose - raw type of constitution. It is characterized by the fact that reflexes are developed relatively slowly, and inhibitory skills are easy. The dog has a wide, massive, rounded body with shortened limbs and significant in volume, but loose and not embossed muscles.
The head is short, wide, cheekbone, with a prominent forehead and a sharp transition to the muzzle. The muzzle is short, blunt, sometimes upturned, with strongly developed, damp lips, often undershot. The eyes are set straight, deep-seated, with drooping eyelids.
The neck is short with dewlap, often loaded. The chest is wide, widening towards the rear. The abdomen is lowered. The limbs are straightened, raw joints, the movement of the dog is slow and sluggish. The subcutaneous tissue is highly developed: the skin is loose, folded, inelastic, the dog is prone to obesity.
The hair coat consists of coarse hair and undercoat.
The dog's movements are slow and sluggish. The dog is late and slow to form. Typical representatives of this type of constitution are St. Bernards, Newfoundlands, blood hounds, etc.
Rough type of constitution. The type of higher nervous activity approaches balanced, calm. Strong, with well-developed massive bones and massive muscles, these large dogs reach their development by 3-4 years. The head is wide, massive, cheekbone, but elongated. The muzzle is blunt, forming a line parallel to the line of the forehead. The lips are thick, dry or slightly pendulous. The eyes are set straight, protected by dry eyelids. The neck is short, massive, set low.
The chest is wide and deep. The abdomen is slightly tucked up (the body is cylindrical). The limbs are not long (the dog appears to be squat) with shortened legs and straight angles of the knee and hock. The skin is thick, taut or folds in the neck (dewlap). Hair with coarse, well-developed coat and thick undercoat.
The rough type of dog is characterized by vitality and great adaptability to specific local conditions of keeping and use.
An example of a rough type of constitution are the Caucasian, Central Asian shepherd dogs, northeastern sled dogs, etc.
Strong type of constitution. The type of higher nervous activity is balanced, mobile. This type of dog is characterized by a well-developed skeleton, with strong, massive, dry, usually prominent muscles under the thin skin.
Sexual dimorphism is pronounced (a male dog is very different in type from a female). It forms relatively quickly.
The skin is moderately thick or thin, elastic, tightly stretched, does not form folds. The head is moderately wide in the skull, wedge-shaped, elongated. The forehead is flat or slightly arched. The length of the muzzle is close to the skull, pointed, parallel to the line of the forehead. The lips are usually dry. The eyes are set obliquely. The neck is dry, equal in length to the head, normal or set high. The chest is oval-shaped, deep. The belly is tucked up above the chest line. The limbs are moderately long (the dog does not appear to be low-legged) with long legs and sharply angulated hocks.
Hairline of medium thickness ranges from short and smooth hair to long, hard and soft hair. The presence of the undercoat is different.
Examples include: hounds, European Shepherds, Great Dane, Boxer and others.
Dry type of constitution. The type of higher nervous activity is mostly unrestrained.
It is characterized by a strong, somewhat refined bone and strong, but elongated and thin muscles. Sexual dimorphism (the difference between a dog and a bitch) is pronounced. Forms quickly. The skin is thin, tight-fitting, elastic. The head is elongated, relatively narrow, with a flat forehead and a slight transition to the muzzle. The muzzle approaches the skull in length, pointed or sharp, parallel to the forehead line or drooping. The lips are dry, thin, often tight-fitting. The eyes are set obliquely. Overshot occurs. The neck is dry, the chest is deep, oval in shape. The belly is tucked up. Extremities with long bones oval in section. The dog appears to be tall, light, sometimes square. The hock joint due to the long tibia is set back, sharply defined and well defined. The hair is varied.
Examples of this type are: greyhounds, huskies, doberman pinschers, airedale terrier, collie, pointer, setter, fox terrier and others.
Gentle type of constitution. Has increased excitability with a tendency to nervousness, thin and very weak bones and poorly developed muscles. Dwarf growth and various anomalies associated with degeneration and fixed by artificial selection for this trait are common. The head is usually with a round, spherical skull and a narrow and short muzzle. The eyes are large, often protruding. The facial parts of the skull in some breeds are so short and poorly developed that there is a cerecus, a reduced number of teeth in the upper jaw, individual teeth grow across the jaw, underdeveloped, doubled, as a result of which the tongue does not fit in the oral cavity, and the dog is forced to keep it sticking out even when closed jaws, etc. The skin is very thin, taut, hair varies from very short with separate completely hairless areas (chest, abdomen) to very long, curly. The hair is thin, weak, there is no undercoat.
This group includes all dwarf breeds of terriers, pinschers, Spitz, lapdogs, African hairless, Italian greyhounds, etc. Dogs of this type of constitution are not viable.
The constitutional types listed above are not always found in "pure form". Most often, dogs have features transitional to adjacent types - to characterize such individuals, both names are combined, and first of all they put the name of the type that prevails in this case, for example, - raw - rough rough - raw rough - strong strong - rough strong - dry, dry - strong dry - light light - dry.
Departure from normal constitutional types is called "overdevelopment."
Overdevelopment can be both in the direction of excessive effeminacy, making the dog lighter, with a weak bone, etc., and in the direction of dampness.
When describing the type, the degree of overdevelopment should be indicated.
For example: overdeveloped - gentle overdeveloped - raw.
In each breed of dogs, you can find individuals with traits of overdevelopment not in a sharply expressed form, but within the types of constitution characteristic of this breed.
Overdevelopment, expressed in a sharp degree, borders on degeneration.