Vegetable squash, or dish pumpkin, is a type of common pumpkin. It is a herbaceous annual, widely known in culture, but not found in the wild. The squash brought from America to Europe already in the 17th century gained such popularity that two centuries later they began to grow even in Siberia. The name of the plant was given by the French, it is formed from the word pate (pie), and this name is associated with the shape of the fruit.
In the domestic classification of plants, squash is recorded as Cucurbita pepo var. Patisson, and internationally as Cucurbita pepo subsp. ovifera, var. ovifera.
Read more about growing squash below.
The squash plant is a herbaceous annual of a semi-bush or bush form with harsh large leaves, single unisexual monoecious yellow flowers and a disc-shaped or bell-shaped pumpkin fruit, depending on the variety, of white, green, yellow, purple or variegated color - with stripes and spots. The value of squash is in the taste of their fruits, eaten stewed, fried, pickled and salted. They resemble zucchini, but at the same time, their more delicate taste is comparable to artichokes and asparagus.
Patisson is a dietary product recommended for diseases of the stomach, liver and kidneys, as well as for atherosclerosis. It has an active diuretic property that removes excess fluid from the body and flushes out salt.
Patissons reproduce generatively - by seeds that can be bought, or can be extracted from a well-ripened fruit. Growing squash in the open field is carried out in a seedling and non-seedling way. But whichever method you choose, before planting the squash, you need to prepare the seeds for planting. To do this, immerse them in an aqueous solution of a growth stimulant for a day, then rinse thoroughly with water, wrap them in damp gauze and keep them at 20-25 ºC for two days.
There is another way to prepare seeds for sowing: they are heated for 5-6 hours at a temperature of 50-60 ºC. This measure reduces the risk of contracting squash with viral infections for which there is no cure. Seed hardening gives good results. For this, the seeds placed in fabric bags are first kept for six hours at a temperature of 18-20 ºC, and then for about a day at a temperature of 0-1 ºC. Immediately before sowing, disinfect the squash seeds in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, then rinse in clean water and dry.
At the end of May, when the soil prepared for squash in the fall warms up well and passes the threat of return frosts, level the ground in the area with a rake, remove weeds, form beds and dig holes 70x70 in size so that the plantings are not too thick and the squash does not rot. Seeds are sown to a depth of about 8 cm, several pieces in one hole, they are sprinkled with earth, carefully watered, the soil is compacted and covered with a film before shoots appear.
For those who want to get a harvest of squash as early as possible, there is no other way out but to grow seedlings of squash. Planting squash for seedlings is carried out in the second or third decade of April, two seeds each in disposable cups with a diameter of 8-10 cm with a mixture of humus and forest soil to a depth of 3-4 cm. Crops are covered with foil or glass and kept at a temperature of 28-32 ºC, but when the seeds germinate, the glass should be removed and the temperature lowered to about 22 ºC during the day and 18 ºC at night. This is done so that the seedlings do not grow too long, but spend energy on the development of the root system and cotyledon leaves. After a week, you can return to the previous temperature regime.
Caring for the seedlings of squash consists of regular moistening of the soil and top dressing. When the seedlings are 10 days old, they are fertilized with a solution of mullein in a ratio of 1:10 with the addition of superphosphate infusion, 15 g of which is poured with a small amount of water the day before, infused for a day, then the liquid is poured into the mullein solution without using the remaining sediment. Before planting seedlings in the ground, they are once again fed with a solution of 50 g of nitrophoska in 10 liters of water.
How to dive squash? No way. When the true leaves develop in the squash, a stronger one is left from two seedlings in a glass, and the second is not pulled out, but cut with scissors or a sharp knife directly above the ground so as not to injure the root system of the remaining seedling.
Planting squash in a greenhouse is carried out at the end of April in disposable cups with a diameter of 10 cm to a depth of about 3 cm in loose soil consisting of peat or turf, sand or sawdust and humus in a ratio of 5: 1: 4. Before laying in cups, the soil is fertilized at the rate of 7 g of ammonium nitrate, 5 g of potassium sulfide, 6 g of chalk and 6 g of double superphosphate per bucket of soil mixture, mix thoroughly and watered. Cups with 2-3 seeds in each are covered with glass or foil and kept at a temperature of 22-25 ºC during the day and at 17-18 ºC at night.
As soon as the seedlings appear, the film is removed, the seedlings are protected from direct sunlight for the first time, and the temperature of the content by airing in the daytime is lowered to 18-20 ºC, and at night to 15-17 ºC. A week later, they return to the previous temperature regime.
Growing squash seedlings in a greenhouse will require abundant, but infrequent watering with the mandatory subsequent ventilation of the greenhouse. Ten days after the emergence of seedlings, the seedlings are fed with a mullein diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10, with the addition of nitrophoska at the rate of 50 g per 10 l of water. Healthy seedlings should have a stocky, low stem with short internodes and two or three developed leaves, not counting the cotyledons, before planting in open ground. When to plant squash seedlings in the garden? Planting squash in open ground from a greenhouse is carried out in early June.
Seedlings grown at home are planted in the ground when the seedlings are 3-4 weeks old and they will develop 2-3 true leaves, that is, also around the very end of May or early June. The seedlings are pre-hardened, gradually accustoming them to fresh air, the sun and the temperature outside. To do this, the seedlings are taken out onto a wired balcony or unheated veranda and a window or window is torn off in the room for several hours, increasing the duration of airing every day. The last day or two, the window has not been closed at all.
The site for squash should be sheltered from the wind, sunny, southern or southwestern, with deep groundwater. Plants love crumbly chernozems and neutral loams. Sour soil for squash is not suitable - it must be neutralized with wood ash. Squash grows well after such plants as green manure, cabbage, radish, carrot, onion, greens, tomato, peas, potatoes and early vegetables. Precursors such as zucchini, pumpkins, cucumbers and squash are undesirable.
The preparation of the site for squash is carried out in the fall: the soil is dug up with rotted manure and mineral fertilizers:
In the spring, 3-5 days before planting, the bed is watered with a solution of 2 tablespoons of Agricola-5 in 10 liters of water at the rate of 3 liters per m², after which the bed is covered with a film, which is removed only on the day of planting seedlings in the ground.
Seedlings are planted on a calm cloudy day or in the evening. Wells with a depth of at least 12 cm are placed at the same distance as when sowing seeds in the ground - 70x70 cm, but before planting the seedlings, the holes are spilled with warm water, then a seedling with an earthen lump is transferred into each hole and positioned so that the seedling leaves of the seedling turned out to be at the surface level, after which they add earth to the hole, compact it, mulch the bed with peat and for the first time shade the seedlings from direct sunlight.
Growing squash in the open field requires regular watering and weeding of the beds, as well as timely fertilizing. Watering is easiest after rain and watering when the soil is well moistened. However, you should work with a hoe very carefully so as not to damage the surface root system of the squash - due to the fact that the roots of the plants are very close to the surface, the area with squash is not loosened and that is why you should not neglect mulching the beds with peat, sawdust or some other material.
If you notice that the squash is intensively increasing the mass of greenery, but are in no hurry to form fruits, cut 1-2 old leaves from such a bush in the morning in sunny weather and repeat this procedure after 4-5 days. Also keep in mind that insect pollinators are needed for setting fruits of squash, so after flowering has begun, try to attract bees, wasps and bumblebees to the garden by spraying the plants with a solution of 100 g of sugar in a liter of water.
Sometimes, for some reason, the squash is not pollinated, so you have to help them in this - to carry out artificial pollination. To do this, in the morning, several male flowers on a long stem are plucked and held over the female flowers on a short stem. It is important that there is no moisture in the flowers after rain or watering, otherwise pollination will not occur. The more male flowers are used to pollinate the female flower, the more seeds will form in the fruit.
How to water squash? Seedlings, while taking root, are watered often and abundantly. The squash needs increased watering and during the period of fruit formation. Water needs settled, warm - 22-25 ºС. Watering rate - 6-8 liters per 1 m² of the garden every 5-6 days before flowering, and during flowering and ovary formation - 8-10 liters per m² every 3-4 days. You need to pour water at the root or in a specially made furrow around each plant so that water does not get on the leaves, flowers and ovaries. With such intensive watering, the roots of the squash quickly become exposed, and in order to protect them, mulch is added to the site several times during the growing season.
When fruits begin to form, put boards under those that lie on the ground so that they do not rot from contact with wet soil.
Ground squash is fertilized twice. How to fertilize squash? Before flowering, they are fed by introducing 15-25 g of double superphosphate, 20-30 g of potassium sulfate and 20-30 g of ammonium sulfate on a square meter plot. During the period of fruit ripening, such fertilizer for squash is applied to each m² of the garden: 40-50 g of superphosphate and potassium sulfate and 20-25 g of ammonium sulfate are dissolved in 10 liters of water. If you prefer organic feeding, then the best of them for squash are solutions of mullein (1:10) or chicken droppings (1:20).
What do the squash get sick with? Patissons can most often be affected by diseases such as anthracnose, ascochitis, white rot, powdery mildew and black mold. All these diseases are fungal, and you can get rid of them if changes in the ground parts of the plant are detected in time. We also offer you to familiarize yourself with the symptoms of the listed diseases.
Anthracnose - large watery yellowish spots appear on the leaves of the squash, a pink bloom of fungal spores forms on the veins, then pink sores appear on the stems, fruits, petioles, which turn black by autumn. The fungus is especially active in wet weather.
Ascochitosis manifests itself as black spots appearing in the nodes of the shoots, on the stems and leaves. Subsequently, the affected areas dry out and the plant may die.
White rot can be recognized by the light brown spots on the stems and leaves, which eventually turn into deep ulcers filled with pink mucus, which also affect the fruits of the squash. High humidity contributes to the development of the disease.
Powdery mildew looks like a light, loose powdery coating on the upper side of the leaves, which leads to their premature drying. Fruits and stems of squash are also affected. The disease develops faster in conditions of high humidity.
Black mold looks like yellow-brown spots between the veins of the leaves, then a dark bloom with fungal spores appears in their place. After the spots dry, holes form on the leaves. Affected fruits stop developing and shrivel.
Of the pests, the danger for the squash is represented by scoops - garden and winter, as well as melon aphids. Harm squash and slugs.
Scoops they lay eggs, from which caterpillars appear, eating the ground parts of the plant and gnawing at its roots.
Melon aphid affects shoots, flowers and ovaries of squash, the underside of its leaves, which is why they curl up and wrinkle. Humid and warm weather contributes to the destructive life of aphids for the plant.
Slugs are more dangerous for young plants, since they completely eat up their leaves or make huge holes in them.
The fight against diseases and pests of squash is carried out both upon the occurrence of a disease or injury, and prophylactically. Moreover, if you carry out preventive treatment on time, then diseases or damage to patissons by pests may not occur. What is included in the concept of "preventive measures"?
How to treat squash for fungal diseases? One percent Bordeaux liquid works best, as well as fungicides such as Fitosporin and Topsin.
Slugs are collected by hand: bait in the form of pieces of melon, pumpkin or watermelon peels is laid out on the site, and when the slugs slide down to have lunch, they are collected and destroyed. Aphids die after treatment of plants with a solution of 300 g of soap in 10 liters of water, and against the caterpillars of scoops, spraying squash with a one percent solution of Bitoxibacillin and a half percent solution of Gomelin is effective.
There are other effective means that destroy insects and pathogens, but before you treat the squash with chemicals, think about the fact that when you performed agricultural techniques and observed crop rotation, these troubles could almost certainly have been avoided.
Harvesting of squash is carried out when they reach technical maturity - their peel should be tender, waxy, and the seeds inside - small and not tough. That is, squash are among those vegetables that are eaten unripe, like cucumbers and zucchini. Squash at the stage of biological, or full maturity, has a dense, rough peel, like a ripe pumpkin, and large hardish seeds - it is better to leave such a specimen for seeds.
How to collect squash? Two or three times a week they are cut off along with the stalk, and then until autumn they will grow every day. Do not let the fruits overripe on the bushes, as this makes the pith of the squash loose and the yield decreases. The last fruits are removed before frost, and the tops of healthy bushes are laid in compost. Squash is used fried and stewed, small young squash is pickled and salted - in this form they are even tastier than marrow.
Squash of milk ripeness are stored at a temperature of 10 ºC for no more than ten days. Squash with hardened bark at the stage of biological maturity is stored under the same conditions as squash or pumpkin - in a dark, cool, dry place with good ventilation, arranging them so that they do not come into contact with each other. From time to time, squash should be inspected in order to detect spoiled fruit in time and not allow rot to spread to other fruits.
Actually, squash are plants for open ground, and only their seedlings are usually grown in greenhouses. It is possible, of course, if you have a lot of space in your greenhouse, to grow squash in greenhouses and greenhouses until ripe, but does this make sense?
Varieties of squash for open ground are bush and semi-bush, early and mid-season. Varieties also differ in the color of the bark and the shape of the fruit. In the shape of the fruit, squash are similar to a disc, a bowl, a bell and a plate, with wavy, jagged or even edges. Traditionally, the squash has a white or light green crust, but thanks to breeders today there are varieties of yellow-orange, purple and dark green squash.
White squash are represented by the following varieties:
The most famous varieties with a yellow-orange crust are:
The most popular purple bark squash:
Dark green squash:
Separately, it should be noted new hybrid varieties of squash:
Sections: Pumpkin Fruit Garden Plants Melon Plants on P
Some gardeners sow Platycodon directly into open ground, both before winter and with the onset of spring. But it is best to grow a flower by seedling method. For these purposes, seeds are planted from the second decade of February to the end of March.
For better germination, the seeds are pre-soaked. You need to make a bag of gauze, place the grains in it and lower it into a container of water. In 48 hours, the planting material will be ready for use.
It is best to use a purchased substrate for planting. The best option is a universal primer for flowering plant species. You can also prepare the soil yourself. To do this, you need to take the same amount of peat, humus and river sand, mix well. Any containers are suitable: boxes made of plastic or wooden containers intended for seedlings.
For growing seedlings, it is better to use wide and deep flowerpots.
To grow shirokokolokolchik seedlings, it is necessary to deepen the grains by no more than 0.5 cm, sprinkling them with river sand on top. You can also spread the planting material on the soil surface.
After planting the seeds, the soil is sprayed with water. The temperature of the liquid should be about 20 0 C degrees. In the process of growing seedlings, the moisture content of the earthen coma must be constantly monitored. The top layer should not be too wet and dry. For quick germination, the pots are covered with a film, kept at a temperature of +20 to +24 0 C. After 2 weeks, the first shoots appear.
After the germination of the grains, the "greenhouse" is removed, and the temperature of the content is slightly lowered - to +18 - +20 0 C. After the formation of 4 leaves, the seedlings of Platicodon are dived into small containers with a diameter of 1-1.5 cm. the street passes the night frosts.
In the content of okra it is very accommodating and unpretentious, so it will not require serious trouble from you. Planting care consists in carrying out simple activities:
That's all the mandatory minimum. Subject to agricultural technology, your okra will feel quite comfortable and develop by leaps and bounds.
Cineraria is not considered difficult to grow: subject to the basic conditions of care, this flower does not create problems. But the right choice of the landing site plays an important role in its development. The bushes thrive in the sun, but they need shading at midday. Lack of lighting will have a negative effect on the bloom or color of the foliage - it will become gray and less attractive. Nutritious, drained soil that is neutral or slightly alkaline is best suited. It is recommended to plant cineraria seedlings in open ground after the night frosts have completely passed - approximately in mid-May.
When distributing the bushes of cineraria in the garden, you should maintain a distance of at least 20 cm between them. The seedlings are planted in the ground together with a soil clod or immediately in a peat pot. The depth of the hole should contain the seedling itself; at its bottom, you can lay a layer of fertilizer mixed with soil. After planting, the soil is tamped and watered. If the cineraria had to be planted on the flowerbed too early, and the threat of frost (up to 5 degrees) still persists, in the evening planting can be protected with covering material. In the morning, the shelter is removed.
Osteospermum is grown on balconies, terraces, in the open field in flower beds and ridges. This is one of the most beautiful accents in flower arrangements. Flowers look very beautiful on the balcony.
Plants can be placed individually and in groups. Combinations of different varieties in one color look interesting.
Plants grow strongly, reaching a width of 40-50 cm. Therefore, only one osteospermum is planted in a large pot for decoration, for example, a small balcony or stairs to the house. Osteospermums can also be placed in balcony boxes in combination with other seasonal plants - verbena, sanvitalia, string.
Due to its resistance to arid conditions, osteospermum is also grown in rocky gardens.
Osteospermum is a rather exotic plant in our climate. Due to its beauty, which perfectly decorates gardens and balconies, the flower is gaining popularity. With proper plant care, these flowers will delight you throughout the summer.
The saxifrage has good immunity, but this does not give an absolute guarantee of the absence of diseases and pests. Often, their defeat is provoked by improper plant care or unfavorable climatic conditions.
One of the problems is powdery mildew. This is a fungal disease provoked by high humidity, excess nitrogen, and strong plant thickening. It is expressed by a white bloom of mycelium on the leaves. As the spores mature, drops of liquid appear. The affected parts of the plant turn brown and fall off.
There are several methods of dealing with saxifrage powdery mildew:
To prevent powdery mildew, it is necessary to destroy the affected residues, use potassium-phosphorus fertilizers
Another fungal disease is rust. It manifests itself as pads on the leaves, from which, after cracking, an orange powder spills out. These are fungal spores.
Rust-affected leaves dry and fall off, the plant's immunity decreases. You need to fight the disease with fungicides: Topaz, Fitosporin-M, Bactofit, colloidal sulfur, Bordeaux liquid.
To prevent rust, it is necessary to burn plant residues, water the saxifrage moderately, do not overfeed with nitrogen.
Rust affects all aerial parts of the plant, it can destroy it
If over-watered and poorly drained, saxifrage can suffer from root rot. At the same time, the aerial parts of the plant wither, the flowers fall off, the whole bush gradually dies. For treatment, fungicides are used - Alirin-B, Discor, Glyocladin.
Root rot is transmitted through the soil, various implements - sterilization is needed for prevention
Among the pests, the mealybug can affect the saxifrage. The size of the insect is only 5-10 mm.
The mealybug affects the aerial parts of the plant. The symptom is a white, cotton-like waxy coating. You can remove it with a cotton swab dipped in soapy water. Then you need spraying:
For the prevention of mealybug, it is necessary to remove dried leaves in a timely manner.
The saxifrage can be affected by aphids that feed on plant juices. At the same time, the flower begins to dry and wither, slowly dying. There are many ways to combat the pest:
The color of aphids depends on its type and is black, red, green, brown, yellow
Another enemy of the saxifrage is the spider mite. It is difficult to see it, but it can be identified by a thin cobweb on the undersides of the leaves, white dots, and unreasonable drying out. To combat the tick, the drugs Fufanon, Kleschevit, Fitoverm, Bitoxibacillin, Iskra Bio are used.
The size of a spider mite is less than 1 mm, the pest is not dangerous for people, animals and birds