It is the queen of flowers and the ornamental plant par excellence: the rose, joy of all gardeners and test bed for probing their green thumb.
In this article you will discover all the secrets to make a perfect one pruning of your roses, essential to continue to make them grow healthy, luxuriant and above all to make them bloom in abundance.
Belonging to the family of Rosaceae, roses are divided into about 250 species and over 20,000 varieties.
For gardens, hybrid roses are preferable, i.e. those with a variety of man-made roses, such as roses floribunda, climbing roses or miniature roses, if your intent is the creation of bushes or hedges, the variant that is right for you is that of the park rose.
Various types of roses
The hybrids of Tea they are among the most suitable if what interests you most is the scent emanating from these flowers.
As for adaptation to climatic conditions, if your garden is very shady, we recommend botanical roses, accustomed to a mountain habitat.
If, on the other hand, you live in the city and don't have a garden, but you don't want to give up having some greenery on your terrace, here is the Sevillana, a variety of roses with an excellent scent created especially for urban scent environments, able to withstand both pollution and poor maintenance.
Roses can be grown in two ways:
In the regions of southern Italy it is advisable to start cultivating yields by the end of January, by February in the central regions and by the end of March for the northern regions.
There pruning it is a fundamental part of the care to be devoted to your roses.
But why is it so important?
Mainly for two reasons.
First, because this process will allow you to check that the size of your roses do not exceed the space you have available for them and, secondly, because a good pruning is the only guarantee for growing your rose gardens healthy, making them to flourish to their fullest potential.
To help you find your way around 20,000 variants at your disposal we can divide them into three groups depending on how they grow and develop:
To do a good pruning job you don't need tools that are too sophisticated or difficult to find: the first thing you need is a couple of shears, to be sharpened and disinfected before each use, and a couple of protective gloves, resistant and waterproof.
Depending on your level of experience, you can choose generic shears or more professional tools, always taking into account the thickness and quantity of the branches to be cut.
Shears must have three fundamental characteristics to be valid long-term work tools:
If you plan on pruning climbing or tall rose plants, you will also need one pruner, essential to be able to cut the highest branches.
Now that you know why pruning is essential, it is important that you also know the right ones timing to proceed.
If your roses are still young, then potted or planted for less than a year, you will have to wait to be able to prune them; this is because for the first year and a half the plants must be left free to harden and grow.
If you have sapling roses in your garden, things change: in this case, in fact, pruning can also be done during the first year of life, in order to give the tree the direction you want and make it grow neatly. To do this, simply remove all the branches placed below the height you have chosen.
In addition to cleaning, that is, an operation to care for your roses that must continue throughout the year, eliminating the dry and weak parts of the plant, there are three moments the year in which pruning can take place. Let's see them in detail.
Remember that in any case it is always good to wait until the frost wave has passed. This is to prevent the wounds from cuts, which are slower to heal with the onset of cold weather, from becoming infected.
You are ready: you have the right tools and you know when you need to intervene to take care of your roses. Now you just have to decide what kind of pruning to do.
The cut must always be oblique and above the gem.
If your pink variant produces i suckers, that is the shoots at the base which then turn into branches, remember to eliminate them to make room for the new shoots. In addition, the branches that have produced flowers in the last flowering will not produce new buds: during pruning, shorten them by at least 2/3, in order to allow re-flowering.
The cut branches must then be closed with a healing mastic and around the plant it will be necessary to spray one antifungal spray, as well as add into the surrounding soil of the natural fertilizer.
Now that you know all the secrets to tackle a good pruning, you just have to get to work.
“Pick the rose when it's time,” wrote Walt Whitman. "Prune the squad when it's time", we say.
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Today we talk about the pruning of roses, one of garden plants most common and most loved ever. The goal of pruning operations, in general, is to regulate plant growth and have abundant, healthy and lush flowering. To carry it out, however, correctly, some rules must be respected. These are precautions ranging from the choice of the suitable period, in relation to the type of roses we have, up to the type of cut to be made. There are general rules that apply to all types of roses and others, specific ones, that only apply to some families. But let's proceed in order and see what they are.
First of all, however, a premise: despite the delicate appearance of the flowers, the rose plants they are among the most resistant in nature. So don't be afraid to cause damage during pruning, roses have a great resilience. And this even after drastic or even wrong cuts!
Let's see now how to proceed to prune correctly.
Today there are more than 20,000 varieties of roses, which can be divided, depending on how they grow and develop, into 3 types:
For the bush roses, you will need one thinning pruning, aimed at eliminating excess branches to favor the more robust ones. This kind of roses are usually rich in twisted and deformed branches and twigs that must be eliminated by pruning, cutting them about 30 cm from the ground, to favor the entry of light and the nourishment of the plant, keeping only the most robust buds and well conformed. The second type of roses, those with shrubby and sarmentose bearing, need one instead pruning technique called topping: the apex of the plant is eliminated to favor a greater number of lateral branches and a more abundant flowering. For miniature roses, on the other hand, the operation of pruning should be minimized, removing only the dry and old twigs.
Not all roses need to be pruned at the same age. For almost all types of roses, you have to wait a year before starting pruning, to give the plant time to grow and take root in the ground. The only exception is the sapling rose, which can also be pruned during the first year of life, rather than for reasons of plant health, for reasons of shape and space. Pruning in this case is for direct the development of the plant in the direction we have chosen, making it grow in an orderly manner. Just eliminate the branches below the height we have chosen (for example 60 cm) and select 3-5 main branches that we will grow from year to year.
First we need to know that to have healthy and lush rose plants, we must provide for a pruning technique called "cleaning" which must be carried out constantly and regularly throughout the year.
There cleaning it is not an invasive operation: it consists in eliminating the dry, weak and withered parts of the plant without making major cuts.
There are also different times of the year in which the pruning of roses, which vary depending on the type of plant. For sarmentose and climbing roses, which are remontant (that is, they can bloom several times a year), it is possible to carry out the summer pruning, after the first flowering and in anticipation of the new autumn flowering. If, on the other hand, we have a type of rose that does not bloom again in autumn, it must be done winter pruning, more delicate than the summer one. In order not to risk damaging the plant, pruning must be carried out only after the arrival of frost: if you do it earlier you risk that the plant will resume growth before spring, and then the new buds will die due to the cold. Another risk could be that, again due to the cold, the injuries to the branches caused by pruning can become infected and cause diseases to the plant. Our advice is therefore to wait for the month of February before making the winter pruning.
Another thing of fundamental importance before starting the pruning of roses, is to have the right tools to do it better. The tools necessary for pruning roses they vary according to the type of pruning we need to carry out and the type of plant we need to prune: climbing or bush, with more or less robust branches. Our advice is to have first of all a good pair of shears and work gloves. The shears must be well sharpened and disinfected before using them, otherwise you risk not doing the pruning job well.
They exist on the market rose shears and scissors of various models and with different sizes and prices. To choose the right ones it is necessary to keep in mind the type of branches that must be cut (short, long, weak, strong), the size of our hands and the strength of our arms. If we are beginners it is useless to buy professional shears too hard and difficult to use, but it is better to focus on more generic models. If instead we are already experts in pruning of roses we can focus on more specific models. The important thing is that the blades are made of stainless steel with rust protection and that the handles are ergonomic to handle the shears more easily. Also as regards the price, we will focus on low figures if we have to use the shears to do small jobs in the home garden a couple of times a year, while we will go towards higher prices if we have to use them every day.
The same goes for i garden gloves , which must be waterproof and resistant (roses have thorns!) as well as easily machine washable. Finally, if we have to prune climbing and tall rose plants, we will need one pruner, that is a very particular type of shears that is used to cut the highest branches. Also in this case there are different types of more or less professional pruner. The important thing is to always take into account the use we have to make of them, if we have to prune others tall garden plants in addition to climbing roses, we'll need one more sophisticated pruner , able to reach up to 6 meters in height, to adjust the handle and the cutting angle according to the type of branches you need to cut.
Once we know the type of plant, age, time of year and we have the right tools, we can proceed with the pruning of our rose plants. There are two different types of pruning, which vary according to the intensity. We talk about "short pruning”When the main branches are cut to a length of approx 50-60 cm leaving few buds. While we talk about "long pruning”When it will cut only the part of the apical branches to have more abundant flowering the following year. In any case, the cut must be made sharply and obliquely just above the gem, at a 45 ° angle.
Watch the video on how to prune roses
Some varieties of roses (especially those grown as bush and sapling) have a tendency to emit from the base of the plant the suckers, that is, shoots that develop into branches. Usually this phenomenon occurs during the summer when the plant is in full vegetative development. These shoots must be eliminated to leave room for other branches and shoots to grow and to avoid crowding at the base of the plant which, as well as being anti-aesthetic, are harmful to the health of the plant.
If you decide to leave it on our own rose plants the flowers without cutting them to put them in pots and bring them indoors, a very useful advice is to cut the faded flowers, to stimulate the new growth of the underlying buds and to prevent unwanted fungal diseases from developing on the withered flowers. When you go to eliminate the flowers, it is good to remove about half of the stem by cutting immediately above a bud that is facing the outside of the foliage, so as to also give it a harmonious shape.
One thing to be aware of is that in the rose plants the branches that have produced the flowers, unless they are remontant varieties, will tend not to produce new buds anymore. For this reason it is good to cut them about 2/3 of their length during the winter or summer pruning, to allow the growth of new branches and therefore have a new and abundant flowering.
Once the pruning operation is finished, we have not actually finished the work yet. In fact, it is necessary to use some precautions to guarantee a beautiful flowering of our rose plant.
If you still have doubts, we advise you to deepen the topic of pruning of roses, reading a good book on the subject. Among the many books available online, we point out the one published by Giunti Editore "The rose, classification, choice and cultural care " which describes morphological characteristics, varieties, cultivation techniques, pruning and grafting.
Whether the plant is large or small, a very important rule is to keep tools sharp, cleaned, disinfected to avoid passing any diseases from one plant to another.
Knowing when to prune roses must be one of the most common gardening dilemmas of all time. For some less experienced gardeners, it may seem unimportant when deciding to make that cut, and indeed, where. However, when you decide to prune roses, you can make the difference between a healthy and lasting plant, which produces more buds and flowers, and one that may not last all winter.
We hope that this little guide will explain the importance of pruning roses, dispel some myths and help you take care of your roses.
Before we get into the topic of when and how to prune roses, we need to explain why it is important to prune roses. One might think that roses and many plants in general can get by without much human intervention, and this is generally true. However, pruning and other small maintenance can help plants grow optimally and last longer than if they were left to fend for themselves.
The act of cutting a rose branch helps the plant to produce a hormone called auxin. This growth hormone is present in the main stem of most plants and pruning sends it to the newly cut stem and encourages it to produce new shoots.
Pruning roses also allows you to control the size and shape of your rose bush while ensuring its health and ability to bloom.
Most roses are pruned in late winter, February and early March, but this usually depends on the climate and where you are in the UK.
In the south, it is safest to prune roses in late February, just when the rose plants start growing again. If you live in the north and other colder areas of the UK, we recommend that you wait until March after the last frost before pruning the roses.
If you decide to prune a ground cover rose, for example, it is always wise to wait until it has finished blooming. Miniature roses or shrubs can be pruned during the summer months.
However, not all varieties of roses can be tarred with the same brush. Different types of roses will need to be pruned at different times of the year and in slightly different ways.
Climbers are content with late fall and early winter pruning to keep them clean and tidy and with good flowering. While hikers prefer to prune in late summer once the flowers have wilted.
In the fall and winter, there are fewer leaves on its vines and climbing roses, allowing for more thorough pruning.
Make a notch no more than 5mm above an existing sprout with a clean, sharp pair of garden shears, no more than that and your plant may have a hard time producing new sprouts from this stem. It is very important that the angle of the cut is away from the plant, in order to prevent rainwater from collecting and flowing away from the plant, which would cause diseases.
If you are looking for an open shape, focus on the rosebuds that are facing outwards. If vertical growth is preferred, prune above the inward-facing buds.
On an older and more established squad, you can afford to use a bit of stern love. Cut off woody stems that don't produce flowers. A small saw can be used for this if the stems are too thick.
If you can't identify the type of rose you are going to prune, there are ways to avoid this dilemma. Climbing or climbing roses tend to have long stems and you should try to trim the old woody stems at the base of the rose.
Smaller roses and shrubs have much more delicate stems, and pruning should again be as low as possible to ground level. Newer or greener stems can be pruned, and these bark-covered shoots need to be trimmed to the sides.
However, if you are unsure when to prune your roses, limit yourself to the months February to March, which is the most common pruning season for roses.
As for the pruning times, also for the methods and techniques, it is essential to understand the species and the degree of development of the plant.
Roses are usually cut with sharp and clear cuts ranging from bottom to top, especially for those branches that have become dry and unproductive. The direction of the cut will be made towards the outermost buds, with a cut that forms a 45 ° angle. The first thing to do therefore will be to distinguish which are the buds and where they are in the plant that will be pruned.
Probably one of the most used techniques is the branch cutting technique which consists in carving wounds on the stems which, when they heal, will give life to new buds and buds. Depending on the cut that will be made, we will proceed with one elimination pruning or one shortening pruning. The first consists in totally removing the dead, sick or unproductive branches and is done mainly on mature roses, while the second consists in shortening the branches and is done above all on young roses.
The issue is not positivized and the answer is provided by the interpretations offered by the Doctrine and the Jurisprudence, except in the case in which tables indicating the distinction of the various tasks between tenant and landlord are attached to the lease agreement (e.g. those drawn up by the Confedilizia).
As regards the liability for consequential damage, in particular, the failure to prune the plants of a garden belonging to a leased property, in fact, doctrine and jurisprudence refer to art. 2051 of the Italian Civil Code according to which "Everyone is responsible for the damage caused by the things he has in his custody, unless it proves unforeseeable circumstances."
The aforementioned provision, therefore, places the responsibility of the person who has the custody of a thing on the responsibility for the damages that are derived from it to third parties.
The rationale for this interpretation seems to be able to be found in the satisfaction of the requirements of distributive justice, as it seems more appropriate to place the consequences of the harmful events caused by the thing on the subject who owns or uses it, rather than leaving them at the expense of the innocent third party.
Of course, art. 2051 of the Italian Civil Code it applies if the thing has causally contributed to causing the damage and if the subject presumably obliged to pay compensation has custody of the same.
With reference to this precise assumption, it is necessary to refer to a broad definition of the concept of custody. Indeed, it does not seem that the legislator intended to refer to custody in the contractual sense of the term given that the obligation to guard, as such, is functional to the conservation of a thing in the interest of a creditor. Otherwise, the liability contemplated in art. 2051 of the Italian Civil Code it is relevant in relations with all third parties, and is aimed at protecting the latter against the damage that could derive from this. It can be made to consist, in this sense, in a relationship of fact between the subject and the thing.
In jurisprudence, the majority address refers to the existence of a duty of surveillance imposed on the person who has the "availability" of the thing or who exercises "physical power" over it.
It is in this framework that the decision of the United Sections of the Court of Cassation of 11 November 1991, n. 12019 with which it was stated that the custody must be identified with the so-called "governance of the thing", with this expression meaning an availability of the thing not only in fact, but also juridically, such as to allow control of the conditions of use and conservation of the same.
Moreover, the majority doctrine (Geri - Scognamiglio - Salvi - Monateri) had already expressed itself in the same terms, which had also pointed out that this power of governance must belong exclusively to the custodian, who must be free to determine their conduct regarding the methods of use and conservation of the thing, with the right to exclude any other person.
In particular, Scognamiglio himself concluded that he is the guardian of the thing it can be anyone who has such power of government, it must then be concluded that such can be not only the owner, but also the owner (non-owner) and the qualified holder (like, indeed, the tenant).
Previously the aforementioned sentence of the United Sections of the Cassation, the jurisprudence was divided. More specifically, the same specified that with the lease the custody of the leased property, in part, must be understood as transmitted to the tenant and in part, instead, remain with the lessor.