Primula (Primula) belongs to the herbaceous plants of the primrose family. Its name, translated from Latin, means the first, and among the people it was called lambs, a talisman of happiness, keys. In ancient times, the flower was endowed with magical powers and was included in the composition of various potions. Planting a perennial primrose and caring for it has some features, and if you pay proper attention to the plant, it will bloom with the same spectacular buds as in the photo.
In the wild, primrose can be found in any wet region with fertile soil. It is characterized by a huge variety of species, some of which are listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation. Thanks to its beautiful flowering and unpretentious care, the plant is widely used in horticulture.
In nature, primrose flowers are smaller than those of garden varieties.
Perennial primrose is a low rhizome plant with beautiful, slightly wrinkled, glossy or pubescent foliage of a round, oval or lanceolate shape. Its color, depending on the species, ranges from bright green to bronze. Edges can be either smooth or serrated. The leaves are collected in a neat compact rosette, from the center of which powerful flower stalks emerge. At their top are umbellate or spherical showy inflorescences of various colors. In some species, small flowers may be solitary. The plant has a pronounced pleasant smell. It is due to the presence of a large amount of essential oils in its foliage and flowers. At the end of flowering, fruit-boxes with small seeds of a dark brown color are formed on the bushes.
Primrose belongs to frost-resistant plants. If it is planted in open ground, then with proper preparation for wintering, it tolerates frosts up to 30 ° C well. In summer, these flowers will have a comfortable temperature of 18 to 25 ° C, while providing them with high humidity and light shading. Thanks to such characteristics, it can be grown practically throughout the entire territory of our country. But most suitable for breeding are regions in which a humid and cool climate prevails.
Garden perennial primrose is one of the first to bloom
Also, these plants can be grown at home by planting them in small flowerpots or tubs on the balcony on the east or west side. With the onset of the autumn period, the containers should be brought into the apartment and the primrose should be cared for as an indoor plant, providing it with a dormant period in the winter months.
It is advisable to place flowers in a darkened room with an air temperature of 12 to 16 ° C and water no more than twice a month. In the spring, the flowerpots need to be transferred to a well-lit, warm place, resumed regular watering and top dressing. With the onset of a comfortable air temperature, they can be taken out to the balcony again.
The plant makes high demands on the composition of the soil. It will develop well and bloom profusely only on loose, moisture and air permeable, nutritious and well-drained soil. When preparing a site for planting, it is recommended to add for each square meter of substrate:
The soil must be dug to a depth of about 50 cm and leveled well. The primrose has a rather weak superficial root system. Therefore, in the process of growing it, it is necessary to regularly remove weeds that take moisture and nutrients from the soil around the plants, and mulch the soil.
Ease of cultivation, beautiful flowers, ease of planting and care have made the perennial garden primrose one of the most popular low-growing plants in landscape design.
It is better to place primrose at the base of an alpine slide or at the bottom of a rockery.
With the right varietal varieties of plants in the garden, you can create areas that bloom continuously from mid-spring to late summer. These flowers are recommended to be placed on flower beds, lawns, to decorate them with rock gardens or rockeries. A plant of several bright shades, planted in clumps or rabatki, looks good.
Vases with these flowers will effectively decorate the entrance to the house or gazebo.
Large-flowered primroses are often grown in flowerpots.
Since the primrose belongs to moisture-loving plants, it feels great near water bodies, it can become a worthy decoration, for example, in the coastal zone of a pond.
Primula is one of the first plants to bloom in early spring.
Primrose can be an element of a flower arrangement. It should be borne in mind that it gets along well with hosta, astilba, fern, heuchera, marigold, irises, saponaria, hornbeam, hellebore, hyacinths, ornamental cereals. Daffodils, tulips, peonies, phloxes and roses are wonderful neighbors for this plant. It looks good in combination with low deciduous and coniferous shrubs.
If you combine the varieties of primrose correctly, then the Columbus will bloom for 4 months
To date, about 500 natural species of perennial primrose are known, not counting varietal hybrids bred by breeders. The most common species are actively used in horticulture.
The plant reaches a height of 10 to 25 cm. It is characterized by elongated oval foliage of light green color. Yellow flowers with a darker core are collected in drooping umbellate inflorescences. Flowering begins in mid-April.
This species has not only decorative, but also useful properties. Its young leaves can be added to salads and prepared from them compositions for the treatment of various diseases. The roots and flowers of the plant are no less valuable.
Common primrose loves the most illuminated areas
The height of this species ranges from 15 to 45 cm. The thick pubescent foliage has a bright green color, the umbrella-shaped inflorescences consist of several small flowers with five petals. Their color can be white, cream, bright yellow, purple or burgundy. Hybrid varieties can combine several shades. Flowering lasts from early May to late June.
Ear primroses are the slowest growing primroses, but at the same time hardy
The plant is a hybrid, has small rounded glossy green leaves, the rosette height can be from 10 to 30 cm. Umbellate inflorescences consist of large velvety flowers, which, depending on the variety, can have a very different color of petals and cores. Flowering begins in late April and lasts about a month.
Auricular primrose hybrid is replete with flowers from milky white to dark brown
A characteristic feature of this species are numerous elongated, serrated and pubescent leaves, forming an even and dense rosette up to 30 cm high. On high peduncles (up to 70 cm) there are large spherical inflorescences of white, lilac, pink, purple or burgundy color. Varieties of this species bloom immediately after the snow melts, the buds continue to form for a month and a half.
After flowering in April, the fine-toothed primrose resembles a fern
The plant can grow up to 30 cm in height. The wrinkled foliage has an oval shape and a bright green color, on thick peduncles there are umbrella inflorescences of small bells. Their petals and core have a different color, which, depending on the variety, can have a wide variety of shades. This species is distinguished by long flowering, which lasts from mid-April to mid-June.
Primrose tall has many hybrids of various colors
Due to its graceful corrugated foliage with large teeth of bright green color, varietal hybrids of this species are highly decorative. Plant height reaches 20 cm, umbrella inflorescences are formed by small flowers of pink or purple color. Flowering begins in May.
The cortical primrose blooms twice a season.
The plant is diminutive and compact, its height does not exceed 10 cm. The rounded serrated foliage is light green in color. Small single flowers have pink, purple or crimson petals and a yellow center. Julia's primrose forms buds from late April to mid-May.
A miniature species of primrose is found in the Eastern Transcaucasia
This species is distinguished by the extravagance of the shape and color of the inflorescences. They look like pyramids formed by bright red buds, which, when opened, turn into small lilac bells. Light green slightly serrated lanceolate leaves form a rosette up to 30 cm high. Flowering occurs in June and lasts until the end of July.
Orchid primum has an attractive appearance even before the flowers bloom.
The plant reaches a height of 10 to 30 cm. Lanceolate, finely toothed green foliage is covered with a bloom of white. Flowers of white, lilac or purple color have a yellow core and are collected in umbellate inflorescences. Mealy primrose blooms throughout May.
In nature, powdery primrose can be found in the Far East, Northern Europe and Siberia.
To plant primroses, you need to choose shaded areas of the garden. Direct rays have a detrimental effect on plants, they quickly fade, begin to dry out and by the beginning of autumn they can completely die. If the garden area is too sunny, you can place these flowers near a house, a fence, or under low bushes and trees. The landing site should be well ventilated. Perennial primrose cultivation in the garden is carried out with the help of seedlings, cuttings or division of adult large bushes.
Self-harvested seeds can only be used to obtain seedlings of natural plant species. The seed material of varietal hybrids does not retain its maternal characteristics, so it must be purchased in specialized stores.
Sowing seeds is recommended in early spring in accordance with the following recommendations:
The place for planting primrose must be cool
If there is an opportunity to purchase several sheets of the primrose variety you like, then you can grow seedlings by cuttings. For this you need:
With proper care, perennial primrose grows rapidly in the garden, while its foliage and inflorescences become smaller.
For division, it is better to use young specimens.
To preserve the decorative properties of plants, it is recommended to replant them every 3-4 years, dividing them into several parts. The division is carried out in the spring using the following method:
Keeping primrose in the garden is not difficult. She needs regular watering, feeding, weeding and loosening. If these procedures are carried out in a timely manner, the plant will respond with bright and long flowering.
Primrose needs regular fertilization
Watering is a very important point in the care. In spring and summer, they can be abundant, but without stagnant water. The soil around the bushes should always be slightly damp. Water must be poured directly under the root, it must not be allowed to fall on foliage and buds. This can cause the plant to get sunburn. And if the middle of the outlet is flooded, then its decay may begin. After the end of flowering, the frequency of watering should be slightly reduced. At the beginning of August, they should be increased again to stimulate the formation of new leaves and flower buds of the next season. Water the primrose should be warm and soft water.
During the entire growing season, the plant is fed every two weeks. Before bud formation begins, nitrogen fertilizers can be applied, as well as an infusion of manure (1 kg per 10 l of water) or poultry droppings (100 g per 10 l of water). Such dressings will contribute to the rapid build-up of the decorative mass. After that, it is recommended to replace them with compositions with a high content of phosphorus and potassium. These elements will provide a bright and abundant bloom.
Beautiful compositions in the garden are made up of primrose and other flowers
Pruning primrose foliage is recommended in early spring, after the snow has melted. It is not worth doing this in the fall, the foliage is a source of nutrition for a weak root system until the very frost. And dried leaves will be an additional protection of the plant from frost. During flowering, it is recommended to cut off the faded buds in a timely manner so that they do not take away the strength of the plant.
Of the most common problems when growing a primrose, it can be noted:
Perennial primrose is a rather delicate plant that needs to be properly cared for, and a competently carried out planting will ensure healthy growth.
A primrose planted in large groups looks spectacular
Like any garden or home flower, it is subject to various fungal and infectious diseases.
The most common of them include:
When primrose is infected with these diseases, all affected parts of the plant should be eliminated. After that, you need to treat the cut sites with crushed activated carbon and spray the plant with a fungicide solution. You also need to spill soil for them.
In the spring, for preventive purposes, you can treat primrose with Bordeaux liquid
Of the pests that infect the plant, it should be noted aphids, spider mites, thrips, slugs. All of them suck the juice out of the plant, which can lead to its death. If insects or traces of their vital activity are found on the bushes, they should be immediately washed with soapy water and sprayed with an insecticide solution. If slugs appear on the plant, then they will have to be collected by hand. This will help preserve the flower.
At the end of autumn, you need to add nutritious soil under the bushes. This is required to cover the exposed roots. Then you should mulch the area with sawdust or peat. During prolonged autumn with high temperatures, some types of primrose can bloom again. This should not be allowed, since the plant will spend a lot of effort to form inflorescences and will not tolerate wintering well. The resulting buds must be removed immediately.
In the southern regions, primrose winters well without additional shelter. In areas with severe frosts, plants should be covered with dry foliage at the end of autumn and covered with spruce branches. After a sufficient amount of snow has fallen, you can build an additional shelter out of it. Varietal hybrids are recommended to be dug up, transplanted into flowerpots and grown indoors until next season.
Primula is frost-resistant, shade-tolerant and unpretentious. With proper care, it will not only decorate the garden with its bright bloom, but also enrich the air with a rich and rather pleasant aroma. The large-flowered perennial primrose is successfully cultivated as a houseplant.
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Common primrose (Primula vulgaris), also called common primrose. This herbaceous perennial plant is related to the primrose genus. Under natural conditions, it can be found in the northern part of Africa, Central Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. The existence of this plant became known many hundreds of years ago. So, even the ancient Greeks knew him as a medicinal flower of Olympus (flower of 12 gods). Primrose is one of the first to bloom in the spring. The people also call it "keys" or "rams". So, the Old Scandinavian saga says that the lovely flowers of this plant are the keys of the goddess of fertility Freya, and it is with them that she opens spring. The Germans believe that these plants are the key to marriage. This flower is present in the love potion of the Celts and Gauls. According to a Danish legend, an elf princess turned into this plant, who happened to love a common man. At the same time, the ancient Greek myth tells that the young man Paralysos, who died of love, was turned into primroses, the gods who regretted the misfortune that had happened. And therefore, primrose is able to heal all diseases, even paralysis, because in folk medicine such a flower is also called "paralysis grass" for good reason. In Europe, it began to be cultivated in the 16th century. The primrose is very much loved by the British, for example, in England there are even clubs for auricle primrose lovers. It happened that the popularity of primrose became weaker, but then it gained even greater love. Today in England every year exhibitions of primroses are held, where you can admire these beautiful flowers to your heart's content.
Primroses appear in our homes most often at the end of winter, when neat bushes of blooming bright flowers are available for sale at affordable prices. It is difficult to resist buying a beautiful flower. At the same time, it is important to know what it loves and under what conditions the indoor primrose blooms well - home care is very different, so the use of the experience of growing in the open field is not suitable.
Collection of blooming indoor primroses
Primroses love light and coolness, so a lighted windowsill will be the best place for a plant. To avoid overheating and burns, it is better not to place the flower pot in direct sunlight. Overheating should not be allowed - the temperature during flowering should be within plus 12-15 degrees Celsius.
Primrose develops well and blooms every year, home care for which includes additional moisture. These flowers are not demanding on air humidity, but it is recommended to place containers with water on the windowsill to maintain humidity. In some particularly delicate varieties, peduncles and leaf edges may dry out when grown in a dry room.
In order for the primrose to become a garden decoration, it is important to observe watering norms.
During and after flowering, moderate watering is required - with soft, settled water, as the soil dries up. The top layer should be only slightly damp. Remember that over-watering tends to rot the primrose roots.
Fertilization should be carried out at the budding stage and during flowering. Any complex fertilizer for flowers, for example, Flower Paradise, will do. During the dormant period, the plant should not be fed - it will begin to build up green mass and the flowering will not be lush.
The most common varieties for home cultivation: Obkonika (lat.Obconica), Argus (lat.Auricula Argus). After flowering, the plant can be left as an indoor plant, or transplanted into open ground.
Primrose variety Obconica in the open field
There are about 390 species of primroses. Let's consider some types and varieties.
The most popular type of potted primrose. Grows up to 10 cm in height. The species is characterized by the absence of stems. Multicolored flowers are: from white to almost black, red, yellow, pink-purple, two-color, tricolor. They are collected in the shape of an umbrella. Blooms in February-April. Leaves are long (5-25 cm) on a short petiole, pubescent on the underside. In the wild, it is found in Western and Southern Europe, North Africa, Asia, Crimea.
Like pansies, common primrose will survive the night frosts and survive, you can plant it on balconies and terraces in March. Only in case of severe frosts - below -5 degrees Celsius, flowers should be brought into the room.
When choosing seedlings, pale, discolored or wilted specimens should be avoided. It is advisable to choose plants with a large number of flower buds.
An almost extinct species of primrose, rarely found in nature.
Spring primrose (medicinal) is found in the lowlands, the lower parts of the mountains. It grows up to a height of 40 cm. The leaves are rather long, elongated, wrinkled, pubescent below. Flowers are collected in a multi-flowered umbrella, bell-shaped with pointed bowl tips. Color: pale green cup, yellow crown with orange spots. Bloom: March-April.
In the wild, the ear-shaped primrose can be found in the Alps, the western Carpathians, the Balkans, and the Tatras. This species loves calcium, therefore it is found on limestone rocks, meadows. Young plants are pubescent. The leaves are collected in a grounded rosette, mossy or smooth, planted on short and wide petioles. The fragrant flowers smell of apricots and are bell-shaped. Bloom: April-May.
Alpine plant small primrose is found in the Alps, Pyrenees, Apennines. Grows on acidic granite soils, stone terraces, scree and grassy slopes. Creates a short stem (about 1 cm). Strong, dark green leaves, extended outward, with 3 teeth on top, fleshy, shiny. Bell-shaped flowers, purple, grow individually. Thanks to its strong root system, the plant is resistant to low temperatures and wind drying.
Perennial powdery primrose is found in the wild in the mountains of South America and Eurasia. It grows up to a height of 30 cm. The leaves are mossy below, outside with a characteristic central vein, without a network of veins. The flowers are pink. Bloom: May-September.
Perennial plant primrose tall in the wild is found in the Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians, in the Urals. It grows up to 40 cm. The leaves are oblong-ovate, wrinkled, mossy on both sides, forming a squat leaf rosette. Flowers are two-colored: yellow crown and orange neck, located on hanging petioles.
Primula obkonika is native to China. It grows up to 25-30 cm. Flowers of white, red, pink or purple shades with a characteristic greenish eye are collected in an umbrella. Leaves on long stalks are an additional decoration of the plant. The leaves of the plant are oblong-ovate, collected in the form of a rosette, from which stems grow, ending in an inflorescence. After the first flower stem blooms, it often grows back and ends with the next inflorescence. The plant propagates by seeds.
The annual malakoids primrose (soft, soft) is native to China. The plant is decorated with fragrant flowers. Color: white, red, pink, purple. Flowering lasts 2-3 months. The leaves are large, rounded, planted on long petioles, covered with a mealy bloom on the underside.
The perennial comes from Japan, due to its decorative nature and unpretentiousness in cultivation, it is quite often found in our gardens. Under favorable conditions, the Japanese primrose reaches a height of 0.5-0.6 meters. Creates decorative rosettes of leaves and flowers located in inflorescences on the shoot. Flowers with a light yellow center. Serrated, ovate leaves - up to 20 cm in length. After flowering, spherical seed boxes appear, containing small seeds. The seeds left on the plant are sown on their own.
A perennial is best grown in a semi-shaded position. In the case of sunnier places, it is very important that the soil is sufficiently moist, fertile, permeable, and acidic.
Planted in a sheltered corner of the garden in a damp substrate, Japanese primroses grow and bloom beautifully. Under unfavorable conditions, the plant must be protected from lack of water, freezing.
Japanese primroses are ideal for semi-shady garden areas near trees and bushes, at the edge of a pond.
Interesting varieties of Japanese primrose
According to various taxonomic data, there are 400-500 species of primroses in the world. Most of them are found in China, the Himalayas, the rest in Europe and the rest of Asia, where a temperate climate prevails. Several primroses are found in North and South America, Africa. This plant is usually grown for ornamental purposes.
Primrose can grow in a pot on a balcony or terrace, and thrives in a garden where it decorates flower beds and rocky gardens. This spring flowering plant with bright, joyful flowers is readily used in the garden.
Primroses can be planted accompanied by spring bulbous plants, however bright colors in large clusters can cause rainbows to overshadow the charm of flowers. They look better on a more uniform background.
Primroses are also well represented under trees or shrubs, next to evergreens (ivy, periwinkle, badan).
Species that need wet habitats (can be planted near bodies of water, for example:
However, because they are not too tall, do not plant them in front of taller plants that shade them.
Primroses of the following types look great along the paths:
Primroses grow well in rocky gardens, rocks:
Spring primrose or medicinal, as the name suggests, is used medicinally. Its flowers and leaves are mildly soothing. Infusions of primrose help soothe and cure insomnia, have an expectorant and supportive effect in cases of rhinitis, asthma, bronchitis and allergies. In homeopathy, it is used as an ingredient in medicines for pain and kidney infections.
Primroses have hundreds of magnificent species. They are mainly biennial flowers blooming from early spring to summer. Most of them are found in temperate regions of Asia and Europe. Garden-grown primroses need to be provided with a fertile, heavy substrate and adequate moisture.