When, according to the calendar, spring has already come, and outside the windows, frost is still raging and snow is sweeping, the sight of blooming spring flowers brings special joy. That is why forcing tulips at home, like other bulbous and corms, is of great interest to flower growers.
If you wish, you can grow undersized tulips, hyacinths, crocuses, small-flowered daffodils, hazel grouses, muscari, scilla and galanthus in your own apartment, creating a beautiful miniature garden at home at any time of the year. All of these plants belong to the category of forcing plants, which, with the observance of certain rules and proper care, can be made to bloom whenever you want.
Let's take a look at how tulips are distilled:
Video about how to make tulips bloom at any time of the year
When considering the possibility of forcing tulips at home, you already roughly know by what time you would like to get blooming buds. In floriculture, it is customary to conditionally delimit the timing of forcing tulips and, in addition, to choose certain varieties for each period. This way you are more likely to get the results you want.
It falls on the New Year holidays (at the end of December - the first decade of January). The best tulip varieties for distillation during this holiday season are: Epricot Beauty, Lustigue Battle, Dixis Favorite, Bridge of Miles, Christmas Marvel, Brilliant Star. Early forcing varieties should be selected with a cooling period of at least sixteen weeks.
Held from mid-January to early February. For this period, varieties such as Apeldoorn, Confux, Oxford, Scarborough are ideal.
For International Women's Day (from the last days of February to mid-March) tulips of the Parade, London, Eric Hofsier, Diplomat, Keys Nelis, Vivex varieties are usually grown.
In the spring, when the conditions for tulips are not yet suitable outside, and you already want to admire the flowers, at home you can start distilling the varieties Aristocrat, Temple of Beauty, Triumph, Negrita, Hibernia and Fringit Elegance. Late forcing takes place from the end of March to the May holidays.
Having determined the varieties of tulips that will be used for forcing, you need to take care of the proper preparation of the bulbs for this purpose from spring. Since you can achieve the best flowering at home only from large, healthy, dense bulbs, it is necessary to observe correct agricultural techniques throughout the growing season: water the garden with tulips, loosen the soil, destroy weeds, periodically feed the plantings with complex mineral fertilizer.
The flower buds in the bulb are formed around mid-August or even later. If you need flowers by the New Year, you can accelerate the laying of all organs of the future flower by growing tulips under a film, followed by decapitation (pruning) of the blossoming buds. Another way is to dig up the bulbs early, as soon as yellow spots appeared on their scales, and keeping them at a temperature of +34 for a week. Until planting, these bulbs can be stored in the refrigerator in the lower section.
The storage of the bulbs dug out at the usual time is carried out in a dry dark room at a temperature of +22 degrees for 30 days, after which the temperature is lowered by a couple of degrees for another 30 days, and then the bulbs are stored at +16 degrees. With a significant increase or decrease in temperature, there is a high probability of the formation of "blind" buds or slowing down of flower formation in the bulb.
By the end of September, tulip bulbs for distillation will need to be planted in containers with a nutrient mixture. Someone uses a mixture of sand and peat or sand and sod land, someone uses pure peat or perlite, Dutch growers grow tulips on clean river sand. The main thing is that the substrate is light, with a neutral reaction.
For planting bulbs, boxes, containers, low wide pots or bowls are suitable. At the bottom of the container, there must be a drainage hole, which is covered with a shard and sprinkled with a thin layer of drainage.
Planting the bulbs is done like this:
The boxes with the planted bulbs should be moved to a room where the temperature is between +5 and +9 degrees, and the air humidity is at least 75%. Plantings are watered daily so that the substrate does not dry out. When sprouts appear, it will be necessary to lower the temperature to +2 degrees.
The approximate time for rooting and germination of planting material is from sixteen weeks to twenty-two. The length of time the bulbs are exposed to cold temperatures depends on the planned timing of the flowers and the tulip variety.
Three weeks before the desired flowering time, the boxes with the bulbs should be moved to a room with dim lighting and a temperature of at least +13. Four days later, the lighting is turned on at full power, and the temperature is raised to +18. Artificial lighting with an intensity of at least 40 W / m2 when forcing tulips in winter, it is simply necessary - without receiving sunlight for 10 hours a day, the plants will stretch.
Video about forcing tulips
Daily watering and periodic feeding of tulips with calcium nitrate will positively affect their flowering and significantly increase their decorative effect. If you want to admire the bright buds for as long as possible, do not keep blooming tulips in the sun and lower the temperature in the room to +15 degrees. This simple trick will make the peduncles stronger, and the color intensity of the flowers will increase markedly.
As you can see, forcing tulips at home is possible not only for professional growers, but also for inexperienced beginners. The main thing is to follow the recommendations for storage, planting, growing bulbs and monitor the temperature, humidity and lighting during the forcing of plants. If everything is done correctly, you will get an amazing opportunity to admire the exquisite tulips right at home, even when winter is in full swing outside the window.
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The most famous bulbous ornamental plants are tulips. They are associated with the first warm days of spring. Numerous varieties of these beautiful and unpretentious flowers, which have various colors, shapes, sizes, adorn garden plots from early spring to summer.
But such beauty can be admired almost every season, growing these flowers at home using forcing. Tulips are among the best forcing ornamental plants.
Forcing tulips by March 8 has some nuances that are based on the biological characteristics of this plant. Many outdoor plants are not suitable for flowering at home, especially when the winter cold is outside the window. However, forcing tulips by March 8 is possible, and it is based on the method of creating artificial temperature and light conditions.
A little temperature and light "deception" will help the tulips bloom exactly when the grower needs it. Forcing flowering bulbs at home is a rather painstaking, but interesting activity, which over time can develop from a simple interest into a hobby.
Planting material is a healthy, round, undamaged bulb... It is best to take “extra” or 1-st parsed bulbs weighing 30 g for varieties from the Darwin hybrids class and at least 25 g for varieties from other classes. Before planting, it is better to clean the bulb from the outer scales and notice the disease, by the way. Plus, the scaleless bulb takes root faster.
To successfully plant tulips in pots, you need to pay attention to each of the stages. Subject to the rules, the idea will be quite simple.
Tulips are planted both in the ground and in pots at the same period. They begin to plant the bulbs in September and finish in December. Specific dates depend on when exactly you want to see flowering.
Autumn remains the optimal time for planting. If you have to root the bulbs, independently dug out of the flower bed on the site, then they should be laid for cooling in September. Purchased planting material can be placed in the ground later, with the onset of cold weather, in October or even November.
As for the winter planting, it is rarely practiced and is carried out no later than the beginning of December. If you skip the dates, then tulips will bloom too late, and they are grown in pots, including for getting early buds.
If you wish, you can grow tulips in a pot at home in winter for a specific holiday. Landing times are calculated as follows:
Since it takes approximately 20 weeks to grow tulips indoors, flowering can be organized by the desired date.
Thus, from the desired date, you need to count about 20 weeks and find out the landing date. For example, to get flowers by February 23rd, the bulbs will need to be planted around October 6th, and for distillation by February 14th, no later than September 27th.
Traditionally, it is recommended to plant the bulbs in the ground by March 8 no later than October 1. In this case, in early February, the seedlings can be removed from the refrigerator. After that, you need to carry out the usual distillation and get the buds for the women's holiday.
The container for germination should be deep enough, at least 15 cm, and preferably 20-40 cm. It is recommended to take wide pots about 20 cm in diameter and plant several bulbs in them at once. There must be drainage holes at the bottom, otherwise moisture will stagnate.
For growing tulips, it is best to take clay pots, in them you can create the most natural conditions
As soil for tulips in a pot, take peat mixed with sand, or garden soil with the addition of an equal amount of compost. Before planting, it is recommended that the soil be calcined in the oven or treated with a solution of potassium permanganate, this will eliminate dangerous microorganisms.
Like the soil, the bulbs must be disinfected before planting. To do this, they are placed in cool water for half an hour with the addition of potassium permanganate. It is also recommended to remove the brown upper scales from the tubers, in which case they will germinate faster. Only the healthiest material should be taken for planting in pots.
The planting material is buried about 3 cm, while the top of the bulb should be slightly visible above the soil.
At home, several bulbs are planted in a pot at once - flowering in this case will be more abundant
Immediately after planting, the soil in the pot is watered, calcium nitrate can be added to the water - 10 g per 5 liters. If the soil settles slightly, it will need to be filled up so that only the tops of the bulbs still protrude above the surface.
After the bulbs have passed the cooling stage, you can start planting them. Typically, such work begins in early October. Prepare plastic boxes filled 3 cm in height with river sand mixed with peat. The use of ready-made potting soil mixtures for flowering plants based on peat is also not prohibited. The bulbs are placed at a distance of 1–2 cm from each other, by slightly deepening them into the prepared substrate.
After watering, the bulbs are sprinkled with sand so that the tops remain uncovered. After that, they are watered again. Then the boxes are placed for storage in basements or special refrigerators with the obligatory observance of the temperature regime (about 5 degrees Celsius). As the substrate dries, it is watered a little.