There is no such busy and responsible month for gardeners and gardeners as May. Many folk proverbs and sayings eloquently speak about this: "May feeds the year", "Dig it, bye May" other.
It is during this month that it is necessary to complete all the work with the land: spring digging, harrowing, loosening; have time to plant berry and fruit crops; complete sowing and planting of all vegetable and ornamental crops. And also to complete the planting of greenhouse crops: tomatoes, peppers, eggplants and cucumbers in film shelters, hotbeds and greenhouses.
But that's not all. It is necessary to carry out the main measures for the care of perennial vegetable crops (rhubarb, sorrel, lovage, onions); rare spicy crops (mint, lemon balm, catnip, tarragon, oregano, marjoram, savory, etc.); berry bushes (gooseberries, black and red currants, honeysuckle, etc.); fruit trees (apple, pear, plum, cherry, etc.); perennial decorative crops (lilac, buldenezh, jasmine, peony, roses, etc.).
All these crops must be fed and treated from pests and diseases, the soil around the plantings must be loosened and mulched.
This month, the planting of potatoes and the preparation of ridges for planting in early June in the open ground of pumpkins, zucchini, squash, cucumbers, physalis, sowing beans, basil and planting seedlings of annual flower beds is completed.
It is possible to get a high yield in the climatic conditions of the Leningrad Region only if early sowing and planting dates... The main criterion for choosing these dates is soil warming up.
If the arable layer has warmed up to a temperature of 3-5 degrees, you can start sowing cold-resistant crops - radishes, carrots, lettuce, dill, spinach, peas, beans, turnips, rutabagas.
When the soil warms up to 6-10 degrees, the dates for planting onion sets, potatoes, cabbage come.
When the soil warms up well to 15-18 degrees, the time comes for sowing beets, summer radishes, zucchini, cucumbers, beans, planting turnip onions. Eggplants, tomatoes, peppers are planted in greenhouses. And when the threat of frost has passed, tomatoes, cucumbers, pumpkins and zucchini should be planted in open ground.
At early dates of sowing and planting, there is always a risk of frost damage to crops. For this purpose, it is necessary to provide protective measures against them. But the delay in sowing leads to a sharp decrease in the yield of cultivated crops. Also, choose the sowing time, focusing on the lunar sowing calendar.
There are three main factors to be observed: moisture supply, temperature factor and food supply.
According to long-term data in the Leningrad region, the arrival of spring with its temperature and phenological signs occurs in the first ten days of May. Autumn cooling occurs in early September. The soil warms up to + 10 ° С to a depth of 10 cm during the period from 10 to 20 May. According to long-term data, the probability of frost may be before June 10 and after August 10.
The variability of weather conditions is observed over the years. Especially strong fluctuations in temperature and precipitation are observed in May and June. At least twice a decade, these two months - May and June - are dry and cold. The recurrence of the rainy spring-summer months is similar. All this makes gardeners and gardeners choose the right varieties. Preference should be given only to zoned varieties.
In order to obtain high, stable yields, it is necessary to create favorable conditions for the growth and development of plants for cultivated crops, therefore, all work must be performed at the optimal time and with good quality. Such labor is always generously endowed with the land of the harvest. Already in May, we get joy and delight from the ripening harvest of rhubarb, sorrel, perennial onions, radishes, spinach, watercress, Peking and Chinese cabbage and spicy perennial crops.
Doctor of Agricultural Sciences,
VNIIR them. N. I. Vavilova
Gardening in spring always starts with tillage. To do this, use a variety of garden tools: hoes, rakes, "cats" and cultivators. After digging, loosen the soil thoroughly. The depth of loosening should not be too great: a maximum of 2-3 cm. Plant roots grow and develop better in loose soil, since it is well supplied with oxygen. Also prune and kill weeds while loosening. It is better to get rid of them at the germination stage than to deal with tall grass later. If you carried out a very deep digging of the soil, then the seeds of many weeds remained in the lower layers of the earth. And from there they, as a rule, do not germinate.
In the spring, add only humus to the soil, and leave the compost and manure for autumn. Traditional application rate for organic fertilizers is 1 bucket per square meter. Fertilization methods are different. Place them in the grooves when digging, or sprinkle them evenly over the surface and then dig up the soil. Instead of organic fertilizers, you can add mineral fertilizers. So, in the spring, add nitrogen to the soil while loosening. This is especially true of the area where the beds and the flower garden will be located. One cubic meter requires 30-40 grams of nitrogen fertilizers.
GREENHOUSE AND GREENHOUSE WORKS
Throughout March, trees can be sprayed with a three percent Bordeaux mixture, and shrubs with two percent. This is necessary to protect against pests and fungal infections: they hibernate in the depressions of the bark, which are very difficult to reach. Every summer resident should know about this.
Bordeaux liquid can be used if the air temperature is not lower than +5 degrees. All spraying must be completed before bud break.
We told you what to do at the dacha in March. We will definitely continue to add to this list of important things.
Read also our other articles about jobs in March:
Gardener and gardener calendar for March 2021
What garden work are you planning in March? Share your secrets and tips with other gardeners in the comments.
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Plant seedlings. If it was supposed to grow tomatoes, peppers and eggplants in the open field without shelter, then it's time to send the seedlings to the beds - in the middle lane after June 5, there are no longer frosts. You can safely plant.
Sow seeds. Heat-loving crops such as cucumbers, squash, pumpkins, beans and corn can be sown outdoors after 25 May. But there is a risk - the seedlings can destroy the frost. And in the first decade of June, there is no such danger - you can safely embed seeds in the soil.
Plant potatoes. Traditionally, it is planted in the first ten days of May, but anything can happen - tubers from an online store came late, the weather did not allow planting in May, or they suddenly decided late - that's okay. Potatoes can be safely planted until June 10. Early varieties, planted in early summer, have time to harvest before the fall frosts.
Thin carrots. Carrots are traditionally sown densely, because the seeds are small and it is very difficult to sow them one by one. Therefore, at the beginning of summer, it is necessary to thin out the crops so that, as a result, 4 cm remains between the plants in the row.
By the way, it is not necessary to throw away the tucked-in excess carrots. Few people know, but they can be planted on a separate bed.
Make a furrow, and in it there are holes 8-10 cm deep at a distance of 4 cm from each other (they can be made with an ordinary stick). Then gently lower the plucked carrot into each hole so that the shoulders are just below ground level. Fill the plantings with a mixture of dry soil and ash, water the bed well, and then gently pull the tops so that the shoulders of the root crop are level with the ground - the root, if bent when planting, will straighten. If this is not done, the root crop can grow short and ugly.
Remove stepchildren from tomatoes. If the seedlings were planted in the garden at the beginning of May, under the shelter, now it is time to pinch them. Lateral shoots should be removed as early as possible, until they have grown longer than 4 cm. The easiest way is to simply pinch them with your fingers so that a small stump remains (about 0.5 cm).
Tomatoes are best grown in the morning - in the afternoon, while it is warm, the wounds dry out and heal faster. After removing the lateral shoots of the plant, water cannot be watered for a day - again, so that the wounds heal better.
Feed the currants. This should be done in mid-June: 1 liter of mullein per 10 liters of water or 0.5 liters of bird droppings per 10 liters of water. Watering rate - 2 buckets per bush.
The rest of the berry bushes and fruit trees do not need feeding in June - they are given earlier.