The fruit pomegranate is a plant that has particularly ancient origins and is characterized by a typically Asian origin.
In particular, this plant originated within the regions of the southwestern part of the Asian continent.
The pomegranate is particularly widespread both within our borders, but also in Spain, especially in all those places where the climate is warmer and, for this reason, it is more suitable.
The pomegranate can count on a particularly slow and modest development, which is why this plant never reaches a height that goes beyond five to seven meters.
It is a plant that is characterized by deciduous leaves, small in size and with a typically elongated shape: in particular, they are characterized by having a red color in the young shoots, while as growth continues they become green in color. clear.
The pomegranate has flowers with a red color and with a number of petals between five and eight that develop, positioned both on the apex of the branches and on the spurs.
The pomegranate is characterized by the production of fruits that have a variable size, but have in common the red-orange color, while the seeds are covered with a red pulp, which is always very juicy and sour.
The pomegranate can also count on an excellent resistance to high temperatures during the summer season, while in less hot places this plant can count on a rather limited resistance against rains and particularly high humidity of the soil, without forgetting the air that distinguishes the autumn season.
In fact, in all those areas that are characterized by a less hot climate, the pomegranate plant is characterized by extremely precocious undressing.
The fruits of the pomegranate plant are used in most cases for fresh consumption and, at the same time, they are also used for making syrups, drinks and many other pastry products.
As far as fertilization is concerned, it is a plant that does not have specific needs, since it is also sufficient to intervene with excellent and important organic fertilizations, taking advantage of the manure that has reached maturity and manure, especially during the final phase of the winter season. .
Finally, the pomegranate is characterized by being a decidedly rustic plant and, at the same time, also quite long-lived: this explains the reason why it also has excellent resistance and is hardly affected both by parasites of animal origin and by pathogens of origin. fungal.
The most used systems regarding the multiplication of this plant are certainly two: we are talking about the such and the rooted suckers.
In the first case, or with the cutting, the propagation takes place using parts of the branch, but in some cases also with pieces of the root.
The second most used possibility is represented by rooted suckers, which develop right at the base of the plant stock that has already reached an advanced age.
The multiplication by seed is not particularly widespread with the pomegranate plant: the reason is, in particular, represented by the fact that the plants obtained through this method of propagation do not, in most cases, retain the characteristics of the mother plant. .
In all these cases, therefore, on the seedlings that derive from propagation by seed, there is the possibility of practicing a grafting, both considered the split one, but also the dormant bud one.
Furthermore, we must not forget that there is also the possibility of obtaining new pomegranate plants through propagation by layering and offshoots.
The pomegranate is a particularly pollen-bearing plant: this explains the reason why, if it is allowed to develop naturally, this plant assumes a bushy bearing; moreover, taking advantage of the particular prunings, it is possible to obtain even more interesting shapes.
Inside the gardens the pomegranate is often used as a real ornamental plant.
In particular, this role is perfectly suited for the pomegranate plant, due to some of its characteristics, such as the coloring of the foliage and the decorative nature of the fruits when they reach complete ripeness.
This explains why the sapling shapes with stems that reach a height of 1.5 meters are the ones that are most exploited as ornamental plants: on all these occasions, however, the advice is to remove the suckers. that develop at the foot of the plant.
Furthermore, we must not forget that there is also the possibility of growing the plant with a vase or espalier shape: in all these cases, the suggestion is to develop three or four main branches starting from the base, and then place them in the way best possible. Once this operation has been carried out, it will be necessary, to ensure excellent fruiting, to remove all those twigs that bore the fruits of the previous year, but it is equally important to be careful to tick all those twigs with an age of about a year, then also going to remove the suckers that develop at the foot of the plant, in such a way as to keep the pomegranate plant its typical vigor.
The variability from the genetic point of view is particularly high for most of the characteristics of the plant, although the differences between the various pomegranate cultivars can also be decidedly limited.
Pomegranate can be classified in relation to the level of acidity that characterizes its fruits: in fact, it can be acidic, sour-sweet or extremely sweet.
We can find in nature a large number of cultivars that have the particular characteristic of producing rather hard seeds, with the aim of making the fruits not edible, while only a limited number of varieties are classified as soft seeds and, for this reason, can be of commercial interest.
Within the Italian regions, the cultivars that are cultivated with greater frequency, we find the one called Dente di Cavallo, the Neirana one, the one called Prophet Partanna, the Selinunte one, the Ragana one and the Racalmuto one, which are characterized by all belonging to the group sweet and sour and are also particularly suitable to be eaten fresh.
Pomegranate fruits are characterized by having important astringent and diuretic properties. We must not forget, in fact, how they are often used for fresh consumption and, at the same time, also for the creation of various frozen drinks.
In several countries there is the custom of using the pomegranate fruits for the decoration of fruit salads which are subsequently served at the table in special containers.
The fruits of the pomegranate are also used quite frequently within the canning industry for the production of jams, juices, syrups and syrups.
The epidermis of the fruit is characterized by being formed for a percentage that exceeds 30% of tannins, to which a yellow dye can be obtained that is used with great frequency in the craftsmanship of tapestries within a large number of Arab nations .
Starting from the roots, there is the possibility of obtaining excellent dyes that come later in the field of cosmetics.
Also important is the use of pomegranate as a real medicinal plant. In fact, the bark can boast the presence of a good quantity of alkaloids, but also the flowers and the fruits have inside them considerable quantities of tannins and mucilages.
The bark of the pomegranate plant is characterized by being an excellent tenifuge, but among its main characteristics there is also that of being rather poisonous and this explains why it must be touched and handled paying great attention.
The flowers of the pomegranate plant are used, in most cases, for the realization of infusions that allow to carry out a highly beneficial activity against dysentery.
The integument of pomegranate seeds, on the other hand, is characterized by being often used in the medicinal field due to its astringent and diuretic properties.
The pomegranate plant is characterized, at the same time, to ensure an excellent impact from the ornamental point of view, especially as regards all those species with branches and trunks that are decidedly twisted.
For example, both the granatum variety, which can count on the presence of edible fruits, and the dwarf variety, which is characterized, on the contrary, for having rather modest dimensions and for producing fruits that are not edible, are exploited in most cases within parks and gardens, both as single plants and organized within groups.
Precisely with these varieties of pomegranate, excellent hedges and borders are often created.
Interesting how the pomegranate is used for the realization of a large number of products that are used above all in the herbal field.
In fact, pomegranate-based products are essentially used to preserve and strengthen the health of the organism.
For example, different pomegranate shower creams are made, which allow you to perform a good treatment on the skin, but also the pomegranate-based hand cream is particularly suitable for carrying out a typically regenerating action: the cream, in fact, it is easily absorbed by the skin.
Finally, it is interesting to note the beneficial influences deriving from the use of pomegranate treating oil to perform a typically regenerating action.
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In general, pomegranate pruning can be divided into several categories: formative, rejuvenating and health. At different periods of life for the pomegranate apply all the listed types of garnish, since each of them helps to achieve different goals.
Forming pruning helps achieve primarily the decorative appearance of the pomegranate and makes the tree more convenient for growing. Such pruning is carried out in the very early stages of the tree's life - at the seedling stage or even in cutting.
For example, the trim of the cut for the cut will look like this:
If a cutting grenade initially gives several branches at once, then you need to wait for the shoots to grow a little and remove the weaker and lower ones. The seedling is transplanted into open ground when it reaches a height of half a meter and continues to form the trunk and crown for the following year.
With the help of the formative cut, you can make the grenade a standard tree or bush. And at home, the plant is often converted into decorative bonsai.
Sanitary pruning is important for pomegranate because it helps maintain the health of the tree. Its significance lies in the fact that every year the grenades eliminate all damaged, dry and weakened branches, as well as unnecessary shoots that swell the crown. Due to sanitary pruning, pomegranate is less likely to suffer from fungal diseases and pests, become stronger and healthier.
Anti-aging pruning is used for perennial adult pomegranates, whose growth has stopped and fruiting has deteriorated. Usually during this, the crown is removed completely to stimulate the growth of young fruit shoots. Such pruning is carried out very rarely, approximately once every 25 years, after the garnet has time to practically exhaust its strength.
It's important! You can also highlight a separate category that supports deletion. It is carried out as needed and consists in the fact that gardeners simply keep the shape given to the tree at the stage of formation and do not allow excessive growth of excess branches and shoots.
Pomegranate loves sunny areas. It does not fear the cold and harsh winters. It stops producing fruit with sub-zero temperatures. It suffers a lot around -10 ° C and dies at -20 ° C
Although it adapts to any type of soil, even the common garden one prefers acidic and well-drained soils.
The pomegranate is a plant that is satisfied with rainwater but in dry periods it is good to irrigate it periodically, especially in the first year of planting to facilitate the fortification of the structure of the plant.
At the end of winter, administer a mature organic fertilizer or a slow release granular fertilizer rich in macro and microelements at the foot of the tree.
The dwarf varieties of the pomegranate plant are also suitable for growing in pots on balconies and terraces. Generally, a dwarf variety is chosen that reaches a maximum height of 1 meter. The pot, in plastic or earthenware, must contain soft, loose soil, rich in organic substance. The pot should be placed in a fairly sunny area and the soil should not be left dry and arid for too long. In winter the pot should be moved to a protected but sunny and bright place.
It is carried out when the roots of the Pomegranate have occupied all the available space, also escaping from the drainage holes of the draining water.
When the size of the pot is such as not to allow easy repotting, every year it will be sufficient to remove a layer of superficial soil, 3-5 cm, and add an equal quantity enriched with fertilizer. add new fertilizer.
Punica granatum plants tolerate drought without problems if they are cultivated for flowering and for fruits, it is advisable to water before and during flowering, to favor the development of healthy flowers and large fruits. Avoid excess water and water stagnation flowering pomegranate they are to be administered only when the soil is perfectly dry, mixing, every 10-12 days, the fertilizer for flowering plants with the irrigation water.
The pomegranate is not afraid of drought. Once well established this aspect can also be neglected. The spring and autumn precipitations are generally more than enough to guarantee their well-being. In summer we can water abundantly once a month, thus helping the plant to keep flowering longer.
The recently planted specimens must be followed more assiduously: for the first two years it is advisable to give plenty of water every 15 days, if the soil is dry in depth.
Suitable for growing in pots or as bonsai
Suitable for pots, rock gardens and bonsai.