Vine bushes, like other inhabitants of gardens and vegetable gardens, require competent care. The chemical industry has hundreds of drugs in its arsenal to improve growth and prevent plant diseases. However, to maintain the health of the vine, you can get by with an affordable tool - copper sulfate.
Before using any product, you need to make sure that it is safe for the plant. Therefore, to begin with, let's consider what copper sulfate is and how it affects the vine.
Copper and iron vitriol should not be confused! They contain a different basic trace element.
On the left are crystals of iron vitriol, which helps fight lichens and moss, and on the right, copper ones, which protects grapes from mildew and oidium
The composition of copper sulfate contains sulfuric acid salt, which destroys scab, rot, spots on shrubs, and copper, which is a plant food similar to iron, magnesium, chromium and other microelements. Therefore, treatment with copper sulfate is important for the development of the grape bush. However, do not forget that excess nutrition is just as dangerous as lack. In addition, copper sulfate burns young shoots and leaves, which leads to their death. In the use of any means, a reasonable approach is important - this is the key to success.
In horticulture and viticulture, copper sulfate is processed to fight diseases and as a top dressing. Depending on the chosen goal, the timing of the spraying is set and the dosage of the drug is selected.
For feeding grapes, copper sulfate, like other mineral fertilizers, is advisable on poor sandy soils and peat bogs, but not on black soil. Copper is involved in photosynthesis and increases resistance to fungal diseases. Disease damage to the vine is a consequence of malnutrition, including copper deficiency. A sign that the plant lacks this trace element is the poor development of young shoots and the whitening of the tips of the leaves. For top dressing, which is carried out on the leaves before flowering, use the following dosage: 2–5 g of copper sulfate per 10 liters of water.
Lack of copper in grapes is manifested by whitening of the tips of the leaves, usually on peat and sandy soils
An overabundance of copper in the soil should not be allowed: in this case, the growth of the grape bush will be inhibited. Therefore, if it rains after treatment with copper sulfate, you can re-spray no earlier than a month later.
As a fungicide, copper sulfate is effective in preventing:
Also, due to the fact that in a dissolved state, copper has an acidic reaction, the drug stops the development of mycoses.
To keep the protective film on the vine after spraying, adhesives must be added to the solution. It can be:
Enough 100 g of substance in a bucket of water. As a result, the drug will stick to the plant, it will not be washed away by sudden rain.
Since the resulting coating does not penetrate deep into the branch, special agents should be used for medicinal purposes: Ridomil Gold, Strobi, Cabrio Top or similar preparations.
A solution of copper sulfate at a concentration of 1-3% is used to soak seedlings before planting. Such processing will prevent infection with fungal diseases.
Soaking grape seedlings before planting in a 1-3% solution of copper sulfate will prevent infection with fungal diseases
The timing of spraying grapes with copper sulfate depends on what the procedure is for. There are three seasonal treatments:
Based on this, it can be determined that the treatment with copper sulfate of the vine in the fall is preferable, but the importance of spring and the likelihood of summer procedures cannot be ruled out. Let's consider them in more detail.
The procedure is carried out after harvesting and the complete fall of the foliage. Depending on the region, this can be either the beginning or the end of November. The main thing is that the bush is already prepared for winter. In this case, it is no longer scary that the drug gets on falling foliage, the main thing is to completely irrigate the vine and protect the plant from infection. Before processing, the vine is tied in a bundle along the trellis.
When processing grapes with a solution of copper sulfate in the fall, the vine should be tied in bunches
Before carrying out the procedure, you should remove and burn damaged branches and fallen leaves. This will prevent re-infection with disease-causing spores.
Processing is carried out in the following sequence:
In order not to burn the delicate greens, the procedure must be carried out before bud break. You can start processing only when the temperature is stable at least +5 ° C. This is an important condition, since copper promotes accelerated cooling of plants, which will be detrimental to the buds and young leaves in case of probable spring frosts.
The procedure is as follows:
Summer treatment is carried out in extreme cases: so as not to use potent medications if the first signs of the disease are found. For spraying, weak solutions should be prepared - 0.5%, and for lotions of vines against lichens and oidium - 3%.
Since excess copper is dangerous for plants, strictly defined dosages are used for various purposes:
Treatment of vineyards with Bordeaux liquid is more often applicable (combination of copper sulfate with lime in a 1: 1 ratio). In this case, the concentration of copper sulfate can be increased to 10%. In order for the mixture to be guaranteed to remain on the branches, liquid laundry soap should be added to the solution at the rate of 50 g per liter (or grate and dissolve the lump in water). It is necessary to process until the branches are completely wetted. Estimated consumption will be:
Solution preparation procedure:
When processing vines with Bordeaux liquid, you must observe safety measures
In order to benefit the vine and not harm your health, when making and using a solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid, you should adhere to the rules:
If you have to carry out summer processing, this should be done no later than a month before the expected harvest. In the composition of copper sulfate there is a salt of sulfuric acid, which, if ingested, will cause poisoning.
Since the lime suspension settles to the bottom of the dishes, the solution must be mixed during the spraying process, otherwise water will first fall on the bush, and then the highly concentrated preparation.
Care must be taken to ensure that the entire surface of the vine is irrigated, and abundant watering of the soil under the bush must not be allowed. You can simply cover the ground with a film, but it is better to use finely dispersed directional spray nozzles - manual pump or electric devices.
The order of work (regardless of the processing time) is as follows:
The mouthpiece of the apparatus should be kept at a distance of about 10–20 cm from the branch, and the stream should be directed along the vine from top to bottom.
A hand-held sprayer is handy for a couple of vines, while an electric one is handy for a large vineyard
Copper sulfate is an effective preparation for mineral feeding and prevention of fungal diseases. However, using it to cultivate a vineyard, do not neglect the rules, and then your plants will respond to the care with an excellent harvest!
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The processing of grapes with copper sulfate in spring is carried out in order to protect the plant from fungal infections and insects, maintain protective forces and feed. This is a traditional product that is simple to prepare - just follow the proportions and safety precautions. The granular powder dissolves quickly in water and is combined with hydrated lime and urea. How and for what copper sulfate is used in gardening - we will tell in the article.
You can spray grapes with copper sulfate for the winter, spring and summer. Due to its composition, the solution is able to destroy pests and parasitic fungi that provoke diseases. It is recommended to use it not only in the presence of problems with the vineyard, but also to prevent the appearance of diseases.
It is believed that spraying bushes with copper sulfate in spring is dangerous. This is due to the fact that some substances of the solution are able to accumulate in the soil, impairing its fertile qualities and reducing the yield of vineyards.
If you follow the rules for using the drug specified in the instructions, and adhere to the recommended doses and proportions of the solution, you will be able to avoid problems and get a high-quality harvest.
After studying the properties of copper sulfate, drugs were developed against parasites and diseases with a wide spectrum of action, which retained all the qualities of the substance, but were less toxic.
The use of copper sulfate for grapes has both positive and negative sides.
The disadvantages of copper sulfate also include possible burns to leaves and roots. They appear if the drug is diluted incorrectly. Despite this, the processing of grapes with copper sulfate is still carried out: it has been tested for decades and its price category is very affordable, which is of great importance when owning large vineyards.
Fungicide does not work well with top dressing, because when it gets into the soil, it destroys not only bacteria and fungi, but also useful microelements contained in the soil. Any organic fertilizers applied to the soil as a top dressing almost completely lose their properties in the process of interaction with lime and copper sulfate, so it is better to process the grapes with copper sulfate a week or a week after fertilization.
Spraying is best done after watering.
It is also not recommended to spray with a fungicide before watering the bushes: there is a possibility that the water will wash the solution off the leaves. For the substance to work, it must be on the plant for at least a day, especially after removing the bush from the shelter.
Treatment with a pure solution of grape cuttings is undesirable: they are too sensitive to this chemical. For them, it is better to use a 4% solution prepared in proportions of 40 g of substance per 1 liter of water. There is another treatment option: dip the cuttings in liquid for 15 seconds.
Iron sulfate is less toxic and cheaper. Its advantage is that it gives the grape bushes iron, which is involved in oxidative and energy metabolism and contributes to the formation of chlorophyll. Ferrous sulfate is used as a fertilizer and as a remedy for pests and fungal diseases. However, its insecticidal properties are not as effective as copper sulfate.
After processing the vineyard with iron vitriol in the spring, the buds open a few days later. Its use makes sense during the frost period in order to prevent kidney death.
Gardeners work with an aqueous solution of copper sulfate, as well as with its mixtures - Bordeaux and Burgundy liquid.
Copper sulfate is quite effective as a prophylactic agent to prevent powdery mildew damage to the vineyard.
It has a detrimental effect on infections:
The processing of grapes with copper sulfate is carried out several times per season.
Copper sulfate is in demand in the vineyard throughout the season:
In each case, you need your own dosage rates, different concentrations of the active substance.
Copper sulphate is a toxic substance, with which quite strict requirements are imposed on work. It is imperative to observe the exact concentration of substances without changing the dosage at your discretion. In this case, it is important not to forget about the rules of personal safety.
Considering all safety rules, you can use copper sulfate when processing vineyards without risking your own health and plant safety.
For information on how to process grapes with copper sulfate, see the next video.